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Full text of "The Granite monthly : a magazine of literature, history and state progress"

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5ENEALOGY COLLECTION 



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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 



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GENEALOGY 
974.2 
G7659 
1920 



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New Hampshire State Magazine 



VOLUME LII 



CONCORD. 



N. II 



HARLAN C. PEARSON, PuBlisW 



CONTEXTS Page 

A. W. O. L. in Belgiufn, by Myrna S. Howe 123 

Rack of Bearcamp Water, by Edwin O. G rover 4? 

Barriei Against the Indians, A, by George B. Upharn 308 

Beneath Autumnal Starlit Skies, by Charles Nevers Holmes , 409 

Books of New Hampshire Interest, by Harlan C. Pearson 

Americans by Adoption, 337; A New England Romance, 487; Blind, 489; 
Brite.and Fair, 488; Collector's Luck, 3.3; YJr. Jonathan, 31 ; Fireweed, 267; 
Homespun and Grid, 487; Isle o' Dreams, 268; Mary Marie, 267; Masters 
of the Guild, 488; Peter Kindred, 268; Pilgrim in Palestine, 76; Rhymes 
of Rural Life, 129; Sailor Girl, 298; Ships Across the Sea, 267; The Black 
Drop, 32; The First Valley, 268; The Heart of New England, 489; The 
Nemesis of Mediocrity, 76; The Real Diary of the Worst Farmer, 298; 
The Turnpikes of New F.nghmd, 181; The Wall Between, 453; Walled 
Towns, 77; Winter Sports Verse, 217; You can, But Will You, 370; Youth 
in Plarley, 413. 

Bringing Up Bill, by Arthur B. Rotch 13 

Brown, Albert O., by Harlan C. Pearson 6 

Clough, Jeremiah A., by H. H. Metcalf 172 

Constitutional Convention, The, by H C. Pearson 83 

Daguerreotype Period, The, by George W. Jennings 27S 

Dartmouth Literary or Debating Societies, The, by Asa Currier Tilton, ... 157, 202, 2-49 

Doorway, The, by George Wilson Jennings 221 

Editorial, by Harlan C. Pear>uu 

The New Year in New Hampshire, 31; New Hampshire Thrift, 76; The 
Constitutional Convention, 128; March Meetings, 182; Herbert Hoover, 
215; A Historical Find, 216; Daylight Saving, 266; The Summer Folks, 
297* The Next President's Cabinet, 356; The Census, 368; Benjamin A. 
Kimball, -111; Preserving History, 452; A Poetry Prize, 485; The F)efeat 
of the Amendments, 4>^5. 

Ellis, Bertram, by H. C. Pearson 72 

Exeter's Soldiers' Memorial :.. 461 

Farm Bureau, The, by George M. Putnam 186 

Forty Years a Shaker, by Nicholas Briggs 463 

"Great River Naumkeck." The. by George B. Upham 195 

Great Road to the North, The, by George B. Upham 50 

Hall, Colonel DanieJ, by H. C Pearson 120 

Herrick, James Amory • 421 

How Long Was a Mile, by George B. Upham 116 

Income lax, An: Pro and Con, by Albert O. Brown 3 

In the Navy During the World War, by J. W. Johnson 58 

Kimball, Benjamin A., by H. C. Reason 345 

Maine's Century of Statrhood, by William A. Robinson 170 

Morrill, Arthur P., by George W. Parker . 305 

New Hampshire'.- Most Friendly Trees, by Roland D. Sawyer 126, 179, 214, 265, 296, 354 
New Hampshire Necrology 

Henry L. Barnard. 540; W. A. Beckford, 416; FI. W. Blair, 182; J. H, 
Blaisdeil, 80; IF W. Boutwetl, 491; E. J. Burnham, 223; L. H. Carroll, 415; 
A. H. Campbell, 80; Beta Chapin, 184; J. W. Chase, 130; E. L. Child, 455; 
W. H. Child. 79; F. C Clement, 78; W. R. Clough. 456; John M. Cochran, 
457; F. M Colby, 300, \*. C u«™. 416; J. G. Dearborn, 78; FI. A Dodge, 
493; W. B Ffliows. 270; Kimball Fletcher, ^0; C. A. Folsom, 78; E- E. 
Gates, 23': It. I. Goss, 455; Dr. J. R. Ham, 492; B. F. Hanson, 339; 
D. W. Hftytfrfi, i?l ; M. A, Haynes, 39; C. A. Hazlett, 458; G. W. 
H,"H'o'/'o, ;u ,:'; \\\ X . . Uaru-horn, 414; W. D. H. Hill, 183; A. 



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CONTEXTS 



Pag 



j. Hoitt, 417; A. J, Holder., 417; Andrew ECilloren, 182; 1). W. Lakeman 
371; j. K. Law, 223; I. A. Loveland, 359; G. L McAllister, 79; George! 
Main, 455; S. R. Marston, 301; G. S. Morrill, 182 ; C I O'Xeil, 457- / 
M. Parker, 417; J. C Pattee, 184; Calvin Page, 3S: \\\ T. Perkins 130- 
K j. Pillsbury, 1S2; Mrs. E. H. Porter 271; Mrs. H. B Quinbv, 184; 
W. W. Ranney, 130; R. A. Ray, 416; Mrs. M. M. Rickcr, 403; C 
W. Scribner, 414: T. F. Seavey, 371; A. H. Snow, 416; Edmund Tetiev] 
223; W. F. Thayer, 454; \V. H. Topping. 271; C A. Walker, 270; Sumner 
Wallace, 130; Edward Woods, 222; A. P. Worthen 457. 

New Hampshire Town Boundaries, by George B. Upham 19 

Oldest Organ in the United States The, by C. X. Holmes '.. ?93 

Old-Fashioned Snow Storm, An, by Charles Nevers Holmes 482 

Poem.-> 

Absent, by Annabel C. Andrews, 4-S6 ; A Meteor Headstone, by P. R. 
Bugbee, 494; Alone, by F M. Pray, 451 ; A March Day, by Kate J. Kimball, 
119; Anarchism, by Albert Annett, 272; April Quest, by Harold Vinal, 169; 
A Revery, by Alice D. O. Greenwood, 191; By the PleJp of the Hills, by 
Harry Webb Farrington, 216; Butterfly, by Albert Annett, 340; Calm at 
Sea, by Walter B. Wolfe, 315; Christmas Wreaths, by M. C. Matsom 434; 
Compensation by Martha S. Baker, 71 ; Coasting, by Charles Nevers 
Holmes, \2; Dirge, by Harold Vinal, 289; Dream Songs, by Leighton 
Rollins, 372; Early Morning, by Helen A. Parker, 427; Free, by Harold 
Vinal, 129: Heights of Cardigan, by Gordon M. Hillmari, 37; His Thoughts 
Shall Xever Die by Leighton Rollins, 422; Home, by Jean Rushmore Pat- 
terson, o54; In May, by F. M. Pray, 219; Intangible, by Ruth Bassett 
Edcly, 115; In Weakness Strength, by Ellas H. Cheney, 264; Loss, by 
Harold Vinal, 265: Memories, by Helen A. Parker, 324; Metamorphosis, 
by L. S. Morrison, 23?; My Mother's Sampler, by George W. Jennings, 34; 
My Latest Year, by Martha S. Baker. 29; New Hampshire, by Kate M. 
Phillips, 45; Old Home Week, by James T. Weston, 307; On a Line in 
Emerson's Notebook, by Fanny H. R. Poole, 302; On Dresden Flill at Twi- 
light, by Perley R. Bugbee, 267: Our World at Peace, by C. N. Holmes, 
123: Perfecticn, by Fred Myron Colby, 299: Reflections in the Water, by 
Leighton Rollins, 46; Shadows, by Amy J. DollofT, 292; Spring Rain, by 
Marian F. Sawyer, 171 ; The Brown Trail's Creed, by Mary Elizabeth 
Smith, 335 ; The Ledyard Bridge, by P. R. Bugbee, 561 ; The Day, by 
F. M. Pray, 338: The Minutes, by Mary H. Wheeler. 442; Thoughts, by 
Mary H. Wheeler, 269; The Morning Cometh, by Fanny H. R. Poole, 490; 
The Pilgrims, by Lucy H. Heath, 369; The Shower, by Carolyn Fliliman, 
30; The Summit, by Walter B. Wolfe, 127; The Trees, by Harold Vinal, 221 ; 
The Unspoken Prayer, by Ruth Bassett Eddy, 295 ; The Waters Speak, by 
Walter B. Wolfe, 248; To the American Legion, by Amy J. DollofT, 144; 
Trees in Autumn, by Alice M. Shepard, 412; Vignette, by Walter B. Wolfe, 
73; Waiting, by Ruth Bassett Eddy, 234; Ye Bumblebee, by Albert Annett, 
278. 

Frovmce Road, The, by George B. Upham 428 

Schouler, The late James, LI .. D., by Ellen M. Mason 290 

Second Best, The, by Frances P. Keyes 227 

Seventy-fifth Anniversary of Penacook Encampment by F. J. Pillsbury 62 

Soldiers' Monument at Fremont, The 423 

State and Its Roads, The, by Frederick E. Everett * 135 

State's Most Important Industry, The, by James O. Lyford 43 

Story of Colonel Thomas Johnson, The, by Frances P Keyes . 316, 355 

Taylor. David D., bv Henrv H. Metcal i 275 



CONTENTS Page 

Three Love Letters, by William M. Stuart 475 

Thru the Year in New Hampshire, by Roland D. Sawyer 28, 74 

Thru the Year wth Job, by Roland D. Sawyer '. 30 

Tributes to Two Teachers 175 

Turnpikes, Toll-gate:: and State Coach Days, by Mabel Hope Kingsbury 145 

White Mountain Mystersy, The. by John K. Chase 239, 281, 325 

Winter and Miracles, by Katharine Upham Hunter 4-43 

Wolfeboro's 1 50th Anniversary ' 375 















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'&% Hen. Albert 0. & .'v : 



Hi RLA5 & PEARSON, 1 



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Albert O. Brown 



HE GRANITE MONTHLY 



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Vol. LII 



JANUARY, 1920 



No. 1 



AN INCOME TAX PRO AND CON 



By Albert O. Brown 
The increasing- volume of taxation from automobile licenses, which add 



raises the. question ot ways and 
means. For a hundred and twenty 
years, beginning with 1784, we were 
subject to the rule of proportion, 
copied into the constitution of New- 
Hampshire from that of Massachu- 
setts. But for the relatively un- 
important and partially unused 
amendment of 1903, affecting inher- 
itances and franchises, this rule is 
still in force. We are thus, except 
for polls, in the main restricted to 
the general property tax, and from 
it we derive most of the revenue for 
the support of government, state, 
county and local. It is believed, 
however, it cannot be relied upon to 
sustain any great increase in public 
expenditures. 

The burden of federal taxation is 
heavy, how heavy it is difficult either 
to determine or to estimate. In this 
state, fortunately, the figures are at 
hand. In 1911 the property taxes 
assessed locally, that is, by the se- 
lectmen in the towns and the asses- 
sors in the cities, and mostly for the 
use of the towns and cities, 
amounted in round numbers to five 
and a half millions of dollars. In 
1919 they amounted to eleven mil- 
lions of dollars, an increase of one 
hundred per cent in eight years. 

This statement, it must be re- 
membered, does not include the 
million dollars more or less annually 
assessed against the statewide pub- 
lic service companies by the tax 
commission. It takes no account of 
the savings bank tax of $700,000, 
the poll tax of $360,000, the inheri- 
tance tax of $250,000, or the insur- 
ance tax of $125,000. Neither does 
it regard the multitude of fines and 
fees, including a half million dollars 



largely to the public income. It re- 
lates merely to the tax locally as- 
sessed upon local property, the 
average rate of which throughout 
the state for the present year is 
$2.28 on each one hundred dollars 
of a full valuation of all ratable es- 
tates. 

Many still in active life will re- 
member the almost oppressive tax- 
ation that followed the Civil War. 
During that struggle it was neces- 
sary for the cities and towns, to say 
nothing of the state, to incur large 
debts for bounties to soldiers and 
for other outlays which in the recent 
conflict they were able to avoid. In 
the late sixties these debts were in 
process of liquidation and taxes as- 
sumed unheard of proportions. To 
not a few confiscation seemed near, 
at hand, and yet the per capita rate 
then was but one half of that which 
exists today. 

Mindful of all the facts the legis- 
lature, when at the recent extra ses- 
sion it voted a bonus' of $70 each 
to the veterans of the World War, 
also provided for the resulting ex- 
pense by increasing the poll tax to 
$5 for live years and imposing it 
upon women as well as men in the 
event they are admitted to the suf- 
frage. It was feared, and with good 
reason, that the measure would fail 
if the money appropriated by it were 
to be raised in the usual way 
through the medium of the property 
tax, already too high. 

But it is apparent that, in the ab- 
sence of retrenchment, much more 
money will be needed. The cali of 
the schools cannot be denied. The 
needs of the highways— -more and 
better good roads— are imperative. 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



And gen era Ih' the high cost of gov- 
ernment will assert itself. 

The moral is plain. The red 
light is displayed. Of cour.se poll 
taxes should go no higher. Property 
owners are already paying as much 
as they ran afford. And this is es- 
pecially true of the farmers on the 
hills and the small freeholders in 
the villages and cities who together 
constitute a large majority of the 
tax payers of the state. If this 
statement is accepted for truth, 
property taxes of the character that 
now obtain cannot be gTeatly in- 
creased. Therefore, should large 
sums of additional money be needed 
a new source of revenue must be 
found to supply them. The only 
such source in sight is a tax on in- 
comes. This would rest principally 
upon interest and dividend receipts 
and would be far from inequitable. 

Those who possess intangibles, 
whether with or without other prop- 
erty, are able to hold them only be- 
cause of the protection afforded by 
the state. The courts are open to 
these persons and the police are at 
their service. They are entitled to 
attend and to send their children to 
the public schools. The highways, 
streets, sidewalks, sewers and lights 
are for their use. And in case they 
come to want, they are entitled to 
support at the public expense. In 
return they surely ought to con- 
tribute something on account of 
their intangible wealth to maintain 
the government from which all 
these benefits are derived. On the 
other hand, they cannot be expected 
to pay a full tax upon their securi- 
ties, for they of necessity, have to 
bear the burden of a full tax upon 
the tangible property which those 
securities represent and which with- 
out diminishing itself gives to them 
all the value they possess. At cur- 
rent rates one can ill afford, di- 
rectly or indirectly, to pay two full 
taxes upon the same property. The 
owner of a house is not required to 
pay a tax upon both it and the deed 



that conveys the title, or the poll 
tax payer to respond twice, once for 
himself and uncc for his image in 
the glass. 

It is entirely feasible from a prac- 
tical point of view, to classify stocks 
and credits for direct taxation at a 
rate commensurate with their abil- 
ity to pay. This has been done in 
several jurisdictions and a flat tax of 
about four mills on the dollar has 
been found to afford a large return 
and to be otherwise satisfactory. 
The same practical result may be 
reached, however, by resorting to 
shares and money at interest indi- 
rectly through their income. And 
a tax on incomes has some advant- 
ages that classification as heretofore 
proposed in this state, does not pos- 
sess. It may be made to apply to 
returns from business and personal 
earnings as well as from intangibles. 
On this principle a law was enacted 
in Massachusetts four years ago 
which has proved to be eminently 
successful. New York has just 
passed a general income tax law, 
and the trend in all of the states 
is toward income taxation. 

If a tax on incomes from all 
sources were adopted as an adjunct 
to existing taxes, ample revenue 
could be provided at a low rate. 
The actual net income, seven-tenths 
personal and three-tenths corporate, 
returned from Xew Hampshire for 
federal taxation in 1917, which year 
furnishes the latest figures available, 
was $52,061,342. This sum may 
be too small for the present compu- 
tation because $2,000 of income was 
excluded in the case of every per- 
sonal return. If, however, it were 
to include in the case of personal re- 
turns all net incomes of $1,000 and 
over, as well as the net interest re- 
ceived by savings banks, which 
should be treated like other income, 
it would be increased to more than 
$60,000,000. But six per cent of 
this sum is $3,600,000. And six per 
cent is lower than any federal rate 
and higher than any we should need 



AN INCOME TAX PRO AND CON 



.;. 



to use. Of course we should have 
to forego the present tax on intangi- 
bles and .savings bank deposits ag- 
gregating $900,000. The balance of 
$2,700,000 would represent the gain 
in revenue from income taxation. 
This with the increases from inheri- 
tances and automobile licenses, 
about to be realized, should satisfy 
our needs for many years to come. 

It is impossible to tell from the 
printed tabulations just what part 
of the personal income returned 
from this state, as above, was de- 
rived from intangibles. But enough 
is known to warrant the assertion 
that it was sufficient, even if taxed 
at a low rate, to make a very im- 
portant addition to present revenue. 
Indeed, many think it would be ad- 
visable, for a time at least, to confine 
an income tax to dividend and in- 
terest receipts exclusively. 

In this connection it is appropri- 
ate to add that, from an economic 
standpoint, the law of this state 
governing the taxation of intangi- 
bles is especially absurd. Its effect, 
speaking generally, is entirely to ex- 
empt all stocks and to tax at full 
value all bonds and other credits, 
though the latter may be offset by 
interest bearing indebtedness, as 
they usually are. The result is that 
not five per cent of our intangibles 
outside the savings banks, estimat- 
ed to be in excess of $300,000,000, 
contribute any revenue whatever to 
the public treasuries. Nor can the 
situation be greatly improved with- 
out an amendment to the propor- 
tional clause of the constitution. 
Obviously the question of. an in- 
come tax, so far as it relates to in- 
tangibles, is not one of exemption 
but one of broad and inclusive taxa- 
tion ; not one of less but of greatly 
increased revenue. 

A plan on the basis of the pre- 
ceding paragraphs would add to our 
system a useful method of taxation. 
Flexibility would be one of its 
merits. The varying demands for 
revenue could generally be met by 
fractional changes in the rate of tax- 



ation. A portion of the burden of 
government now borne by the 
principal of property would be 
shifted to income and would rest 
upon the shoulders of those who are 
able and, for the most part at least, 
willing to bear it. Incidentally a 
wide spread demand would be sat- 
isfied and the forces of discontent 
depleted. 

The tax would be easy to assess, 
as the amount of income could 
readily be ascertained from the re- 
turn of the tax payer to the com- 
missioner of internal revenue, or a 
duplicate thereof. It would also be 
easy to collect and easy to pay, 
since it could always be taken from 
income without liquidating fixed 
and unproductive property as is 
sometimes necessary under the pres- 
ent law. 

But there is something before an 
income tax. Economy and efficiency 
are entitled to a trial. State and 
municipal affairs are seldom con- 
ducted with the prudence and 
sagacity that characterize private 
business. This is especially true of 
times like the present when the infla- 
tion of war, and, it may be added, 
its extravagance and waste, extend 
their influence to public finance. 
Reform is slow and difficult. It will 
come, however, whenever the people 
realize that their interest in govern- 
ment is several as well as joint. It 
will come chiefly through the town 
meetings and the boards of mayor 
and aldermen, where most of the ap- 
propriations are made and their ex- 
penditure authorized. If it were to 
come quickly the existing system 
of taxation, utilized to its utmost, 
would probably suffice for a consid- 
erable time. And it would avert a 
tax on incomes, which is otherwise 
inevitable within a few years. 

All things considered, it is the part 
of wisdom, while a convention is at 
hand, so to amend the constitution 
that it will not condemn an income 
tax law if later its enactment is 
found necessary. 



ALBERT O. BROWN 



By H, C. 



A periodical of national circula- 
tion has been printing a series of 
interesting articles about "the best 
farmers" in the different states of 
the Union. Its choices have pro- 
voked comment and criticism, which, 
doubtless, was one of the purposes 
in making them ; but they have 
served, also, the better end of mak- 
ing the whole country acquainted 
with the splendid recent progress of 
agriculture in every section of the 
land. If its articles had been 
headed "The Best Types of Farm- 
ers" in the North, South, East and 
West, the appeal to the reader's curi- 
osity would have been less strong, 
but there would have been little, if 
any. just ground for complaint as to 
the selection of men and of farms for 
description. 

If this magazine should announce 
and print an article upon "The Best 
Man in New Hampshire," it might 
increase its circulation, but it would 
undertake an impossible task and 
would receive and deserve ridicule. 
But if the editor should be moved to 
discuss the best type of New Hamp- 
shire manhood and citizenship, not 
only would lie have an interesting 
and comprehensive subject, but also 
one that could be illustrated with 
many individual portraits without 
giving any reason for adverse criti- 
cism. 

If such a contribution were to be 
made to the pages of The Granite 
Monthly, this present writer can 
think of no man more worthy to be 
chosen as a representative of the 
specified type, "New Hampshire's 
best manhood and citizenship," than 
the subject of this article, Hon. 
Albert O. Brown of Manchester. 

In the first place, Mr, Brown rep- 
resents well the New Hampshire 
type because he is so thoroughly and 
entirely a New Hampshire man in 



every inch and ounce of his consid- 
erable height and weight. He was 
born and spent his boyhood on a 
New Hampshire farm. He attended 
a New Hampshire district school 
and then a New Hampshire acad- 
emy. He is a graduate and a trus- 
tee of a New Hampshire college. 
He began the practice of his profes- 
sion in New Hampshire and contin- 
ued it there with eminent success 
for almost thirty years ; turning then 
to the held of business and becoming 
the executive officer of New Hamp- 
shire's greatest financial institution. 
In public life he holds today two 
of the most important positions in 
the New Hampshire state govern- 
ment. In private line he is one of 
those kind friends, good neighbors 
and quiet gentlemen, upon whose 
steadfast, unassuming strength of 
character, in the mass, depends the 
safety and the future of our modern 
civilization. 

It is thus seen how truly and es- 
sentially Mr. Brown is a typical 
New Hampshire man, by birth, resi- 
dence, training, education, experi- 
ence and service. How the value 
of his service and the depth of his 
loyalty to the commonwealth fur- 
ther qualify him to represent the 
Granite State at its best may be 
judged, though imperfectly, from the 
following brief sketch of his life, 
career and personality. 

Albert Oscar Brown was born in 
North wood, Rockingham County, 
New Hampshire, July 18, 1853, the 
son of Charles Osgood and Sarah 
Elizabeth (Langmaid) Brown, and 
the oldest of their three children. His 
great-great-grandfather, Jedediah 
Brown, removed from Seabrook to 
Raymond early in the eighteenth 
century and was the ancestor of 
many men and women ivho have 
played prominent parts in the life of 



ALBERT O. BROWN 



southeastern New Hampshire dur- 
ing the past two hundred years. Mr. 
Brown's mother was a member of a 
well known Chichester family, her 
brother, Edward Langmaid, being 
the leading citizen of that town ior 
many years. 

Mr. Brown's boyhood, like that 
of most lads of his time in rural 
New Hampshire, contained more of 
work and less of play than is now 
the rule; yet it was a happy one and 
one in which the right kind of foun- 
dations were laid for a strong, up- 
right and useful manhood. The 
Northwoqd of that day was a pros- 
perous agricultural community; a 
peaceful, wholesome environment; 
with a stage coach its one slight 
connection with the outer world, 
passing through every week day 

In spite of its comparative isola- 
tion, Nortriwood had excellent edu- 
cational facilities in the shape of 
unusually good common schools, 
and, in addition, Coes Northwood 
Academy, one of those preparatory 
schools of which so many, located 
here and there in New England 
country villages, have been a real 
factor in establishing high and true 
ideals of enlightenment and pro- 
gress. . In due time young Brown 
passed from the town schools into 
the academy and there fitted for col- 
lege, which he entered in the fall of 
1874. For his preparatory school, 
as for his college, Mr. Brown always 
has cherished a loyal and active re- 
gard. For many years he has been 
a member of the board of trustees 
of Coes Academy and for some time 
past the president of the board. 

When Mr. Brown went to Han- 
over in 1874, he found Dartmouth 
•still the small college which it was 
in Daniel Webster's day, and which 
it was to continue to be for two more 
decades. President Smith was soon 
to end his fourteen years of service 
as the head of that institution and 
President Bartlett to begin his term 
of fifteen years. The faculty was 



small, but strong, as the remem- 
bered names of Young, Ouimby, 
Wright, Proctor, Parker, Lord, 
Noyes. Hitchcock and Sanborn will 
testify. 

Most of Mr. Brown's classmates 
in '78 were country boys like him. 
They graduated 85 strong to become 
college presidents and professors, 
doctors of divinity and of medicine, 
judges of high courts, writers, pub- 
lishers, editors, engineers and suc- 
cessful business men ; not one of 
them, however, attaining a higher 
degree of success in life than has 
Mr. Brown. In college he was a 
member of the Zeta chapter of the 
Psi Upsilon fraternity; and his high 
standard of scholarship earned him 
an election to Phi Beta Kappa. He 
received the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts upon his graduation in June, 
1878, and the honorarv degree of 
Master of Arts in 1908. In 1911 
Mr. Brown was chosen a trustee of 
the college and still continues to 
hold that office, the value of his 
services in that capacity being ap- 
preciated fully by his fellow alumni 
and by all ' who are interested in 
Dartmouth's future. He is a mem- 
ber of the committee of the board 
of trustees on Business Adminis- 
tration of the college and served on 
the special committee from the 
board which assisted in making the 
arrangements for the recent sesqui- 
centennial of the founding of Dart- 
mouth. His alma mater has no 
more loyal and loving son than he, 
nor one in whom capacity, desire 
and opportunity for valuable service 
are better united. 

For three years after leaving col- 
lege Mr. Brown was a school teacher 
acting as an instructor in Lawrence 
Academy, Groton, Massachusetts. 
In this work he was abundantly suc- 
cessful, but it was not his choice 
as a life career, and at the end of 
the period named he began the 
study of law in the office of Burn- 
ham & McAllister at Manchester, 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



later attending the law school of 
Boston University. 

From this institution he graduat- 
ed, rum laudc, in 1884, receiving the 
degree of Bachelor of Laws ; 
and in the same year he passed the 
New Hampshire bar exam. ''nations. 
at the head of his class, being ad- 
mitted to practice in August. It 
was March 1, 1912. when he an- 
nounced his retirement from the 
active work of his profession, so 
' that the length of his distinguished 
legal career was almost twenty- 
eight years. Throughout this 
period he wa^ associated with 
the late Judge Henry E. Burn- 
ham, for twelve years United States 
Senator from New Hampshire. The 
other members of the firm were the 
late Hon. Edwin F. Jones, George 
H. Warren, Esq., Allan M. Wilson, 
Esq., and Robert E. Manning, Esq. 

It is probable that no other law r 
firm in the history of New Hamp- 
shire ever handled a greater aggre- 
gate amount of business in a similar 
period of time or with a higher av- 
erage of success. Certainly no such 
firm ever had a more honorable rec- 
ord or one more conspicuous for 
dignity, ability and integrity. It 
was counsel in a large number of 
the more important court cases of 
its time, while attending, also, to a 
great amount of business of an ad- 
visory and executive character. Its 
roll of clients was a notable one and 
its professional reputation was de- 
servedly high and. widely estab- 
lished. 

During the long absence of Sen- 
ator Burnham in Washington, Mr. 
Brown was the head of the firm, 
with the burden of its responsibili- 
ties upon his shoulders, and it is 
sufficient to say that its steady pro- 
gress in the path of professional suc- 
cess continued without interruption 
under his direction. 

In looking back over his profes- 
sional career, Mr. Brown likes to 
remember that one of his earliest 
successes was in an important high- 



way case to which his native town 
and two other neighboring towns 
were parties. It was sharply con- 
tested, and involved certain' legal 
points of more than common inter- 
est. Winning it meant much to the 
yotmg practitioner in the way of as- 
suring his future success, but' he was 
also glad to be able to begin so 
early the repayment of the debt of- 
gratitude which he felt he owed his 
Old Home town for the wholesome 
environment and good educational 
opportunities which it provided him 
in youth. 

Throughout the years of his ac- 
tivity at the bar, Mr. Brown devoted 
his energies and abilities without 
stint to the work of his profession, 
evincing a singleness of purpose in 
this regard which is one of the sur- 
est passports to success. He did not 
by any means shut himself off from 
other interests, but the practice of 
law came first with him and other 
things afterward; a manner of life 
which he never has had occasion to 
regret. 

It was natural, in fact almost in- 
evitable, that a man of the sound 
business judgment and great pro- 
fessional success of Mr. Brown 
should have his counsel sought in 
financial affairs and the benefit of his 
influence and advice desired by fin- 
ancial institutions. In 1894 he be- 
came a trustee of the Amoskeag Sav- 
ings Bank of Manchester, the largest 
in the state. In 1905 lie succeeded 
the late Otis Barton as its president, 
and in January, 1912, following the 
death of George Henry Chandler, he 
was chosen its treasurer. 

Incorporated in 1852, it has long 
held the leadership among all insti- 
tutions of the kind in New Hamp- 
shire and was so ranked when Mr. 
Brown became its active head eight 
years ago. It then had 23,000 de- 
positors and $16,000,000 in assets. 
Today it has 29,000 depositors and 
$22,000,000 in assets. The figures 
speak for themselves, and eloquent- 
ly both as to Mr. Browm's success as 






ALBERT O. BROWN 



9 



a financier and as to the confidence 
and regard which he has inspired in 
the constituency of his bank. liis 
position brings him in personal 
touch with the home and business 
problems of thousands of people, 
and it is among them, chiefly those 
in moderate circumstances, that he 
stands strongest today. 

Mr. Brown was one of the special 
committee from the trustees of the 
bank which had charge of erecting 
in 1913 and 1914 the magnificent ten- 
story limestone office building, by 
far the finest in New Hampshire, 
which the bank owns, and in part 
occupies, and of which not only the 
city in which it is located, but the 
whole state, is justly proud. 

Although Mr. Brown's devotion to 
his professional and business inter- 
ests has been unusual, he has not 
allowed it to shut him off from par- 
ticipation in the social, fraternal, re- 
ligious and other activities of his 
city. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, the Elks, the 
Grange, and of the Derryfield Club 
in Manchester and attends the First 
Congregational Church, of whose 
work he is a generous supporter. 

Mr. Brown was united in marriage 
at Ayer, Mass., December 20, 1888, 
to Miss Susie J. Clarke, and their 
home life has been happy at their 
residence, 395 Lowell street, Man- 
chester. In an unusual degree, Mr. 
Brown has retained through life his 
interest in the affairs which pertain 
to youth, an interest which by af- 
fording opportunities for much- 
needed recreation has tended to keep 
him young in spirit and in body, 
and has also prompted many acts 
of advantage to young men of his 
acquaintance. 

A Republican in political belief, 
conscientious in the discharge of his 
duties as a citizen, Mr. Brown al- 
ways took an intelligent interest in 
the public questions of the day, both 
state and national, and lent the 
weight of his influence and example 



to the support of principles and can- 
didates in accord with his convic- 
tions ; but until within a decade the 
pressure upon his time was such 
that he did not feel that he .could 
enter actively into public life. 
■ And it was, in fact, through a pro- 
fessional engegement that he was 
hrst induced to accept a state office. 
In 1910 and 1911 he was associated 
with the attorney-general as special 
counsel for the state in the im- 
portant railroad ' tax appeals then 
pending in the supreme court ; pre- 
pared the state's side, and took a 
prominent part at the trial of the 
litigation against the Boston & 
Maine and other railroads over the 
assessment of taxes upon them by 
the state board of equalization. 

How his work in this case was 
regarded by the justices before 
whom it was tried was made evi- 
dent in May, 1911, when the court 
appointed him chairman of the 
newly created state tax commission 
for a. term of six years ; and that 
he fulfilled their highest expecta- 
tions was shown by his reappoint- 
ment in 1917 for a second term. 

This state tax commission is one 
of the most important and valuable 
departments of the state govern- 
ment. William B. Fellows of Til- 
ton and John T. Amey of Lancas- 
ter were named as Mr. Brown's col- 
leagues ir^on it when the commis- 
sion was formed and have so con- 
tinued by .successive re-appoint- 
ments. 

The difficult task of the state tax 
commission is three-fold in charac- 
ter, executive, educative and judi- 
cial. By state and district confer- 
ences and institutes, local tax offi- 
cials must be given a broad view of 
their duties, as well as an intimate 
knowledge of all their details, and 
must be brought to work in har- 
mony for an honest, effective, im- 
partial, intelligent administration of 
the tax laws of the state. Justice 
must be done between all sections 



10 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



of the state and all classes of its 
people. Problems must be solved, 
knots untangled, difficulties over- 
come, the rough made smooth and 
the crooked made straight. 

Plow much has been accomplish- 
ed on all these lines by the New 
Hampshire rax commission; how 
greatly it has improved Granite 
State conditions in its department 
during the less than a decade of its 
existence are well known and 
thoroughly appreciated by those ac- 
quainted with the facts. And that 
the tax commission has been able to 
make so good a record has been due 
in large part to the hard work, deep 
thought and ability as a leader of its 
chairman. Mr. Brown's training 
for the place had been of the best ; 
he had a store of knowledge as to 
both urban and rural conditions ; his 
long and extensive legal practice 
had brought him in contact with 
many taxation problems and had 
given him the ability to cope with 
them. 

In an article published in this 
number of The Granite Monthly, 
Mr. Brown gives his views as to 
some changes that may need to be 
made in our system of taxation. His 
addresses on similar lines upon vari- 
ous occasions have attracted more 
than state wide attention and have 
caused him to be numbered among 
the authorities of national reputa- 
tion on taxation. At the recent 
conference of New England tax 
officials in Boston, Mr. Brown was 
one of the presiding officers, and was 
.chosen to make the reply to the 
address of welcome by Lieutenant 
Governor Cox. He is, also, a mem- 
ber of the National Tax Associa- 
tion. 

Pending changes for the better in 
our laws governing taxation, those 
now upon the statute books have 
been administered and enforced by 
the state tax commission without 
fear or favor and with an efficient 
impartiality which is the one prime 



object to be achieved by such a 
body. 

In the discharge of his duties as 
chairman of the tax commission, 
Mr. Brown has gone into ever} - part 
of the state and become acquainted 
with its local conditions. At the 
same time he has added greatly to 
the already wide acquaintance 
among the people of New Hamp- 
shire which he had gained by his . 
legal practice. \ : 

The regard in which Mr. Brown 
is held by the people and the esti- 
mate which they have formed of his 
ability and integrity was shown in 
a striking manner when the con veil- • 
tion to revise the constitution of the 
state assembled at Concord, June 5, 
1918. Mr. Brown had been chosen 
a delegate from his home ward, and 
when the time came for its perma- 
nent organization he received the 
striking compliment of an unani- 
mous election as the president of the 
convention. 

In moving that the temporary 
secretary of the convention cast one 
vote for Mr. Brown as president, a 
motion which prevailed without a 
single voice in the negative, Leslie 
P. Snow, Esq., of Rochester, said: 
"We are fortunate in having one 
member whose fitness for the high 
office of president is recognized by 
us all, a man of large experience, 
a man of sound judgment, a lawyer, 
a financier, and a public servant of 
tried capacity." 

During the three days' session of 
the convention, at this time, Mr. 
Brown showed himself a dignified, 
impartial and capable presiding 
officer, making it evident that at the 
longer session, which has been call- 
ed for January 13, he will so direct 
the deliberations of the convention 
as to secure a maximum of result at- 
a minimum of time and expense. 

During the deliberations of the 
convention in committee of the 
whole at the 1918 session, Mr. 
Brown took part in debate in a man- 



ALBERT O. BROWN 



11 



ner which revealed to his hearers his 
quality as a logical thinker and 
clear, candid and convincing 
speaker, characteristics or his ora- 
tory which have been in evidence 
since his lawyer days and which add 
to the interest avid value of the 
various public addresses he has been 
called upon to make. 

The World War, which cut short 
the deliberations of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1918, and which 
demanded from every loyal citizen 
sacrifice and effort in proportion to 
his capacity, found Mr. Brown serv- 
ing upon the New Hampshire Com- 
mittee of One Hundred on Public 
Safety, by appointment of Governor 
Henry W. Keyes, and upon its sub- 
committee on Aid to Dependents, 
by appointment of Chairman John 
B. Jameson. He also was vice- 
chairman of the Manchester Thrift 
Committee and one indication of his 
work in the way of thrift was the 
fact that his bank enrolled more than 
13,000 subscribers to the various 
Liberty Loans on the weekly pay- 
ment plan. 

Mr. Brown's prominence in the 
professional, financial and public life 
of the state has been such for many 
years that, united with his univer- 
sally acknowledged ability, integ- 
rity and loyalty, it made it only a 
matter of time when his name should 
be considered in connection with 
the position of Chief Executive of 
New Hampshire. 

In the minds of his fellow Repub- 
licans in the city of his residence, 
that time came last year, and in 
January, 1919, the fifty-two mem- 
bers of the Republican city commit- 
tee of Manchester adopted unani- 
mously a resolution asking Mr. 
Brown to become a candidate for 
the party nomination for Governor 
at the primary of 1920. Such unan- 
imity of action on the part of the 
official representatives of the state's 
majority party in the state's largest 
city was in itself a remarkable com- 



pliment to Mr. Brown, and an indi- 
cation of the strength which his 
candidacy would develop through- 
out the commonwealth. 

Fully appreciating the personal 
regard thus shown for him by his 
fellow citizens, Mr. Brown did not 
make up his mind in regard to their 
request until he had canvassed 
thoroughly the situation as regards 
the whole state and had become con- 
vinced that there was a genuine de- 
sire on the part of the Republicans 
everywhere for him to become a 
candidate. Being assured of this 
fact, and seeing a great opportunity 
for useful service in the office of 
Governor during the coming term. 
Mr. Brown addressed to the Repub- 
licans of New Hampshire an open 
letter, concise, dignified and sincere. 
in which he announced his candi- 
dacy for the Republican nomination. 
If the Republicans of the state 
shall consider me fitted for the high 
office of Governor," he wrote, "I 
shall be grateful for their faith and 
will appreciate their support. In 
the event of my nomination, I pledge 
to them every effort to promote the 
success of their whole ticket, and, if 
elected, to give to the people, so far 
as lies in my power, prudent, pro- 
gressive and efficient management 
for their common affairs. 

"To be Governor of New Hamp- 
shire is a worthy ambition, but the 
quest of the office should be under- 
taken with the sole purpose of ser- 
vice to the state, opportunities for 
which will crowd the constructive 
years of the next administration. It 
is with a full sense of the duty and 
the privilege of this service that I 
announce my candidacy." 

These are the characteristic words 
of a man of great ability, but of 
equal modesty ; a man who, by hard 
work and tireless industry, has made 
the most of a fine mental and physi- 
cal equipment in the accomplish- 
ment of things worth while. These 
are the traits of Albeit O. Brown, 



12 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

good citizen, valuable public official, a quiet, kindly, democratic, always 

successful man of affairs, a.s the helpful personality, which endears 

public knows him. Intimate friends him most to those who know him 

will add to them the possession of best. 



COASTING 

By Charles Nevers Holmes 

In days of old — long, long ago — 

When field and fell were white with snow, 

And air was crisp and chill, 
In boyhood days, upon our sled, 
With cheeks aglow, we swiftly sped 

Adown an ice-bound hill. 

In homespun scarf and reefer dressed. 
We reached at last the hill's long crest 

And paused beneath its pine, 
With running start we launched our craft, 
just like some small and sailless raft, 

Upon that steep decline. 

Adown that slope of ice and snow. 
Like arrow shot from archer's bow, 

We coasted on our sled ; 
The keen air whistled like a blast, 
The landscape flew like lightning past, 

Our course was straight ahead. 

Mid solitude — all, all alone — 
Our eyes alert, our body prone, 

With skillful foot we steered; 
Our little sled sped swifter still 
Upon that smooth and shining hill, 

Yet we were not afeard. 

We reached the bottom — on we flew 
Across a frozen field or two, 

And stopped beside a lane ; 
Then, slowly, by its ragged rope 
We drew our sled back to the slope, 

And climbed the hill again. 

Like other pastimes out-of-door 
Our coasting all too soon was o'er, 

Its transitory thrill ; 
But memory awakes once more 
This scene when in those days of yore, 

We coasted down that hill. 



THE BRINGING UP OF BILL 



By Arthur B. Rotch. 






My family consists of one boy, 
aged three, named Bill. 

No, to be accurate his name isn't 
Bill. He was named after the well 
known Norman Conqueror, and 
more immediately for his paternal 
granddad. But up to the present 
the youngster has no reason to sus- 
pect that the family Bible records 
him as William. 

And while we are being so dog- 
gone accurate we may as well admit 
that the family also comprises Bill's 
mother, who looks after him, and 
me, who tries to provide the where- 
withal. For the sake of a complete 
census, and to please the local 
Boosters' Club, which resents any 
underestimate of the village popula- 
tion, those two official family mem- 
bers ma)' be recorded. Not that 
they make any real difference, 
though. Bill is the whole works. 

Then there is the dog. He ought 
to count. 

I never felt quite right about that 
dog until lately. Every year the 
pup had to contribute two dollars 
to the commonwealth, for which he 
received a small slip of paper and 
the right to wear a collar. I also 
paid a two-dollar poll tax. My 
receipt was bigger that his, and it 
entitled me to vote for any political 
candidate provided he was a Repub- 
lican, to claim protection of the po- 
lice and fire department, to declaim 
vociferously about the rights of an 
American citizen until another bird. 
also named William, denied those 
rights, and then it permitted me to 
register for military service. No- 
body ever questioned my right to 
wear a collar. No, it didn't look 
like a fair deal for the dog. And 
as he is a highly intelligent animal, 
I always had a sneaking fear that 
he would someday reproach me for 



a taxation system which charged 
1dm the same rate it did me, and 
gave him so much less. 

But now it is all right. The 
State has agreed to let the ladies 
vote and charge us all five dollars. 

The case of the dog is the best 
argument 1 have heard for the high, 
poll tax. I assume Senator Moses 
has no dog. 

Bringing up a kid from nothing 
at all to three years is a very en- 
tertaining job. You do it, and you 
think you know it all, and nobody 
else has the real first-hand informa- 
tion. Then you chance to remem- 
ber that it has been done before, sev- 
eral times. It sort of revives your 
interest and confidence in humanity, 
which may have begun to slip a 
little. 

Also it gives you a bit of that 
feeling of insignificance you exper- 
ience on a small boat out of sight 
of land, or when looking aloft on a 
cloudless night and trying to count 
the stars. 

If one small boy can ask so many 
questions and demand so many ex- 
planations that your head feels like 
your brains had - been scrambled 
with an agg beater, what must have 
been going on through past ages, 
and must continue throughout un- 
counted aeons? 

But what a lot of fun it is! 

A kid, you know, even a little 
young one like Bill, is a real indi- 
vidual, lie has tastes of his own ; 
likes and dislikes which nobody 
taught him. 

It is flattering to find somebody 
who has tastes like your own, even 
if it is only a kid. So I am delighted 
to discover that Bill is fond of ani- 
mals and detests most grand opera 
music, while showing a decidedly 
lowbrow fondness for the kind of 



14 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



phonograph records his dad selects 
and which kind friends assure him 
are most "common.'' 

Just now the youngster has resur- 
rected an old one, entitled "Over 
There," and is playing it more or 
less continuously during his waking 
hours. I think he likes the drum 
and bugle. He may appreciate the 
sentiment. But probably he 
chooses it because his parents are 
thoroughly tired of it and let him 
run it all day without the annoying 
formality of changing the needle. 

The kid likes birds, animals and 
flowers. His dad can't keep up 
with him on the flora, but entirely 
sympathizes with the fondness for 
beasts. 

The aforementioned dog had got- 
ten beyond puppy hood when Bill 
horned into the family group and 
ursurped the place of honor as head 
of the family. 

Solicitous neighbors assured me 
that with the arrival of Bill the dog 
would have to go. He would be 
so jealous, you know. But we took 
a chance, and about the first creep- 
ing the kid did was up on the dog's 
back, with one fist in his mouth, and 
the other grasping an ear. Since 
that informal introduction they have 
been the best friends, and I stoutly 
maintain that no boy should be 
raised without a dog, preferably a 
mongrel. 

They will maul each other 
around. The kid will occasionally 
maltreat the dog and the dog will 
sometimes take the baby's cookie. 
But there will grow up between 
them a friendship and love and un- 
derstanding which no other animal 
can give, and which I suspect, only 
a child can give to an animal. 

Sometimes the dog makes an 
amusing mistake, just like we all do. 

A few weeks ago my wife was 
entertaining her aunt, a delightfully 
dignified lady of mature years. It 
came time for aunt to go, and she 
went out to the automobile which 



the dog regards as his, but which 
is registered in my name. She tried 
to get in, but nearly lost a finger 
when she tried to open the door. 
The dog was on guard and wouldn't 
let her come near. Soon Bill went 
out. The dog welcomed him glad- 
ly. In about ten minutes the kid's 
mother appeared, and found Bill and 
the dog waiting happily on the front 
seat, and auntie standing uncom- 
fortably ten feet away wondering 
when something would happen to 
relieve the situation and give her a 
chance to sit down. Knowing the 
dog as I do I can assure her that 
she couldn't have laid a hand on 
that boy or that car if she had waited 
there ten hours. 

At various times the kid has many 
other kinds of pets. For a while he 
had a large cat, who was in daily 
conflict with the dog. Puss could 
wallop the dog as easily as Dempsey 
can punch a newsboy. But the cat's 
nervous system didn't stand it. The 
daily .scraps were fun for the dog, 
but the cat used to get all haired up, 
literally, and finally disappeared, 
much to everybody's sorrow. 

Then came a kitten, who adopted 
a non-flight, non-fight, non-interfer- 
ence policy, and won the hearts of 
everybody, even the dog. It would 
actually purr while being toted 
about the house by the tail, and the 
only resentment ever registered was 
one day when the kid filled his toy 
washtub with suds and undertook to 
give the cat a scrubbing and put her 
through the clothes wringer. 

Then there w r ere the chickens. 

The first lot were the bantams, 
and if the well-known guardian 
Sphinx of Thebes (or was it some 
other ancient metropolis?) had 
wanted a really baffling riddle to 
propound to travellers she should 
have inquired "why is a bantam?" 

Those birds would roost in the 
tops of the trees, on the roof of the 
house, everywhere except in the 
cosy quarters provided for' them, 



THE BRINGING UP OF BILL 



15 



i 



rent free, including janitor, heat, 
light and water. It was my* nightly 
job to locate 'em. pry them off the 
branches, and 'nerd them back to 
their own apartment. 

But we kept them. We kept 
them all. summer, and then found 
a boarding place for them for the 
winter, just because Bill loved them. 
We didn't get them back, though. 
In the .spring came a flock of nine 
baby chickens, real ones. 

One. of the nine died, and the other 
eight grew up into roosters. 

In these days of rare and costly 
food, it is quite a chore to furnish 
feed for all the pets Bill accumu- 
lates. At one time he daily passed 
out fodder to his sweet kitten, his 
dear dog, his pet pig, his faithful 
fowls, his favorite captive turtle, his 
tame squirrels, his six goldfish and 
his one lizard. Some little 

menagerie for a family which doesn't 
pretend to be in the business. 

Now Bill is counting on having a 
pet lamb next year, and PERHAPS 
a. skunk. He hasn't found one yet, 
but he knows there are some around, 
and he is HOPING he can catch 
one. Here's hoping! 

So far Bill hasn't shown any signs 
of wanting to hurt animals for the 
fun of it. If he ever does, his old 
man is planning to give him a pad- 
dling he will long remember. 

He has a lot of these story books 
where the animals talk, and the bad 
animal always meets his just de- 
serts..' He takes them quite seri- 
ously. Some day I may try writing 
some of those yarns. Not that I 
have any idea how to do it. But 
just for the sake of variety I would 
like to see one in which the fox and 
the wolf were not the villains. The 
supply of stories now available at 
the toy .stores give the wrong im- 
pression that the moral fibre of the 
average fox is far inferior to that 
of. Little Pig. I don't believe it is 
true. But after hearing those stories 
read over and over again, read and 



reread by the hour by Bill's tired 
mother, I am beginning to appre- 
ciate the power of repetition by 
which you can make a man believe. 
he is a goat if you only tell him he 
is often enough. Sometimes I have 
to be told so only once to begin 
feeling under my hat for the horns. 

While Bill and 1 agree on animals 
we do not get together on this gar- 
den stuff. He likes it, and I don't. 

Once during the war I tried to 
save humanity by planting a gar- 
den. If I remember rightly, I got 
five potatoes and ten blisters, one 
small sunflower, and one big sun- 
burn, and raised an antipathy 
toward a garden hoe which will last 
a lifetime. My only regret is that 
we didn't have the poultry, lizard 
and goldfish then, for the bugs and 
insects which inhabited that garden 
would have been of some use as bait. 

But this summer, against his 
dad's advice, the kid had a garden, 
all his own. It was a small one. 
for he is a small kid. Perhaps that 
is why he planted his crops one on 
top of the other. 

First he put in some corn and rad- 
ishes. Next day he decided on nas- 
turtiums, and shortly after deter- 
mined to grow prunes. Something 
came up and he watered it lovingly 
for weeks. I think it was a mullen. 

I have long suspected that the 
missing kitchen scissors, a napkin 
ring and salt shaker, the garden 
trowel and perhaps an errant foun- 
tain pen .might be found by careful 
excavations in the kid's garden. But 
it is sacred soil, and we will leave 
it undisturbed. Perhaps future gen- 
erations will exhume those relics 
and deduce therefrom the strange 
customs of the prehistoric dwellers 
in the Granite State. 

While the boy is encouraged in 
humane treatment of his pets heis 
allowed to exercise his predatory in- 
stincts on the various bugs and bee- 
tles which divide their time between 
devastating: the trees and working 



16 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



themselves into embarrassing places 
in the kid's mother's costume, or 
hair. 

If the State and town spend good 
money killing caterpillars, why 
shouldn't the kid do his bit? 

His bit? Well, about the first 
caterpillar he ever saw he grabbed 
and bit it in two. Tie was about a 
year old at the time, and I don't 
think he has tried any bug lunches 
since. He may have, but 1 doubt it. 
Immediately after munching the 
br6wnta.il he learned to spit. That 
used to be a noble art in these parts, 
back in the days of the cracker bar- 
rel, the sawdust box and the pot- 
bellied stove. But I think for his 
age and weight and previous lack 
of practice Bill put it over anything 
yet produced as a fine and fancy 
spitter, tending rather toward the 
spray and th r ough-the-teeth school. 

A caterpillar, I am authoritatively 
informed, tastes sour. I have 
learned to like olives. I can relish 
some of the green-grass salads. Ex- 
cept for carrots I get along fairly 
well with most vegetables. But I 
haven't learned to enjoy a mixture 
of green stuff and meat in the torrn 
of caterpillar, and from watching the 
kid 1 don't expect to. 

The kid is busy picking a vocation 
and every few days he decides on 
a different life ambition. A few 
weeks ago he had it all planned to 
be a painter. No. not one of these 
long-haired chaps with a small sash 
for a necktie, but a real painter, a 
useful one, like the one who came 
to color up the house and decorate 
the window sashes. That kind, of a 
painter can go up a ladder, clear to 
the top, and stay there as long as 
he likes without any bothersome 
mother yelling for hfm to come 
down. Apparently nobody ever 
makes him wash his ears or clean 
his fingernails. That's the life! 

A few days after the painter left 
the kid found his brush and a can 
of black paint in the cellar. After 



about an hour his mother became 
worried by the unusual calm, and 
investigated. She discovered her 
youthful heir on the cellar floor with 
a pile of rocks which he was busily 
painting. He announced that he 
was making coal, and as fast as he 
could color up the rocks he was 
throwing them into the coal bin. 

They have all been through the 
furnace now, and I can't honestly 
sec any difference between the $12- 
a-ton fuel and the hand decorated 
rocks. I have often wondered how 
the dealers ever got hold of such 
fire-proof coal. Now I suspect they 
have kids of their own. A large 
family of industrious children must 
be a wonderful boon to a poor strug- 
gling coal dealer. 

The kid has at sundry times an- 
nounced his intention of following 
the honorable calling of plumber. 
The chief charm, I suspect, is the 
utter disregard for personal clean- 
liness and the charming indifference 
to grime and soot which the average 
plumber shows while engaged in his 
work. 

For a short time the youngster 
considered the wild free life of an 
elevator boy, the noblest calling of 
them all. He may have changed his 
mind when he learned that the ele- 
vator man is expected to stop when-, 
ever anybody wants him to, but I 
rather think the elevator ambition 
was just crowded out by the fascin- 
ating prospect of being an engineer, 
and not by any logical train of reas- 
oning. 

A locomotive engineer can be as 
dirty as a plumber, and ride farther 
and faster than an elevator man. 
So, ho for the engineer! If Mr. 
Plum's ingenious plan should ma-, 
terialize. the engineers and the rest 
of them would own the rails and all, 
the engines and stations and hand- 
cars, and when he starts out he can 
go as long and far as he likes with- 
out having to pay attention to stops 
which the time table shows, and he 



THE BRINGING UP OF BILL 



17 



will get paid for it at a fabulous 
price,, and the pay-roll will be made 
up with taxes, and ail together it 
looks like a sure cinch. 

No, I haven't studied trie Plum 
plan very thoroughly, but as an out- 
sider I rather think I shall encour- 
age the kid to persist in his desire to 
be an engineer. I think I should 
like to have one member of the 
family wealthy. It might relieve 
the county of a charge. 

While waiting for his union card 
in the brotherhood the kid is trying 
his hand at cooking. The "special, 
ready to serve" he cooked up last 
week contained a bit of most every- 
thing in the pantry, stirred up w ith 
half a bottle of vanilla extract, and 
frosted with lint from the vacuum 
sweeper. He claimed it was pre- 
pared especially for the goldfish, to 
see if it wouldn't turn them green. 
He was broken-hearted v. hen his 
mother wouldn't let him feed it to 
the aquarium. 

I am often puzzled by the way 
some of my foreign-born friends 
bubble up English, words, but now 
1 am beginning to wonder how any- 
body ever learns the language any- 
how. The kid is doing remarkably 
well, for one who started with a 
vocabulary limited solely to "eek, 
eek." In three years he has worked 
up a pretty fair command of the 
tongue. I'll bet I couldn't do it. 

How can you explain that there 
are three kinds of "to's," when you 
can't write it, no matter how hard 
you try? How confusing are the. 
woods and woulds? Why isn't the 
second a "tooth?"' and what makes 
the seconds on the clock different 
from the one between the first and 
the third? No wonder the kid asks 
"will a bee sting me? then what will 
an A do to me?" Do you marvel 
that he asks how he can see a C 
but can't see the sea? He is always 
asking such questions, and keeps 
nic feeling like an ignorant, helpless 
idiot because I can't answer one like 



this, "What is the hole in the keg 
^:o put the cider in and get the cider 
out so we can drink it called a buns 
for?" 

In a wild attempt to solve the 
-problem of answering questions we 
blew a week's income on a book, 
a marvelous volume, which has the 
ansAver to every question a child can 
possibly ask. The prospectus and 
the agent assured us it would. It 
even gives the proper answer to 
such a question as: "Where does 
the light go when it goes out?" 

We have had the book now for 
six months and up to this date the 
kid hasn't asked a single question 
which the book answers. It seems 
as though the time would soon 
come when he would have asked 
every other question in the world 
and would have to begin on those in 
the book. 

I don't particular!}' care, though, 
for I don't think the book will 
do much good. That question about 
the light seemed to be a dandy. 
I was frankly curious to know where 
the light goes when it goes out. It 
had never occurred to me to won- 
der, but the book roused my curios- 
ity. If it could tell where the light 
goes it certainly ought to tell me 
where the cook goes when she goes 
out ; not that it makes any difference 
now because it is now many moons 
since a cook of ours went out, never 
to return, and we have given up 
hope of snaring a successor. We 
heard that she had gone out to work 
in a. mill at $44 for 44 hours, but 
there was nothing in the book about 
her. 

It did tell about the light, though. 
It told several paragraphs about "in- 
finitesimal particles of luminous car- 
bon and incandescent gas which 
when deprived of oxygen .or reduced 
in temperature, etc, etc." 

Imagine telling stuff like that to 
a kid three years old ! 

No. that book is a failure as a help 
in child-raising, though it may help 



18 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

the publisher buy milk and eggs for used by politicians, candidates and 

his own offspring, I hope it does. helpless dads today. 

I am still stalling on questions, us- My kid is full of mischief, lie is 
ing the same old dodge, perhaps up to something and into something: 
with some variations, which Eve every minute. His mother some- 
worked on little Abel. When he times tries to conceal it, and for the 
wanted to know what made the benefit of visiting' friends make him 
freckles on Cain's nose. Eve an- out to be a regular angel child. If 
swered by calling attention to the they are polite they pretend to be- 
pretty dinosaur chasing the ptero- lieve it. Rut not me. My senti- 
dactyl down the Euphrates. It is ments are poetically expressed by 
precisely the same type of answei James J. Montague, when he says: 

When Willie inverts a cup custard 

On grandfather's silvery head, 
Deposits the cat in his sister's new hat 

Or saws oft the legs of the bed, 
Or secretly stuffs the piano 

With grasshoppers, crickets and such 
It's a pretty safe bet that the dear little pet 

Has been to the movies too much. 

Whenever the child of your neighbor 

Gives forth a terrific "Boohoo !" 
And you find she is bound to a stake in the 
ground 

By the coils of a clothes-line lasso, 
It's safe to conjecture that Willie 

Has been overfed on the art 
You often have seen when they flash on 
the screen 

The prowess of Fairbanks and Hart. 

Yet we, who are old, can remember 

The kids of an earlier time 
Who fed on die tales of the wild western 
trails 
That reeked with all manner of crime; 
When rifles rang out in the barnyard, 

And the rooster was watchful and spry 
Who got to his roost when the volley was 
loosed 
And the death-dealing bullets flew by. 

And when the last rough stuff is censored 

And movies are gentle and mild, 
As reformers could ask who are charged 
with the task 

Of making life Fit For the Child, 
The Child, will proceed at his leisure 

To break all attempts at restraint, 
For a kid is a kid, and dear Heaven forbid 

That he ever behave like a saint! 



NEW HAMPSHIRE TOWN BOUNDARIES 
DETERMINED BY MASON'S CURVE 



By George B. Uphatn 



Our older readers will retain rec- 
ollections of the County Maps of 
about 1860 with pictures on their 
margins which hung" on the walls 
of many New Hampshire home- 
steads. 

In boyhood the writer was es- 
pecially interested in the brooks and 
ponds shown on the map of Sullivan 
County, just too far away for a 
day's excursion, but believed to con- 
tain larger and hungrier trout than 
any to be found nearer home. 

On this map the towns were 
splotched in vivid tints, some green, 
some pink, some yellow ; the boun- 
dary lines accentuated by broad 
bands of deeper color. These colors 
with the straight, notched, and 
sometimes gently curved outlines 
made a design strongly suggesting 
a crazy quilt. 

When half a century later this 
same map was recovered from the 
attic, its pigments mellowed by 
time, the stronger tints of the 
boundary lines stood out even more 
conspicuously than before and led to 
some reflections. 

Why did these lines run thus? 
Why did various straight boundary 
lines slant conspicuously to the 
southeast:* Why were some of 
them slightly curved? An exam- 
ination of other count)- maps dis- 
closed like frequency of southeast- 
erly slants, and in places, a contin- 
uation of this same curve. Search 
for an answer to these inquiries led 
us back three centuries, to a time 
when the Mayflower was buffeting 
her way into the Gulf of Maine, a 
few days before she sighted land at 
Cape Cod. 

* The Meiriiriack River, in lt>i"J, was supp 
easterly course- throughout. The great bend 
apparently unknown. 



On November 3, 1620, King James 
I. was graciously pleased, on his 
own and sole authority to grant to 
forty gentlemen of distinction a 
charter for a corporation named 
"The Council Established at Ply- 
mouth in the County of Devon for 
the Planting, Ruling, Ordering, and 
Governing of New England in 
America.' This was commonly 
called the "Council of Plymouth." 

In 1622 this corporation granted 
to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and John 
Mason, two of its most active mem- 
bers, a patent for extensive but un- 
certain territory called the "Pro- 
vince of Maine." It later granted 
other conflicting and uncertain 
patents; one in 1629 to Mason alone 
for territory to be called "New 
Hampshire," including therein a 
large part of the territory which, in 
much the same language, had been 
granted previously as the "Province 
of Maine." 

The land granted by the patent of 
1629 to Mason was described as "be- 
ginning from ye Middle part of Mer- 
rimack River & from thence to pro- 
ceed Northwards along ye Sea 
coaste to Passcattaway river & soe 
forwards up within ye sd river to 
ye furthest head thereof & from 
thence Northwestwards until Three- 
score miles be finished from ye first 
entrance of Passcattaway river & 
also from Merrimacke through ye 
sd River & to ye furthest head there- 
of & soe forward up into ye land 
Westwards until Threescore miles 
be finished and from thence to cross 
over land to ye Threescore miles 
end accounted from Pascattaway 
river."* 

osed, by the geographers in London to have an 
from a southerly to an easterly course v.'as 



20 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 











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The Blanehard and Langdon map is the earlie3t known map of New Hampshire giving 
town boundaries from the Connecticut River to the sea, prepared for publication in 1761. This 
is the Col. Joseph BIan.ch.ard who surveyed on the Connecticut River in the winter of 1700, A 
copy of this map from the original engraved plat-: is in the State Library' at Concord. It is 
reproduced, without title or explanation, in Volumes xxiv and xxvi of the New Hampshire 
State Papers. The original is inscribed as follows: 

"An Accurate Map of His Majestys Province of New Hampshire in New England, taken 
from Actual Surveys of all the inhabited Part, and from the best information of what is unin- 
habited together with the adjacent Countries, which exhibits the Theatre of this War in That 
Part of the World, by Col. Blanehard, and the Revd. Mr. Pang-don. Engraved by Thomas Jef- 
ferys, Geographer to His Majesty — " 

"To the Right Honorable Charles Townshend, Tils Ma.i-rsty's Secretary at War, & One of 
His Majestys most Honorable Privy Council, &e. This Map of the Province of New Hamp- 
shire Is Humbly Inscribed, by His most Obliged and Most Obedt Servts.. 

Portsmouth . . JosEr-H Blanchasd 

New Hampshire SaVBSL Langko.v 

21 Octr 17G1." 



NEW HAMPSHIRE TOWN BOUNDARIE! 



21 



,. 



nearlv 



This patent to Mason became 
famous in New Hampshire history 
in that it served as a basis for in- 
trigue and litigation which troubled 
holders of land titles and rendered 
town boundaries uncertain for con- 
siderably more than a century; on 
the other hand the owners of the 
Mason patent did much to preserve 
the territorial integrity of the pro- 
vince and to further the settlement 
of New Hampshire towns. 

Four or live generations of Mason 
heir, conveyed his province, for 
of this great controversy before John 
Tufton Mason, in 1746, then se>le 
heir coveyed his province, for 
£1500, to twelve proprietors, all 
living in or near Portsmouth, and 
dl related or connected by 
After three or four 
years of unsuccessful negotiations, 
with a view to the sale of their land 
to the province, the proprietors set 
about the management of their prop- 
erty in a very businesslike way. 
They employed Joseph Blanchard, 
Jr., Escp, twenty-one years old, to 
survey and mark the curve which 
limited their domain on the west and 
north. 

In the fall of 1751 Blanchard, with 
nine men, began at a point on the 
Massachusetts line, (now the south- 
west corner of Fitzwilliarnj, meas- 
ured or reckoned to be threescore 
miles from the sea.* From there 
they surveyed by running straight 
lines for five miles as chords of the 
^ urve, marking the trees, and meas- 
uring the angle at the end of each 
chord before proceeding further. In 
this way they surveyed through 
swamps, over mountains, to the west 
of Monadnock and Sunapee Moun- 
tains, crossed on a raft nearly half 
the length of 'Sunapee Lake, the line 
cutting Great Island, and so on 
to Newfound Lake, sixty-seven 
miles according to their measure. 



Joseph 
on the 
Map of 

without 



• On recent maps this distance 
COSO feet each, from the mouth of the 

** See Vol. XXIX X. H. State Pap 
marks his curve "The Sweep of Sixty 



5. by scale, 
Merrimack. 

Diagram 

Miles From the 



One report states "they Shoti'd ave 

Gone further but some of the hands 
were Worried & the Provisions 

faild, so they were oblige! to Re- 
turn, they Were all Men that were 
well Acquainted with the woods & 
Said Service & had Daily Caution 
from the Surveyor who was as 
Exact & as Careful as 'Possible, all 
the hands Labourd Very Hard." 
(See Vol. XXIX X. H. State Papers 
p. 307.) 

The curve surveyed b\ 
Blanchard, Jr., is shown 
Blanchard and Langdon 
1761, continued, probably 
survey, to the Maine boundary 
which it "meets at a point about half- 
way between the Great Ossipee and 
Saeo Rivers. This hrst survey 
of the southern part of the Mason 
Curve is especially interesting in 
that it dominated later surveys. Its 
errors were never corrected by 
them. 

Ten years later, in the fall of 1761, 
Walter Bryent surveyed the curve 
from flie Maine boundary, at a point 
a little south of the southeast corner 
of Eaton, twenty-two miles west- 
ward '"to about the middle of the 
head of Wenepesocke Pond.'' Bryent 
reports "I have done it to the Best 
of my Scill and Judgment tho Some 
of the other Lines on this Plan are 
Laid Down by Conjecture."** The 
Proprietors apparently thought so 
much conjecture had entered into 
BrVent's calculations that it was 
best to have a new survey made. 

Holland's Map, prepared for pub- 
lication in 1774, shows a curved line 
from the Maine boundary at the 
southeast corner of Eaton to New- 
found Lake, there joining Blan- 
chard's curve which ended at the 
western shore. This curve Holland 
designated 
as run by 
March, 1768." It is described in 

ost exactly sixty nautical miles, of 



the "Mason Curve Line 
Ro'bt. Fletcher, Esq., in 



and 
Sea.' 



da,vit inserted 



S00. Bryent 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 







-*» 









WE/, 
















Holland's Map is described on its face 
Hampshire. Surveyed under the direction or 
the Northern District 



»f North America; 



"\ Topographical Map of the State of Nev 
muel Holland, Esq'r., Surveyor General toi 

London; printed for 

he surveys 



Faden 
for this valuabh 




of p 

that date in this article. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE TOWN BOUNDARIES 



23 



the Proprietors Records, as "the 
Winter Curve line as run by 
Fletcher." See Vol. XXVIII. N. 
H. State Papers, p. 161. We can see 

him and his men floundering 
through the deep snows of the for- 
ests, working with frosty chain and 
compass, and searching for the blaze 



marks ot Bryent an< 



ianehard, tin 



latter made seventeen years before. 

On June 1, 1769, Fletcher was in- 
structed by the Proprietors to "Corn- 
pleat ye curve line as exactly as you 

can to have ye line well 

marked and to mark on your plan 
the most remarkable monuments 
you meet with on ye line."* 

From the later reported distance 
markings on the trees with 
Fletcher's initials and the date 1769, 
we may believe that Fletcher began 
this new survey at the Massachu- 
setts boundary and proceeded 
northerly on the same curve line 
that had been run by Blanchard in 
1751. That Fletcher kept to the 
Blanchard line and curve as far 
north as Plymouth is shown by his 
initials and the date, 1769. on trees 
near those marked J. B. 1751.** See 
depositions of Joseph Blanchard and 
others. Vol.* XXIX, X. H. State 
Papers, pp. 376-3S5. Also by Hol- 
land's map and Fletcher's own dia- 
gram. 

From Plymouth eastward Flet- 
cher's new survey departs increas- 
ingly and very materially from his 
previous survey of that part of the 
curve surveyed bv him in the winter 



of 176S. The later curved line 
reaches the -Maine boundary more 
than eight miles further north... near 
where the Saco River crosses into 
Maine. This northwardly diverging 
curve is designated on Holland's 
Map as "Mason Curve Line as run 
by Robt. Fletcher, Esq'r. in 1769." 
It is the curve shown on Carrigain's 
Map as the "Ancient Masonian 
Curve Line." 

Much has been written about the 
Mason Grant and controversy, little 
about the Mason Curve. The 
authors of Xew Hampshire histories 
have paid little if any attention to 
this great curve ; most of them fail 
even to mention it. 

The commonly accepted under- 
standing has been that the Mason 
Curve was run as the arc of a circle, 
having a radius of sixty miles, with 
its center at the mouth of the Pis- 
cataqua. Fletcher's affidavit, ap- 
pended to his diagram, gives this 
impression, but a little study of the 
maps will show that this is an error. 

Let us first take the curve as 
shown on the Blanchard and Lang- 
don Map of 1761. That must have 
been taken from the Blanchard sur- 
vey of 1751, for none other had then 
been made, unless Bryent's effort 
was completed in time for use which 
seems doubtful. This map was 
principally planned, compiled and 
drawn by Col. Joseph Blanchard, a 
surveyor of long experience and the 
father of the voting surveyor of the 



* It is difficult to reconcile the date of the instructions for Fletcher's second survey as 
entered on the Proprietor's Records, (Vol. XXIX, X. H. State Papers, p. 3<>8> as given on 
fl'oiland's Map and as cut with r letcher's initials on the trees, all 176f>, with the earlier date 
given in Fletcher's affidavits printed on his diagrams of his second surras-, inserted opposite 
pp. 306 and 308 of Vol. XXIX, N. H. State Papers. Perhaps Fletcher made a* part of his 
second survey in August, 1768, and completed it. in lTsJ'.t. 

** Fifty odd years after he had surveyed it Blanchard at the request of the Proprietors, 
perambulated the curve from the southwest corner of Stoddard to Sunapee Lake. At the 
corner of Stoddard he found a fallen beech tree marked J. B. — 20 — 1751, the 20 indicating 
twenty miles from the Massachusetts line. In his affidavit Blanchard says of these marks, "I 
h&d not the least doubt of their being made by me when I run the line. I set my compass the 

course of the Line as formerly run I found the Line, and several of Fletcher's particular 

marks on the trees, with the date 1769, and the initials of his name marked thus R. F. Between 
Stoddard Southwest and Northwest corners, several trees were chopped into on the Marks and 
Beveral had fifty Growths or Granes over the spots, others had better than thirty Granes grown 
over the spots, which seemed to agree with my running the line, and Fletcher's renewing the 
marks;*' Furthei north on the westerly boundary of Washington, "we chopped into the spot 
on a large Hemlock tree, and found the growths over the spot to count more than fifty, and 
in pursuing this line we found many trees were marked of equal antiquity." These marks 
were probably cut deep with a broad chisel or sharp hatchet used by a skilful woodcutter. The 
persistence of such marks is surprising.. In July, 1367, the writer cut his initials and the date. 
on a beech in Claremont in letters and figures, less than an inch long, which are legible today. 



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NEW HAMPSHIRE TOWN BOUNDARIES 



25 



curve. He must 
whether the curve was intended to 
be the arc of a circle, what radius 
was intended to be used, and from 
what center it was run. A minute's 
use of the dividers will show that 
on this map the curve is drawn in 
the arc. of a circle having its center 
at the mouth of the Merrimack. The 
use of the dividers on the same 
center applied to the more southerly 
of the two curves on Fletcher's dia--. 
gram and on Holland's Map is 
equally convincing. The small 
margin of error will be mentioned 
later. This curve nowhere coincides 
with and greatly diverges from the 
arc of a circle drawn from the 
mouth of the Piscataqua. 

The later surveyed and more 
northerly curve shown on Holland's 
and Carrigain's maps and on Flet- 
cher's diagram nowhere coincides 
with the arc of a circle drawn from 
a center at the mouth of either river. 
How, then, was this curve deter- 
mined? On rereading the descrip- 
tion in the Mason, patent it was 
noted that it mentions two centers, 
one at the mouth of the. Merrimack, 
the other at the mouth of the Pis- 
cataqua. Possibly the unaccounted 
for curve was run as the arc of an 
ellipse having these centers as the 
foci. A trial of this on Holland's 
and Carrigain's Maps, on Fletcher's 
own diagram and on the most reli- 
able modern map obtainable, shows 
that it is the arc of such an ellipse, 
with the slight variation that might 
be expected in an early survey made 
under great difficulties. 

Although the writer has been un- 
able to find any reference to this 
curve as elliptical he is led to be- 
lieve that sometime prior to June, 
1769, the Proprietors were ably and 
shrewdly advised respecting a new 
survey of the curve. The sector of 
an ellipse would contain many 
square miles more than the sector 
of a circle run from either center. 
Nothing appears in Fletcher's in- 



structions about a new or elliptical 

curve ; that 

understood 

tended to it, adding many thousand: 



was not necessary ; he 
his business and at- 



ot acres to the domain of his em- 
ployers. 

The northwardly increasing error 
in Blanchard's survey, about three 
and a half miles too far from the 
center near Newfound Fake, fur- 
thered greatly the practicability of 
this elliptical curve. Were it not 
for the arc of a circle on the Blan- 
chard and Langdon Map, and the 
Fletcher survey of 1768 on that 
same arc, we might believe that 
Blanchard's curve of 1751 was in- 
tended to be in the arc of an ellipse, 
so near did it come to correctly 
forming such a curve. 

But what it may be asked i.s the 
present interest in the form of these 
curves and what matters it how or 
where they were run? The answer 
is a practical one which will be un- 
derstood by practical men. Some 
part of the boundary lines of thirty 
New Hampshire towns and of three 
counties were fixed by, and coincide 
today with the line of this historic 
curve. The boundaries of many 
towns, and of some counties, not 
bounded on the curve, are deter- 
mined by it, bear definite relation to 
it. On the Blanchard and Langdon 
Map, 1761, no town is crossed by 
the curve. On Holland's Map, 1774, 
onlv two towns, Holderness and 



Sandwich, are crossed by the curve 
surveyed by Blanchard in 1751 and 
completed by Fletcher in the winter 
of 1768. All other towns touching 
tin's curve have boundary limits de- 
termined by it. 

Notwithstanding legislative boun- 
dary changes required by topo- 
graphical convenience and political 
expediency in the century and a half 
elapsed since the surveys for Hol- 
land's Map were made, the latest 
township map of New Hampshire 
shows thirty towns, some part of 
whose boundary lines were fixed by 



26 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



and now coincide with this great 
curve. These on the easterly or 
inside of the curve are Fitzwillvarri, 
Troy, Marlboro, Roxbury, Stoddard* 
Washington, Newbury, New Lon- 
don, Wilmot, Danbury, Alexandria, 
Bridgewater, Osslpee and Freedom. 
The towns on the westerly or out- 
side of the curve are Richmond, 
Swansey. Keene, Roxbury, Sullivan, 
Gilsum, Marlow, Lempster, Goshen, 
Sunapee, Springfield, Grafton, Alex- 
andria, Hebron,. Plymouth, Tarn- 
worth, Madison and Eaton. The 
towns easterly from Bridgewater 
and Plymouth are on the Southerly 
or "W inter Curve'* surveyed by 
Fletcher in March, 1768. The 
boundaries of two towns, Roxbury 
and Alexandria, have been so ex- 
tensively changed that a part of 
both easterly and westerly bounds 
now coincide with the curve. Parts 
of the boundaries of Sullivan, Mer- 
rimack and Grafton counties still 
coincide with the curve. 

A long continued controversy 
arose between the Mason Proprie- 
tors and the State of New Hamp- 
shire as to the exact position of the 
Masonian Curve. The location of 
the curve determined necessarily the 
boundary lines between the state 
grants on the outside of the curve 
and the towns granted by the Pro- 
prietors on the inside. As these in 
turn determined the abutting prop- 
erty lines of the neighboring far- 
mers and landowners any uncer- 
tainty about the position of the 
curve led to conflicting claims. To 
end this controversy and the litiga- 
tion which had grown out of it, a 
settlement was finally effected in 
1788 between the Proprietors and 
the State. By the terms of this 
settlement the state conveyed to the 

* The curve shown on the diagram of the rurvey of the straight line was apparently drawn 
without attempt at accuracy. It does not coincide with the curve shown on Fletcher's diagram, 
or on Holland's or Carrlgain's Maps. There was. perhaps, little need of accuracy in the position 
of. the curve on this later diagram, for the deed from the State described it as "the Curve line, 
bo called, of Mason's Patent claimed by said Proprietors as the head line of said Patent." What 
the Proprietors "claimed" was well known and well marked. 

»* An akle and interesting summary of the Mason Title written by Mr. Otis Grant Hammond 
was printed in the proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for October, 191G. It has 
since been reprinted in pamphlet form. 



Proprietors, for the sum of forty 

thousand dollars in public securities 
oi the state and eight hundred dol- 
lars in silver or gold, all the terri- 
tory lying between the outer or 
elliptical curve and a straight line 
drawn between a point on the 
A I a s s a c h u s e 1 1 s b o u n da ry , r e c k o n e d 
or measured to be sixty miles from 
the mouth of the Merrimack, and a 
point on the Maine boundary sixty 
miles from the mouth of the Pis- 
cataqua. These were probably in- 
tended to be statute miles, for the 
ends of the straight line shown on 
the diagram are eight or nine miles 
inside of or nearer the sea than the 
ends of the curved line.* (See Vol. 
XXIX, N. H. State Papers, diagram 
opposite p. 33S.) 

Thus this great territory was con- 
veyed by the State to the Proprie- 
tors for a sum which probably did 
not nearly represent the actual value 
of the then ungranted lands therein. 
This was done that there might 
never in the future be any possibility 
of a conflict in regard to it, and its 
limits were so defined as to include 
all the lands about which a contro- 
versy was then pending or might 
arise in the future. 

"The Proprietors could convey 
to the settlers only the soil. For 
political rights and the powers of 
government the grantees were ob- 
liged to resort to the Province, later 
the State, from which acts of incor- 
poration were readily obtained when 
the conditions of settlement had 
been fulfilled/'** In these acts the 
boundaries which had been fixed by 
the Proprietors were retained. Thus 
the Masonian Curve, by the terms 
of the settlement of 1788 henceforth 
determined, without possibility of 
conflict or appeal, the town boun- 



! 



NEW HAMPSHIRE TOWN BOUNDARIES 



27 



■ 



daries along its continuous bend. 
Only by act of the legislature could 
they be changed. 

The boundary lines ot" many 
towns, and some counties, at con- 
siderable distances from the curve 
have been determined or affected by 
it. A glance at the map shows 
that boundaries of Rindge. New 
Ipswich, Jaffrey, Sharon. Temple, 
Dublin, Peterboro, Nelson, Harris- 
ville, Hancock, Antrim, Windsor, 
and of many other tow r ns are sub- 
stantially concentric with the Mason 
curve. The Masonian Proprietors 
in granting such areas of land, and 
in laying off tracts of approximately 
equal width, naturally found it con- 
venient to define the boundaries as 
parallelly concentric with the limit 
of their own territory. Conse- 
quently we find on the early maps, 
and surviving even today, numerous 
instances of these concentric lines/'* 

Likewise in determining the 
northerly and southerly boundary 
lines of such grants it was conven- 
ient to lay them out on the map 
on radial lines drawn from a center 
on the seacoast. Many town boun- 
daries will be seen on the map in 
which the southeasterly slant is con- 
spicuous, and which are substan- 
tially radial to the curve. Some 
of these, inside the curve, are the 
towns last above mentioned, also 
several of the towns on the boun- 
daries between Merrimack and 
Belknap Counties, and between 
Rockingham and Strafford Counties. 
Some of these on the outside of the 

* It will be noticed that the boundary line between Cheshire and Hillsboro counties is, in 
steps, for many miles substantially concentric with the curve; also that the western boundaries 
of RockingrhHm County and a part of thosf of Strafford County, as well as of many towns in that 
vicinity, show a decided tendency towar&is such concentricity. 

•*At the time these surveys were made neither the chronometer nor 
had come into general use, so the surveyors had no practicable means 
position by celestial observations. The work had to be done by what 
'"dead-reckoning on land." 

•** The small curve, with a radius of twelve miles, which forms the northern boundary of 
Delaware dates back almost as far as that of the Mason Curve, to the charter for Pennsylvania 
granted to William Pe-nn in 1681. Like the Mason Curve it was a prolific source of dispute- and 
prolonged litigation. See Narrative and Critical History of America, Vol. Ill, p. 477. 

*••* A thorough study of the Mason Curve, of ihf- boundaries coinciding with it and bearing 
definite relations to it. would afford material for an interesting and valuable monograph. Many 
i:iter«8Ung questions and problems respecting the curve have presented themselves which could 
not be considered in a magaziru- article of readable length. 

Much material, not herein referred to, may be found in that mine of historical information, 
the New Hampshire State Papers. It is not unlikely that additional information could be de- 
rived from further research in the Colonial Archives in London. 



curve, granted by the Province, are 
Newport, Croydon, Grantham and 
Enfield. 

The old maps, and new ones, too, 
show altogether too many houndary 
lines radial to the curve, too many 
concentric with it, to make it prob- 
able that their direction was a mere 
coincidence. They arc not exactly 
radial, not exactly concentric. It 
is hardly to be expected that they 
would be when we consider that 
the lines were run in the forests, 
through swamps, over mountains, 
often with compasses of weak polar- 
ity, and with the meagre data then 
available to correct for variation and 
for other compass errors. • That 
these surveys and the surveys of 
the curve were so nearly correct re- 
flects great credit on the men who 
made them.** ; 

The geography of New Hamp- 
shire is unique in this great curve. 
Nothing like it affecting town and 
county boundaries is to be found 
crossing any other state in the 
union.*** 

Sometime New Hampshire, recog- 
nizing the general interest in mat- 
ters historical, will mark by suitable 
monuments the places where this 
great historic curve crosses the 
principal highways, thus doing for 
the Ma.son Curve what Vermont has 
done for the Crown Point Road, 
built across that state by order of 
General jeftery Amherst during the 
last of the French and Indian 
Wars.**** 



the artificial horizon 
of determining iheir 
W sailor might tall 



sar. 



THRU THE YEAR IN NEW HAMPSHIRE 



No. 11 



/>v Rev. Roland D. Sazvvcr 



January 

"Hast thou considered the treas- 
uries of the snow?" — Job. 

January is the. month for the ro- 
bust and the young. Never does 
the robust man feel better than in 
January. There is health in the 
clear, sharp air for him able to go 
out into the woods with the axe 
and team, and as he comes in from 
labor to his meals, or to the cheery 
evening by the fire, there is the zest 
of life running thru his veins in the 
rich, red blood that during the dac- 
has been fed by the. crisp oxygen 
of New Hampshire. Robert Burns, 
who was decidedly a poet of winter, 
once said — 
"There is scarcely any earthly ob- 
ject that gives me so much, I don't 
know as I call it pleasure, but 
something that exalts me, enrapt- 
ures me, as I walk in the sheltered 
woods on a winter day, and hear 
the wind howl thru the trees and 
rave o'er the plain." 
That feeling that came to Burns 
comes strongly to us sous of New 
Hampshire; for here for many gen- 
erations our sturdy ancestors have 
been going into the woods to get 
the lumber and wood. What sturdy 
men were the settlers, who, accord- 
ing to Belknap, went into the woods, 
worked all day, and lay at night on 
boughs around a roaring fire — their 
feet to the tire, the cold sky their 
only covering. Even Longfellow, 
who is rather pale-blooded, said 
"There is something in being in the 
woods on a winter day that cheers 
me long/'* Happy, indeed, the hus- 
bandman in New Hampshire these 
days, who can follow the custom of 
his ancestors, sharpen his axe, hitch 
up his team, and go out. into the 



woods for a day's work ; how good 
his supper will taste, how cosy the 
fire will glow at night, how comfort- 
ing will feel his bed. 

January Joys for the Young. 

And what joys come to the young 
in January. If the days are clear 
we have the ponds securely frozen, 
and on sharp skates we glide away 
feeling the fun of being alive. If 
its a good coat of snow on the earth, 
the lads and misses plan and take 
the sleigh rides, while the boys and 
girls "go slidinY' 

"Goin' Slidin" is one form of 
amusement that rural, city or village 
reared man and woman recall with 
delight. How rapidly memory 
slips back over the years when you 
and I are passing down the street 
and hear the cry "clear the track," 
or "get-out-of-the-way." Yelling 
like Comanche Indians, down the 
hill they come, a string of happy, 
healthy boys and girls. "Belly- 
bump," heads up like turtles, they 
twist their bodies and swing their 
rapidly moving sleds around corners, 
thru gate-ways — and we elders hold 
our breath and wonder how they do 
it. No overcoats, jackets unbut- 
toned, cheeks red with health — who 
feels any better than they — and what 
fun will they ever find in life that 
matches the January slide? And 
there is another group — the lads and 
misses in their "teens;" the boy tak- 
ing his girl sliding; carefully he 
places her on the front of the sled 
and hops on behind her; his left 
leg is doubled under him. his right 
is used as a rudder — his cheek is 
close to her ear, her hair blows back 
and tickles his face, the snow crys- 
tals blow down their necks — he 
shows off a little and makes the most 



I . MY LATEST YEAR 29 

difficult turn, while she squeals in the "whizzer," "dart," "flyer;" what 
fright — where 'will the joy of the pet names we had. Many talk 
companionship of the sexes ever depreciatingly of January— but fig- 
equal the lad and miss's fun as ure it out — is it not true, and take 
| they coast down one of New I lamp- it all for all, few months have given 
shire's long hills? How we boys so much joy' to us, as has the hardy, 
and girls of thirty years ago prized cold month of January, 
our sleds; the "arrow," the "rocket," 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

For the use of several of the illustrations accompanying the article on the American 
Legion in the Granite Monthly for December, 1919, credit is due the Manchester Union. 
The picture of Mount Cardigan, used with Mr. Hillman's poem in this issue, was secured 
through the kindness of Mr. Edward A. P>arney of Canaan. 



. • MY LATEST YEAR 

By Martha S. Baker 
Dead leaves are whirling in the wind 



The trees erstwhile .so gay, 
re lifting dull, bare branch^ 
Toward leaden skies of grey 



The melody of birds has ceased, 
Frost smitten are the flowers; 

The early twilight falls apace. 
Increasing- sunless hours. 



i t> 



My latest year ha.s vanished, too; 

Lies buried 'neath the leaves. 
Yet mourn I not departed days, 

(Hope sings but never grieves.) 

Since I may find my year again, • 

In God's eternity, 
Its beauty and its melody, 

A joy perpetually. 

Concord N. H. 



THRU THE YEAR WITH JOB 



Bv Rev. Roland D. San 



M, 



The ancient Hebrews were an out- 
of-doors people who closely ob- 
served the changes in Nature. The 
Hebrew writers use Nature changes 
and images in their literature and 
show much feeling for Nature. This 
is striking in the Book of Job. the 
supreme piece of Hebrew literature 
that has come down to us. The 
author loved the charms of the 
changing seasons, and we may select 
passages that apply to each of the 
twelve months. For instance, take 
the following : 

January — ''Hast thou considered the 
treasuries of the snow?" 

February — "The waters are hid as 
with a stone and the face of the 
deep is frozen." 

March — "Out from the South comes 
the whirlwind and cold from the 
North." 

April — "Hath the rain a Father who 
sends it to cause the tender grass 
to spring forth again." 



May — "The beasts of the field now 
play again, they lie in the covert 
of the ferns and trees." 

June — "Now is the garment of the 
earth warmed by the south wind." 

July — "Men can no longer look upon 
the Great Light, it so brightly 
shines in the skies." 

August — "The dust blows hot in a 
mass." 

September — "The young of the cat- 
tle are in good liking and feed in 
the open fields." 

October — "Now from the North 
comes frost, arid the waters are 
splendor." 

November — "By the breath of God 
comes frost, and the waters are 
frozen." 

December — He saith to the snow 
again. "Fall thou upon the earth." 



THE SHOWER 

(From the Chinese of Dang Mu Ming) 
By Carolyn Hillman 

I cannot see the rice fields 

For a mist of silver rain, 
The scarlet poppy's sighing 

For her lover sun again. 

My peacock struts and screams 
As he spreads his jeweled tail, 

His iridescent splendor 

Makes the red poppies pale.. 



He does not heed the rain drops 
That fall like pearly tears, 

I'll make sweet music on my lute 
Till the hot gold sun appears. 



EDITORIAL 



What will the New Year bring 
to New Hampshire? 

It may, and probably will, bring 
to her a further advance in the paths 
of prosperity and progress. 

For this good result it is only 
necessary that her people abide by 
the habits of industry, thrift, good 
order and good sense for which they 
have been widely and justly re- 
nowned. 

The clouds of industrial unrest 
which lower over the whole world, 
the abnormal economic conditions 
which present hard problems to all 
nations and peoples, constitute a 
burden, some of which we must 
bear. 

But if every one among us will 
try honestly to view the situation 
from the other man's standpoint, 
as well as from his own, a spirit 
will be developed, of which already 
there are many hopeful signs, which 
will make the reconstruction pro- 
cess less painful for us than for those 
who await it in a different spirit. 

The world of tomorrow must be 
a less selfish world than the world 
of today, or the world of yesterday. 
Unless it shall be, the history of the 
Twentieth Century will be the 
bloodiest in the annals of what we 
call civilization and it will be better 
for our children and our children's 
children that they had not been born. 

We cannot believe that this is to 
be; but unless it is to be there must 
be a beginning today in this nation 
and in this state of a keener realiza- 
tion that ever}- man is his brother's 
keeper, with all that implies. 

At the very start of the New Year 
in New Hampshire an opportunity 



opens for important constructive 
work for the future. 

With comparatively slight 

changes, the same constitution has 
served our state as its basic law for 
almost a century and a half. High 
tribute this to the wisdom and fore- 
sight of its framers. 

But conditions now have arisen 
of which they could not dream and 
under which equity is endangered 
by the literal interpretation and 
strict enforcement of our laws. 
These conditions can be remedied 
by wisely considered and carefully 
framed amendments to the consti- 
tution which will be entirely in ac- 
cord with its ancient spirit but will 
adapt it successfully to modern 
needs. • 

It is to be hoped that the con- 
vention called in June, 1918, to pro- 
pose amendments to the constitution 
of the state, and which will re-con- 
vene in Concord on the 13th of Jan- 
uary, 1920, will find itself able to 
agree upon the spirit and the letter 
of certain necessary changes in the 
constitution ; and that the conven- 
tion will submit to the people of the 
state amendments so few in number, 
so clear in phrase, so worthy in 
purpose, that every one of them will 
be ratified at the November elec- 
tion. 

If the convention thus shows its 
willingness and its ability to cope 
with changing conditions it will be 
a happy augury for the future in 
New Hampshire, an earnest of the 
new spirit with which we must make 
a new world, even in old New 
Hampshire. 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



Dr. Jonathan: A Play in Three. 
Acts. Wins ion Churchill. Pp. 
159. Cloth, $1.25. New York: 
The Macmillan Company. 

Mr. Winston Churchill, of Cor- 
nish, presents his prescription for 
the ills that now alii let the body pol- 
itic in the form of a three act play, 
"Dr. Jonathan." It has not ap- 
peared on any stage, says the author 
in his preface, because "several man- 
agers politely declined to produce 
it." This happened., presumably, 
some months ago, before the actors' 
strike in Xew York; since which 
time the same managers doubtless 
would have declined,, sans politeness, 
to produce it. For the play deals 
with the labor problem and it does 
not deal with it in a way to please 
invested capital, whether that cap- 
ital be invested in theatres, plays, 
and scenery or in Ashar Pindar's 
tool works in "Foxon Falls, a New 
England village of some three thous- 
and souls." The publishers' jacket 
says that "the scene of Dr. Jonathan 
is laid presumably in the country 
of Mr. Churchill's ' "Coniston," ' but 
in the play there is no such drawing 
portraits of real personages as lent 
local interest to "Coniston" and 
"Mr. Crewe's Career/' "Dr. Jona- 
than" is a play with a purpose, or, 
rather, a purpose in the form of a 
play ; so much so that the above 
mentioned declining managers 
doubtless were influenced by busi- 
ness sagacity as well as by class 
prejudices. However, it is good 
reading, and if it could have as large 
a sale as "Richard Carvel," it might 
reach and influence some of the em- 
ployers and employees at whom it is 
directed. It is a war play, as well as 
a labor play, in that the treatment 
of the hero for shell shock brings the 
happy ending, and in that the 
strongest scenes are those in which 
the employer who refuses to recog- 



nize the labor union and the em- 
ployees who threaten to strike and 
cripple a government contract ac- 
cuse each other of being traitors. 
"The issue of this war is industrial 
democracy, without which political 
democracy is a farce," is the conclu- 
sion which Mr. Churchill puts in the 
mouth of one of his characters, and 
the curtain falls upon the beginning 
of an experiment in Foxon Fall in 
the realization of this industrial 
democracy. Mr. Churchill sees his 
types clearly and stages them effec- 
tively. It is little he leaves standing 
of the present structures of our old 
New England religion, education 
and social life, but he seems confi- 
dent that the new generation will 
build better ones upon stronger 
foundations and with every room 
facing south and east. And doubt- 
less in that good time to come no 
Harvard graduate will write as 
Lieutenant George does on page 80 
about something that "none of us 
never got." 

The Black Drop. Bv Alice Brown. 
Pp.. 392. Cloth, $2. New York: 
The Macmillan Company. 

This latest publication by New 
Hampshire's most famous native 
novelist, is her second "war book," 
her .shorter story, "The Flying 
Teuton," having been acclaimed by 
many critics as one of the most not- 
able literary achievements inspired 
by the great conflict. "The Black 
Drop" is an entirely different piece 
of work, admirably clone, as is every- 
thing from Miss Brown's pen, but 
less compelling, if that is the right 
word, than its predecessor. It is a 
study of an old New England family, 
well' satisfied with itself, and having 
reason to be, into whose compla- 
cency obtrudes the ugly fact that the 
oldest son of the house is a German 
spy, and that he and the family are 



I 



ROOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



33 



: 



threatened with the shame of di- 
vorce proceeding's because of his 
over friendliness for another Gentian 
spy of the opposite sex. Entirely 
and satisfactorily, villainous are this 
villain and villainess ; so much so 
that Boston seems a strange habitat 
for them; but Miss Brown knows 
her Boston as well as she does her 
rural Xew .England, and if she tells 
us that our modern Athens sheltered 
this kind of people and was the scene 
of their deviltry during the days of 
the war, then we can accept their 
credibility and give ourselves over 
to admiring the skill with which the 
author has distilled the black drop 
of treason from the pure blood of 
patriotic Puritan descent. 

Collector's Luck. By Alice Van- 
Leer Carrick. Illustrated. Pp. 
207. $2.50. Boston. The At- 
lantic Monthly Press. 

There are two reasons why this 
oddly attractive volume is of es- 
pecial New Hampshire interest. One 
is because its author, expert col- 
lector and entertaining writer, is the 
wife of a member of the Dartmouth 
faculty, and dwells in the ''Webster 
Cottage," home of the Jovian Daniel 
in his college days. The other is 
because many of the discoveries she 
describes, many of her educative 
experiences, many of her joy bring- 
ing bargains were of New Hamp- 
shire location, and may be dupli- 
cated within the auction sale radius 
of any of us who are tempted by 
her treasure trove to go and do like- 
wise. The hundred illustrations, 
a more integral part of the text than 
pictures often are or can be, are 
largely photographic reproductions 
of choice pieces from the author's 



own collection or those of some of 
her Hanover friends and fellow col- 
lectors, Mrs. Carleton, .Mrs. Patten, 
Mrs. Frost, Mrs. Woods and others. 
To read the book and to study its 
pictures is to accumulate without 
effort a wonderful stock of infor- 
mation as to such types of old fur- 
niture, old glassware, old woven 
coverlets, old pitchers and teacups, 
lights and lamps, valentines and 
silhouettes as one would find in 
journeying backward through the 
history of New Hampshire and 
New England. Journeying thus 
with- one of such good collector's 
luck as our author, we shall learn 
about more than sofas and sugar- 
bowls, for, as Mrs. Skinner puts it: 
'T often find collectors learning his- 
tory from a little, personal angle 
that more academic scholars often- 
times overlook. How else could I 
have known with such happiness my 
adored Horace Walpole or gossiping 
Pepys? Margaret Winthrop and 
Eliza Pinckney stretch sisterly 
hands across the years to me, and I 
count among my intimates Judge 
Samuel Sewell and Worthy Cotton 
Mather. For, if you collect the 
right way — and there i.s but one 
right way — you cannot help absorb- 
ing the politics and art and religion 
of vour chosen period. ' Collection 
isn't just a fad ; it isn't even just 
a 'divine madness ;' properly inter- 
preted, it is a 'liberal education.' ,: 
And, quite agreeing with this dic- 
tum, let us add that in very few 
courses of any kind of useful educa- 
tion is one favored with so charm- 
ing a textbook as this "repository 
of pleasant profitable discourses de- 
scriptive of the household furniture 
and ornaments of olden time." 



MY MOTHER'S SAMPLER 

By George Wilson Jennings 

Doubtless many will remember. 
It's not so very long- ago, 
When girls had samplers. 
To teach, them how to sew; 
This is why my mother's sampler 
Takes me back to days of yore. 
And I appreciate more fully 




The methods used afore. 

I see her as a winsome lassie, 

Her fingers quick and nimble, 

Making wondrous figures, 

With silken thread and thimble, 

She stitched at morn, at noon, 

And she often used to tell 

How she stitched by firelight's glow, 

Until she learned to do it well, 

It bears her name, it was the custom then, 

Almira Smith., aged eleven, 

The year, eighteen hundred thirty-seven, 

Was long ago as you may plainly see, 



MY MOTHER'S SAMPLER 35 

There are letters tali and letters small, 

i- 

N umbers right, and numbers bright, 

All done in red, in white, in blue, 

In brown, in green and violet, too, 

And to crown the lot, 
I A motto not to be forgot, 

"'Tis education forms the common mind, 

Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined." 

I have no sampler such as this 

To guide my heart or hand or head, 
I I have my blessed mother's love instead, 

And mother, dear, I shall pray unto the end 
I That the good Lord may send 

To each and ever)' one a sampler such as thee, 
1 To be unto them what thou hast been to me. 



0.- 



* ^39007 



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ML . C.i 

t, \ . - ^' . J 



36 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



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.v^-.-. > . .,yx^-^V'T-^"r *■-:■-; -.^"V:j- -. ,. 






V- 



HEIGHTS OF CARDIGAN 



37 





HEIGHTS OF CARDIGAN 

By Gordon Malherbe Hillman 



Across the heights of Cardigan, the long red streamers flare d 

Up from the hills of the twilit west as the sunset sheds its glare, 

And sends its crimson cloud lights to tint the darkening lake, :. 

Far below through the tall black pines, where the sunset's shadows break. 

Dappled and bright from the vivid sky, it flames like a blazing pool, 

Hemmed in by pine-clad islands where the twilight's mists blow cool. 

Rock bound and crag bound, steep and grey and high, - 

The stony heights of Cardigan break through the scarlet sky. 

Far in the South glows a blue-smoked hill-, caught in the crimson light. 

And up the winding river valley, a long train dares the night. 

Blue and purple through the mists, the Northern ranges rise 

While a red-stained moon above the pines lights the shadowy skies, 



NEW" HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



infer- _^-- 



The late 
Calvin Page, one of the most prominent 
citizens of Portsmouth and of New Hamp- 
shire, died suddenly on December \3. He 
was born in North Hampton, August 22, 
1845, the son of Captain Simon Dow 
Page and Judith (Rollins) Page, being 
in the tenth generation from Robert Page 
of Ormsby, County of Norfolk, England, 
whose son, Robert, settled in Hampton, 
New Hampshire, in 1639. 



! 



Calvin Pace 

Calvin Page attended the district schools 
in his native town, and at Phillips Exe- 
ter Academy fitted for Harvard College, 
which he entered in 1864 as a member of 
the sophomore class, but was unable to 
complete the course for lack of funds. 
On July 19, 1865, he entered the law office 
of the late Albert R. Hatch in Portsmouth, 
as a student, and in 1868 was admitted to 
the bar of the state. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



39 



He had a large and lucrative practice 
until his virtual retirement in 1910, although 
after that date he continued his manage- 
ment, as executor and trustee, of the great 
Frank Junes estate, and retained some other 
important connections. In 1904-5 he was 
president of the state bar association. 

The character and extent of his business 
interests may be judged (roni the fact that 
he was president of the. New Hampshire 
National Bank of Portsmouth, the Times 
Publishing Company of Portsmouth, the 
Portsmouth Trust and Guarantee Company, 
the Granite State Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, the Portsmouth Fire Association, 
Manchester & Lawrence Railroad, Laconia 
Car Works, Suncook Water Works, East- 
man Freight Car Heater Company, and 
Piscataqua Fire Insurance Company, be- 
sides being a director in the Concord & 
Portsmouth and Upper Coos Railroads, and 
other corporations. 

A staunch and uncompromising Demo- 
crat in his political beliefs, judge Page was 
recognized by President Cleveland in each 
of his terms by appointment as collector 
of internal revenue for this district. He 
was twice mayor of Portsmouth; and also 
served the city as its solicitor, municipal 
court judge, water commissioner, and, for 
more than 30 years, as a very active and 
valuable member of the school board. He 
was a delegate to the constitutional con- 
ventions of 1888 and 1918, and at the latter 
was appointed a member of the standing 
committee on Future Mode of Amending 
the Constitution and Other Proposed 
Amendments. 

In 1893 and again in 1903 judge Page 
represented the 24th district in the New 
Hampshire State Senate, introducing at the 
latter session the first bill for the election 
of United State- Senators by the people 
to reach a New Hampshire Legislature. At 
the time of his death he was a member of 
the Maine and New Hampshire interstate 
bridge commission and of the board of 
trustees of the New Hampshire State 
Library. 

Judge Page was a member of St. John's 
Lodge. No. 1, A. F. and A. M. and of 
DeWitt Clinton Commandery, Knights 
Templars, both of Portsmouth. He also 
belonged to the Warwick Club of Ports- 
mouth and to various other clubs, societies 
and associations. In religious belief he was 
a Unitarian. On January 7, 1870, Judge 
Page married Arabella J. M'oran, and they 
had one daughter, Agnes, wife of Governor 
John H. Bartlett. Their one grandchild 
is Calvin Page Bartlett, a student at Phil- 
lips Andover Academy. 

Judge Page's spacious and handsome 
residence, with its beautiful gardens, is one 
of the show places of Portsmouth and the 
Judge took much pride in its appearance 



and upkeep. A successful lawyer, saga- 
cious . business man and prominent publi- 
cist, he was one of the best known leaders 
of men in the stale. The independence of 
his views and the point and pungency of 
his expression of them, in public and pri- 
vate, made it a delight to listen to his 
speeches and conversation, or to read his 
writings as they too rarely appeared in 
print. He will be greatly and widely 
missed. 

MARTIN A. HAYNES 

Former Congressman Martin A. Haynes, 
soldier, editor and public official, died at his 
home in Lakeport, November 29. He was 
born in Springfield, July 30, 1842, the son 
of Elbridge Gerry and Caroline R. (Knowl- 
ton) Haynes. lie attended the public 
schools of Manchester and there learned 
the printer's trade, and also worked as a 
reporter on the local papers, the Union and 
Mirror. In the Civil W r ar he served three 




The late Martin A. Haynes 
years as a volunteeer in the Second New 
Hampshire regiment, and upon the forma- 
tion of the Grand Army of the Republic be- 
came active in that organization, being a 
member of Darius A. Drake Post of La- 
conia. He was commander of the New 
Hampshire department in 1882, and also 
served as president of the Veterans' Asso- 
ciation at The Weirs doing much to estab- 
lish the success of the annual reunions 
there. The camp of the Sons of Veterans 
at Lakeport was named in his honor. 

It was after the war, in 1868, that Mr. 
Flaynes located at Lakeport and established 



40 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



the Lake Village Times, which he cor 



diict< 



or 20 years, making it one of th< 



leading Republican weekly papers of the 
state. After his retirement from active 
life he still took pleasure in the "art pre- 
servative." and from a little printing shop 
which he set up at hi home, he issued 
a number of books, "Letters of a Soldier," 
"Gilford Centennial," "Winnipesaukee 
Classics," "War Poems," etc., in limited 
editions which he distributed among his 
friends, • 

Mr. Haynes' wide acquaintance, well- 
known ability, record as a soldier, and 
unusual capacity for making friends, com- 
bined to render his entrance into public life 
inevitable. He was a member of the New 
Hampshirc House of Representatives from 
the town of Gilford in 1872 and 1873: 
clerk of the supreme court for Belknap 
county from 1876 to 1885; a member of 
Congress from the First New Hampshire 
district, 1883-1887. Subsequently he 

served for many years as an internal rev- 
enue agent in various sections of the coun- 
try, and by virtue of a temporary transfer 
from the treasury to the war department 
went to the Philippines for Secretary, of 
War Elihu Root, and organized the internal 
revenue service there. 

Mr. Haynes was a Republican in poli- 
tics, a Universalist in religious belief, and 
a member of the I. O. O. F. fraternal 
order. " He married March 9, 1863, Cornelia 
T. Lane, and is survived by two daughters, 
Mary A. (Mrs. Eugene S. Daniell of 
Greenland) and Cornelia A. of Lake-port; 
and by four grand-children. Martin H. 
Daniell, Marjorie Daniell, Warren F. Dan- 
iell, and Eugene S. Daniell, Jr. 

KIMBALL FLETCHER 

Kimball Fletcher, who died at Lancaster, 
November 21, was born in Canaan, Vt., 
November 27, 1849. the son of Kimball B. 
and Mary (Brown) Fletcher, and came to 
Lancaster with his parents when eight years 
of age. In youth he manifested unusual 
mechanical ability which was usefully and 
notably developed in later life in his long 
connection with the Thompson Manufact- 
uring Company; at first, a boy of 16, as 
an apprentice, afterwards a partner, and 
upon the incorporation of the business in 
1893, treasurer, then president, and a di- 
rector at the time of his death. He was 
a pillar of the Congregational Church, and 



a 32nd degree Mason, as well as a member 
of the Order of the Eastern Star. No- 
vember 2-1, 1880, Mr. Fletcher married Miss 
Nellie H. Hobson, of Island Pond. \"t„ 
and their home life was ideal. Two chil- 
dren were born to them, one son, Robert, 
who died in the service of bis country a 
little more than a year ago; and one 




The late Kimball Fletcher 
daughter, Esther (Mrs. Charles Prout) of 
Portland, Me. Mr. Fletcher's love of 
Lancaster and desire that its history should 
be preserved led him in 1912 to give a sum 
of money in trust to the town, the pro- 
ceeds to be used for that purpose; and 
as time goes on the Fletcher Historical 
Record undoubtedly will be a valuable 
source of information. His funeral ser- 
vice, held on the 39th anniversary of his 
marriage, was conducted by his former 
pastor and personal friend, Rev. E. R. 
Stearns of Concord. There was a large 
attendance of townspeople, old friends and 
schoolmates, the business and professional 
men of Lancaster attending in a body, 
while his partners and associates in the 
Thompson Manufacturing Company acted 
as bearers. 












IN 1 BIS . EH: 

W HA [DUSTRY 

1 : 



.. . K, H< 






l • 



M i l.. 13 6Ci - ' ' 



4*/- « 




The late Honorable Bertram Ellis 



HE GRANITE MON 



T 



Vol. LII 



iLY 



FE 



UARY. 1920 



No. 2 



THE STATE'S MOST IMPORTANT INDUSTRY. 



By Hon. James O. Lyford 



The people of this State do not 
realize the importance of their sav- 
ings institutions. In twenty years 
savings deposits have more than 
doubled; In the past seven years 
the increase has been $30,000,000. 
This last period includes two years 
of war and five drives by the United 
States Government to secure the 
purchase of bonds by the people. 
The increase for the vear ending 
June 30, 1919, was nearly $7,000,000. 
This increase for a single year is 
almost equal to the total deposits of 
the 29 savings banks of the State 
at the close of the Civil War. One 
savings bank today has a greater 
volume of deposits than 45 savings 
hanks had in 1870. The three 
largest savings banks of New Hamp- 
shire have at this time more deposits 
than 68 savings banks had in 1885. 

The savings banks and savings de- 
partments of trust companies of 
New Hampshire are therefore the 
State's most important industry. 

Their total deposits are $130,000,- 
000. 

Their total assets are $143,000,000. 
At the present rate of increase, 
the deposits in ten years will be 
$200,000,000. 

The accumulations of the savings 
institutions are today — 
Three times the taxable value of the 

railroads of the State. 
More than twice the value of all its 

manufacturing plants. 
Nearly one half the value of all the 

land and buildings of the State. 
One fourth the value of all the prop- 
erty of New Hampshire as as- 
sessed for taxation. 



Seventy millions at least of the de- 
posits are loaned to New Hampshire 
people or invested in New Hamp- 
shire enterprises. This sum would 
be larger if the investment held of 
the State were more extensive. In 
proportion to our population our 
savings deposits are larger than 
those of almost any other State, thus 
evidencing the thrift of New Hamp- 
shire people. During the war with 
Germany savings depositors were in 
the aggregate large purchasers of 
Liberty bonds and for the most part 
they paid for them out of earnings 
and not out of past accumulations. 
These purchases were made through 
the savings banks who accepted par- 
tial payments therefor, while carry- 
ing the bonds for their customers. 
The banks also conducted an edu- 
cational campaign of saving, thus 
bringing to the knowledge of many 
people the advantages of savings 
banks who were not before deposi- 
tors. This campaign has resulted 
since the close of the war in drawing 
many new depositors to the savings 
institutions of the State. 

The tax on deposits in New 
Hampshire savings banks goes to 
the towns where the depositors re- 
side, relieving the towns of so much 
of their tax burdens. 

Deposits of New Hampshire peo- 
ple in savings banks of other States 
bring no tax to this State. 

These two facts cannot be too 
strongly impressed upon the people 
of the State. New Hampshire people 
depositing in New Hampshire sav- 
ings institutions not only help them- 
selves but they help the community 



44 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



in which they reside. The town 
where a depositor has his home gets 
the lax on his deposits, which is paid 
by the bank, even though his de- 
posits are in the savings banks of 
several localities. The only duty 
imposed upon him to secure this re- 
sult is that he notify the bank or 
banks where his deposits are when- 
ever he changes his place of resi- 
dence. 

The depositor in New Hampshire 
savings banks has these advantages: 
Convenience of deposit and with- 
drawal. 
His town receives the benefit of the 

tax on his deposit. 
In the settlement of his estate there 
is no such inconvenience, expense, 
or double inheritance tax as is the 
case when his deposit is in another 
State. 

This last is a most important fact 
to have in mind, as the heirs of New 
Hampshire people having deposits 
in savings banks of other States 
have learned when they came to set- 
tle the estate of an ancestor, and 
were put to annoyance and expense 
in -securi'ng the transfer of deposit 
books or the withdrawal of accounts. 
Besides this trouble, they have often 
been obliged to pay a double inher- 
itance tax. 

: All of the accommodations that 
go with personal acquaintance per- 
tain to deposits kept in our own 
savings banks. The person inex- 
perienced in business finds the ad- 
vice and assistance of the local bank 
official oftentimes most helpful. He 
feels free to seek such aid. There 
are many courtesies that the depos- 
itor gets from his home savings bank 
that it would be impractical for a 
savings bank of another State to 

For the large majority of men and 
women a savings deposit is not only 
the safest and most advantageous in- 
vestment, but the most prohtable, 
for these reasons : 
Savings bank suspensions are rare. 



There has not been a suspension 

of a savings bank in this State for 
nearly twenty years. 
i"he principal in savi?igs banks does 
not shrink in value as is the case 
with stocks and bonds. 
Dividends of savings banks are sel- 
dom withdrawn, but are allowed 
to accumulate and swell the prin- 
cipal. 
Dividends from stocks and interest 
from bonds and other investments 
are usually spent in living ex- 
penses. 
Deposits in savings banks are there- 
fore a better investment for old 
age than the same amount in 
stocks and bonds, the income of 
which is spent. 
In case of need, money can readily 
be withdrawn from savings banks, 
whereas stocks and bonds fre- 
quently have to be sold at a loss. 
If one desires to borrow at a bank, 
a savings bank book is the best 
collateral, whereas many stocks 
and bonds are not legal as col- 
lateral. 
The individual is more certain to 
accumulate by depositing" small 
sums periodically in a savings 
bank than by trying to save a 
large sum for investment. 
Depositors in savings banks not only 
help themselves, but they help the 
towns in which they reside. 
There is no doubt that with the 
average man or woman a savings 
bank is the best place of investment 
for his or her surplus income from 
wages or salary. If they acquire 
the habit of periodically saving they 
are constantly adding to their de- 
posits. Except in case of need they 
do not disturb their savings bank 
funds. They are continually com- 
pounding in interest through divi- 
dends declared and credited to the 
depositors.' account. The depositor 
is surprised after a few years to find 
that the little he has laid aside at 
stated times has so abundantly ac- 
cumulated. 



THE STATE'S MOST IMPORTANT INDUSTRY 45 

The time and the effort given by encouraged. The savings banks of 

the savings banks during the war New Hampshire represent the thrift 

in teaching thrift that the individual of the people of the State. The 

might help the government by buy- average deposit is less than $500. 

irtg its bonds, may well be continued The more people there are who are 

now that the war is over. Many thus encouraged to save the better 

people who knew little or nothing it is for the State. The beneficial 

of savings banks before the war have effect of savings banks 'cannot be 

become acquainted with their advan- too often brought to the attention 

tages. Anything that, will bring the of the people. The individual, the 

savings bank depositor into close community of his residence and the 

relationship with the officials of the State gain through the savings 

bank caring for his money is to be bank depositors. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

By Kate M. Phillips 

Dear New Hampshire where my happy days were passed: 
Fre illusion sent me wandering o'er the plain; 

Tiny spot where friendships for a life-time last, 
And love's intensity is almost pain ! 



As the spark of fire within the opal's heart 
Warm and secure the old hills thee enfold, 

One place where truth and friendship never part 
While all the world beside is hard and cold. 

Small tract of ground in geographic phrase 

Whose virtues many longing ones have penned ; 

Where joyous faces tell of joyful hearts, 
And every man is every other's friend. 



46 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



REFLECTIONS IN THE WATER. 

(LAKE CHOCORUA) 
By Lcufhton Rollins 



We glide out into the lake, 

And drift motionless in our dark blue canoe, 

Swayed gently, 

Almost imperceptibly, 

By the wayward breaths of the breeze. 

The lake seems veiled and apart and alone; 

A gem of Nature's unending necklace. 

Above in the sky mysteriously hidden 

By purple incense of the waving heat, 

We see pattern on pattern of wondrous colors 

Paving the roof of the night, 

And as we watch these bright 

And gleaming mosaics, 

Upon each one, 

A human face we saw ; 

Shining triumphant and victorious. 

And beneath us in the rippled water, 

Their visioned faces 

Look up at us. 

Like burning holy tapers from out a mirror. 

Twilight has deepened into night; 

The long quivering paths of light 

Are like shadows 

Falling from tall gondola poles 

Before Saint Marks. 

The rising and falling lights, 

("lint in exquisite dances. 



The sense that perfect beauties die, 

And. do not last. 

For more than a blessed glance, 

Down their long and lovely vistas 

Is a poignant pain within our hearts; 

As we in our canoe 

Paddle softly neath the bridge 

And draw up silently 

Each occupied with his transformed thoughts. 



BACK OF BEARCAMP WATER. 



By Edwin Osgood Graver 



To the occupants of the two little 
huts which clung from force of habit 
rather than from any apparent cause 
to the western slope of Sheep Moun- 
tain, the coming da}" gave promise 
of but the same dreamy round of 
monotony. The early morning sun 
was creeping down the opposite side 
of the narrow valley, toward the 
sandy shore of the little stream 
which the mountaineers all ''lowed 
flowed somewhar." The shanties, 
which sat side by side, perhaps fifty 
feet up the hillside from the little 
brook, were of a nondescript char- 
acter. In their better days they had 
evidently been substantial log 
houses, but during the lapse of three 
generations which had found shelter 
there, the spruce logs had crumbled, 
and there had gradually taken their 
place irregular rows of slabs which 
the thoughtful stream had brought 
from the saw mills farther up the 
valley. They now had the appear- 
ance of leaning stockades, whose 
tottering roofs were supported by 
unseen hands. 

Bill "Larkin, who had been 
''raised," and who still lived, in the 
shanty on the south, was seated, on 
this particular morning, on a low 
stool by the side of his door, en- 
joying a rest from his labors, and 
his morning pipe. He glanced up as 
a tall and lank boy of about seven- 
teen emerged from the slab lean-to 
in the rear of the hut, followed by a 
scrawny cow which he turned loose 
at the very door. 

"Naow, ha n't I tole ye not to turn 
that critter loose right hyar in the 
tater-patch, Pete Larkin?" 

Pete, who bore marked resembl- 
ance to the "ole man," kicked the 
"critter" along without answering 
him a word, for he had learned that 
obedience was not only the better 
part, but for him the whole, of valor. 



After driving the cow across the 
brook, Pete came shambling back, 
humming to himself an old mountain 
song about 

"The blueb'ries and the posies, 
An' the woodchucks with red noses." 

As old Bill heard the word blue- 
b'ries, it seemed to recall something 
to his dreamy mind. He motioned 
Pete toward him, and said in an 
extended drawl — 

"Wa-a-1, Pete, where ye goin' ter- 
day ?" 

Pete, as if anticipating pleasure, 
answered — 

"Up the mounting, uv course. 
Thar a'n't no use hangin' round 
hyar, an' I mought get a-track uv 
thet bar thet's ben a munchin ber- 
ries thar all summer." 

"Wa-a-1," said the old man, "you 
jest set down on thet thar barf; I 
want ter talk with ye. Me'n 'Ria 
hev thunk it all over, an' we've de- 
cided thet we're a-gittin' ole, an' it's 
a-time ye was gittin' merried, so's 
ter make it kinder aisy fur yer ole 
dad." 

Just then "'Ria," who had been 
digging some potatoes for their 
noon-da}' meal, came down from the 
garden patch above the shanty, and 
stood there holding them in her 
apron. 

"Maw," said Pete, with upturned 
face, "I don't want ter git merred, 
do I ? 'Sides, who'd hev me ?" 

"Uv corse ye want er git merred, 
Pete Larkin, and thet right quick. 
Me'n Bill a'n't gwine ter live alius." 

"But, who'd hev me?" pleaded 
Pete. 

"Hev ye !" screamed Pete's maw. 
"Hev ye 1 why yere's Lize Simons 
ben livin' right next door nigh on 
ter sixteen year. Corse she'll hev 
ye." . 

Pete, who was one of the good- 






48 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



natured, yielding sort, "lowed he 
hed known Lize a long spell," and 
the ole man and "\Ria," who had it 
planned to their own satisfaction, 
finally persuaded poor Pete that he 
ought tu get married today. Pete 
rebelled a little against this precipi- 
tate action, saying- that he hadn't 
got a cent to give the parson. 

"Thet a 'n't no di tV runce," said 
Bill, "we've got a 'count at the store 
for the last blueb'ries we let him 
hev. It's ben a mighty fine season, 
an' it might be nigh two dollars. 
Naow, Lize an' you kin hev the hull 
o' thet it ye'il go down ter 'Bar 
Camp' ter-day an' get merred. The 
parson only gets a dollar fur mer- 
ryin' the best uv folks, an' ye'l hev 
a dollar fur a weddin' tower down 
ter the 'Bluff,' with a ride on the 
lake an' plenty uv peanuts. Ye kin 
come up ter-night on Joe Green's 
loggin' team, an' hev it all over in 
one day." 

Pete's small grey eyes lighted up 
at the thought of the peanuts and 
the ride on the little lake which he 
had seen so many times in its sun- 
set glory from the summit of Sheep 
Mountain. It had seemed to him 
like one vast sea, beyond which all 
the world must lie. 

"Wa-a-1," said Pete, at length, 
"jest as maw an' yo' sez. If Lize 
is willin', I is." 

Without waiting for more urging, 
Pete drew himself up from the bar- 
rel on which he was seated, and 
started slowly toward Jim Simons' 
door. On the threshold he stopped 
suddenly, as if his courage had failed 
him, but pulling his tattered hat over 
his eyes, he entered. 

"Whar's Lize?" said he to a little 
fellow who was yet toddling about 
on the floor. 

"Ahint the house, uv corse," lisped 
the child. "She's fixin' up ; she's 
goin' ter be merred." 

Pete's grey eyes grew a trifle 
greyer, his hat was pulled a little 



lower by a sudden jerk of his hand, 
but that was all. He turned to go 
out again, muttering to himself — • 

"1 knowed she wouldn't hev me.'* 

Poor Pete was utterly unconscious 
that his paw and maw had arranged 
the whole matter for him, and that 
Lize had said "Yes."' Before Pete 
reached the half-open door, a small, 
dark-skinned face appeared at the 
shed window. The heavy eyebrows 
did not serve to hide altogether the 
small black eyes which looked out 
from beneath them with a knowing 
glance, as a voice as sharp and pe- 
culiar as the face, called — 

"Hello, Pete ! Did ye know we're 
a-going to be married? Maw says 
we kin go on a weddin' tower, if we 
see the parson ter-day. Be mighty 
spry Pete ; I's mos' fixed." 

Ten minutes later Lize emerged 
from the Simons shanty dressed in 
her best. It was not in satins, to 
be sure, but for her it was to be 
her "weddin' gown," and that was 
enough. The broad-rimmed straw 
hat which she had borrowed from 
her father for the occasion, was tied 
down at the sides with a piece of red 
yarn into a sunbonnet. Her face, 
scrupulously clean, contrasted 
strangely with her "weddin' gown," 
which had seen its best days several 
years before. Pete, who had at last 
come to comprehend the situation, 
had not taken the pains even to don 
a "biled" shirt. As he met the one 
who was to share his peanuts, he 
greeted her with a "Hello, Lize ! Ben 
fixin' up, han't ye?" And without 
further questioning they started 
down the mountain — Pete in his jean 
overalls, and Lize in her red calico 
gown. 

At the end of a mile, which had 
been occupied in picking the few re- 
maining berries which grew by the 
roadside, they burst out on the brow 
of a grassy knoll from which the 
little hamlet of Bear Camp could be 
seen in the smoky distance. 



BACK OF BEARCAMP WATER 



49 



"I 'low 't a'n't more'n four miles 
further/' said Pete, and relapsed 
again into silence. 

It was a hard and dusty tramp for 
poor Lize, but she kept gazing at 
the deepening haze which hung - over 



the 



[5a vs, as it 



saw in thei 



dim outlines something of the uncer- 
tainty of lite. 

Two hours later, as they trudged 
into the little cluster of houses which 
composed Bear Camp, their first 
thought was of the peanuts and then 
of the parson. Pete was wholly un- 
concerned as lie munched peanuts 
and explained to the surprised par- 
son his mission, and pointed to the 
two ages, twenty-two and nineteen, 
in the certificate which he had pro- 
cured. Lize was a little tremulous 
at first, and was evident!}' glad 
when the two names, Peter William 
Parkin and Elizabeth Matilda Si- 
mons, were uttered in the same 
breath by the grave parson. 

Pete, "with a frank appearance of 
generosity and a careless air, at once 
asked, "What's yer bill?" 

The parson, surprised and over- 
joyed, waived an answer, and simply 
remarked, "The law allows me a 
dollar; you may pay me what you 
like." 

"Wa-a-1," said Pete, with honest 
sincerity and a thought of more pea- 
nuts, "ef the law 'lows ye a dollar, 
yere's a half, an' thet'll make ye a 
dollar'n a half. Much obleeged." 

The astonished parson could say 
nothing, as Mr. and Mrs. Parkin 
strode out through the open door 
and started on their "weddin' 
tower," as unconscious of the past 
as of the futuie. 

Late that afternoon, as the even- 
ing fogs came creeping up the east- 
ern slope of Sheep Mountain from 



the little lake at its foot, Pete and 
Lize were seen, weary and footsore- 
plodding up the rocky, mountain 
road, often pausing to listen for the 
sound of Joe Green's rumbling lug- 
ging team. 

"It a'n't no use," said Pete at 
length. "Joe'll come sure. I'm 
goin' ter wait." 

"All "right," answered Lize. "Fs 
willin'." 

Side by side they sat down on a 
rocky ledge, which, seemed to sink 
deeper and deeper into the shadow 
of the mountain as the sun sank 
from sight. Both were too weary to 
talk much, and left each other to 
their own thoughts. As - Lize sat 
looking at her own soiled calico, her 
thoughts were of the wonderful 
sights which she had seen on her 
'Sveddin' tower," and she exclaimed 

"Say, Pete, did ye see thet gal at 
the 'Bluff,' with the silk gown on? 
Maw- sez I kin have one some day." 

"Naw," said Pete, "I didn't. see 
nothin'. But wa'n.t thet dirt cheap, 
getthT merred for fifty cents?" 

Just then a long, continuous rum- 
ble came up from the darkness 
which had settled over Bear Camp. 
Pete and Lize started up at the 
sound, and sauntered into the road 
again. As Joe Green came around 
the sharp bend, they scrambled onto 
the old lumber wagon. 

"Whar ben?" called Joe, above the 
noise. 

And as the team, carrying Pete 
and Lize back to the little shanty 
which to them was home, became 
more and more indistinct in the twi- 
light, Pete's voice could be heard 
answering, "Down ter B'ar Camp, 
gittin' merred. OnT cost's half a 
dollar." 



THE GREAT ROAD TO THE NORTH, THROUGH 
THE UPPER CONNECTICUT VALLEY. 



By George B. Uphcu 









'*"%&& 






Sugar River and Ascutney Mountain from Lottery Bridge. 

The spire of the little church in Ascutrteyville, Vt.. and a rpan of the Connecticut River 
Bridge may be seen in the middle distance.* 



The Connecticut River is the long- 
est and most important waterway in 
New England. For geologic ages 
this great river has been at work 
cutting the mountain passes and 
carving out the valley which is the 
only one extending entirely across 
New England. When the aborigines 
came, centuries before the coming 
of the white man, they found this 
great waterway with its broad val- 
ley and easy gradients ready for 
their use. Thus the Connecticut 
River valley was to the aborigines, 
as later to the white man, the one 



great avenue of communication be- 
tween southern New England and 
the watershed of the St. Lawrence. 

After several disastrous experi- 
ences from Indian marauding expe- 
ditions, often aided by -the French, 
it is natural that the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay should, in the 
first half of the eighteenth century, 
have established" forts to block this 
natural avenue of approach. The 
first of these, above the present 
Massachusetts line, was Fort Dum- 
mer, now Brattleboro, Vt., built in 
1724; the next of importance that at 

•The illustration. "Lottery Bridge," facing p. 219 of Major F. J. Wood's recently published 
"Turnpikes of New England. " is a view of the old wooden Connecticut River Bridge at 
Clart-rnont, now replaced by a steel structure on the same piers. Lottery Bridge is about half 
a mile distant in a southeasterly direction and crosses the Sugar River with a single span. 



THE GREAT ROAD TO THE NORTH 



51 



I 



Number Four, now Charles-town, N. 
H., biiitt in 1744.* Several block- 
houses and stockaded private houses 
had been built between Fort Dum- 
mer and Number Four, but these 
were the only forts in the upper 
Connecticut River valley regularly 
garrisoned during the later French 
and Indian wars. 

It is difficult to realize the im- 
portance of the fort with the little 
village clustered around it at Num- 
ber Four to the English in New 
England in the forties and fifties of 
the eighteenth century. It was the 
actual frontier, the northernmost 
post in the interior of New England, 
where English speaking people lived, 
worked, fought and sometimes died 
fighting to protect themselves and 
the English further south from the 
French and their Indian allies in 
Canada. 

Prior to 1750 roads had been cut 
up the valley as far as Number 
Four, beyond was merely an Indian 
trail. 

In March 1752, Captain William 
Symes of Winchester, in a memorial 
to Governor Benning Wentworth, 
proposed an ambitious undertaking. 
It was to build a road from the fort 
at Number Four, sixty miles up the 
Connecticut River Valley to Cowass, 
there to build two defensive enclos- 
ures, one on each side of the river, 
each to "encompass fifteen or more 
acres of Land, this to be enclosed, 
with Log-houses at some distance 
from each other, and the spaces filled 
up with either Palisades or Square 
timbers, in the middle of the square 
something of the nature of a Cyti- 
dall where the Public Buildings & 
Granarys etc. will be built & to be 
large enough to contain all the In- 

•The name Number Four came from the fact that it was the northernmost of four towns 
for which charters were granted by Massachusetts on the east side of the river in 1735. No. 
1 was afterwards named Chesterfield; No. 2, Westmoreland; No. 3, Walpole; No. 4, Charlesto.vr.. 
After Captain Phineas Stevens had so valiantly defended the fort from the 



habitants, if at any time drove from 
the outer Enclosure which is to be 
large enough to contain their cattle 
etc. These fortifications are to be 
built so as to assist each other on 
every occasion/' They were to be 
garrisoned by four or five hundred 
men who were to be rewarded by 
grants of four townships, each six 
miles square including therein the 
richest of the Cowass Intervales. 

How valuable these lands were 
considered at the time is shown in 
a letter written by Theodore Atkin- 
son, Esq., Secretary of Province, to 
John Tomlinson, Esq., Agent of the 
Province in London, on Nov. 19, 
1752, in which he says: "We are 
now upon a Project (which I be- 
lieve will take effect) of settling a 
Tract of the finest Land on the Con- 
tinent, called by ye Indians Co-os, 
which Lyes upon Connecticut River 
about 90 miles northerly from the 
Province line. . . . tis the cream of the 
country, the Intervale land on both 
sides of the river for 30 or fifty 
miles successively, in many places 
a mile wide, where at the first you 
have little to do but Plow, it being 
generally clear like a salt marsh & 
but about 40 or 50 miles Distance 
from many of our new settlements." 
(N. H. State Papers, Vol. VI pp. 
161-162.) 

This Memorial was acted upon 
favorably by the Council and As- 
sembly. The sum of £1000 was 
voted to "be employed to and for 
catting of Roads & Building of 
Bridges. .. .from Number Four so 
called on the Connecticut River to 
sd place called Coos and from said 
Coos to Canterbury in sd Province." 

Theodore Atkinson, Secretary, 
wrote Captain Phineas Stevens, in 




52 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



command at Number Four, that "it 
will be very agreeable to bis Ex- 
cellency (if you approve the 
Scheem) if you will joyn Capt. 
Symes in advice & Endeavors to for- 
ward this undertaking." (See N..H. 
State. Papers, Vol. VI, p 163.) 

This whole ambitious project 
would have been attempted, per- 
haps carried out, had not the In- 
dians somehow got wind of it. 

Early in January, 1753, six war- 
riors of the St. Francis tribe were 
seen approaching the Fort at Num- 
ber Four. Their white flag of truce, 
almost invisible against the snow, 
showed plainly when passing the 
dark green of the pines. They were 
kindly received by Captain Stevens. 
but their demeanor indicated no 
pleasant frame of mind. This in- 
cident, as afterwards related by 
Stevens to Captain Israel Williams 
at the latter's house in Hatfield, was 
by him set down in a letter to the 
Lieutenant-Governor of Massachu- 
setts as follows: "The}' manifested 
great uneasiness at our Peoples go- 
ing to take a view of Cowass Mead- 
ows last Spring, but never fully de- 
clared their minds till the morning 
they took their Departure, when 
with great Deliberation (as he ex- 
pressed it) they told him, for the 
English to settle Cowass was what 
they could not agree to, and as the 
English had no need of that Land, 
but had enough without it, they 
must think the English had v mind 
for War, if they should go there, 
and said, if you do we will endeavor 
that you shall have a strong war, 
that they should have the Mohawks 
and Ottawawas to help them. That 
there was four hundred Indians now 
a hunting on this side of the St. 
Francois River, and that the owners 
of the land at Cowass would all be 
there this Spring, and that they at 
No. 4, might expect that if the af- 
fair of settling Cowass went for- 
ward, to have all their houses 
burnt." (See N. H. State Papers, 
Vol. VI, p 199.) 



The Lieutenant-Governor at once 
laid the letter before Governor Shir- 
ley who lost no time in communicat- 
ing it to the Governor of New 
Hampshire. Governor Wentworth 
then "threw such discouragement on 
the settlement of the Coos Meadows, 
that the design, without further en- 
deavors to carry it into effect, was 
wholly relinquished, as under the 
circumstances impracticable." 

In his history of Charlestown, pp. 
54-56, Saunderson, without citing 
any authority for the statement, 
says "it was afterwards ascertained 
that Governor Wentworth had so 
little geog-raphical knowledge of the 
country on the upper Connecticut 
that he did not even know where 
the Coos Meadows were." 

Thus had it not been for the state 
of mind of the St. Francis Indians, 
coupled with the undoubted ability 
to execute their threats, John Mann 
and his wife, Lydia, in their journey 
in the fall of 1765, from Hebron, 
Connecticut, up the Connecticut 
River Valley to Orford would have 
found north of Number Four a well 
made road instead of a mere "horse- 
track frequently hedged across by 
fallen trees," and along that road 
frequent settlements instead of here 
and there an occasional log cabin 
separated from any neighbor by 
several miles of almost trackless 
wilderness. (See Granite Monthly, 
Vol. 51, p. 424.) 

It was not until 1768 or 1769, 
eight or nine years after the power 
of the French in America, and the 
ability to stir their Indian allies to 
action, had been broken, that some 
semblance of a road was built 
by the settlers along the Indian trail. 
This trail for several years after the 
first settlers found their way over 
it, remained a mere bridle path, 
marked in the wooded parts by 
blazed trees, through which led 
pack-horses followed beneath the 
leafy shades in summer, struggled 
through the deep snows in winter 
from the lonely cabins, scattered for 



THE GREAT ROAD TO THE NORTH 



53 






i 
I 



twenty or thirty miles up the val- 
ley, to the nearest grist mill at Char- 
lestown._ 

When the road was built it fol- 
lowed the bridle-path which had fol- 
lowed the Indian Trail, and it di- 
verges but slightly from it in only 
a few places 



the present day 



com- 
st niggling way 



N o rt he r w a rd from- X o rt h C h arles- 
town it runs to the west of Cala- 
vant Hill, by the old Captain Long 
place, past the -Jarvis and Uphara 
homesteads on Town Hill, which 
is in fact the eastern slope of Bar- 
bers Mountain, across Sugar River 
at Lottery Bridge, past the ancient 
Cupola House, -and thence straight 
up the valley to Cornish Common 
and beyond. Holland's Map of 1.774 
shows it, with some breaks, continu- 
ing north to Haverhill, the Cowass 
of the ambitious Captain Symes. 

This read is mentioned in the pe- 
tition for the lottery to raise funds 
to build a bridge, and in a number 
of other State papers as the "Great 
Road" and as the "Main County 
(or Country) Road." In the wri- 
ter's boyhood he frequently heard 
it called by the older residents the 
'"King's Highway." coupled with 
the statement that by such name it 
was commonly called in the days of 
their youth. This name is not 
found in any document ; it therefore 
seems probable that it was a merely 
local designation, perhaps confined 
to the residents of Town Hill. 

As was not unusual in New Eng- 
land, the Great Road was laid out and other necessities 



precise time when the bridle-path 
became a road passable for wheeled 
vehicles. We know, however, that 

it had become so in early August. 
1770. when Eleazar Wheelock, with 

ox teams, laborers and two 
panions. pushed his 
up from Connecticut to lay the foun- 
dations for Dartmouth College ; and 
when, a few weeks later, Madame 
Wheelock with the boys of the ''In- 
dian Charity School" followed by 
the same route. 

What a pageant these travellers 
must have presented in their pro- 
gress northward on a bright au- 
tumnal day. Let us wait by the 
roadside, say on Town Hill, and wit- 
ness the passing. First came two 
horsemen, men of importance in rai- 
ment becoming their station; next 
Madame Wheelock swaying in the 
great and splendid coach, the gift 
of John Thornton a wealthy mer- 
chant of London, her two slave wait- 
ing maids, Peggy and Chloe, sitting, 
up behind and Jabez Bingham, 
nephew and chief teamster of the 
college president, driving; then the 
two men slaves, Exeter and Bristar, 
one of. them leading a cow; next the 
drove of hogs tended by the thirty 
students, two of them Indians, 
trudging along on foot ; then came 
the ox teams hauling the since cel- 
ebrated, barrel of rum, the "cag of 
wine," the barrel of "Old Pork," the 
100 lbs. of tobacco, the gross of 
pipes, the half barrel of "Shuggar" 



,f 
and 



appurte- 
nances of life which Madame Whee- 
lock was bringing with her. Pic- 
ture this procession lurching down 
into, and struggling up out of, the 
ford at the present site of Lottery 
Bridge ; the pigs squealing, the 
horses plunging, the oxen straining, 
the drivers cussing. — Oh that we 
had a moving picture of it all ! And 
while the camera man is there, let. 
him wait a couple of years to snap 

•The only ctfvergence known to the writer in Claremont is that just south of the old Ains- 
worth house wherfi for fifteen or twenty rods the road was moved about two hundred feet, at 
the maximum, further east. This, it is believed, was done more than a century ago. 



ten rods wide for a mile or two over 
Town Hill in Claremont, where por- 
tions of it have to this day been but 
slightly encroached upon. North of 
Sugar River it was six rods wide. 
The greater width through the 
"street" on Town Hill, was doubt- 
less to provide common land for 
mowing or pasturage, surely the 
traffic did not require it. 

No record has been found of the 



54 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



John Ledyarci, then a lad of nine- 
teen or twenty,, as he passes with 
his dilapidated horse and sulky, the 
paraphernalia for unaeceptahle 
theatrical exhibitions tied on behind. 
He too is on his way to Hanover 
to join the class of 1776, the first, 
the most interesting, most romantic, 
most travelled gentleman advent- 
urer that has ever ventured within 
the learned shades of Dartmouth 
College. 

Scenes along* the Great Road 
in its early days were varied. Be- 
fore the close . of the Revolution 
the post-rider passed once a fort- 
night in .summer with letters in his 
saddle bags. We may imagine the 
interest in his coming, especially to 
those who had husbands or sons 
lighting in the Continental army. 
His circuit was from Portsmouth, 
via Concord and Plymouth, to Hav- 
erhill, from Haverhill down the 
Great Road to Charlestown, thence 
via Keene, back to Portsmouth.* 
Families with all their possessions, 
on their way to settle in the north, 
passed over the Great Road on 
wagons or sleds usually drawn by 
oxen. At a somewhat later period 
a gentleman, with his wife or daugh- 
ter, sometimes rode past in his 
chaise preceded or followed by an 
outrider or two. He was prepared 
to buy a thousand or two of broad 
acres if he saw them to his liking, 
and carried with him the Spanish 
milled dollars necessary to conclude 
the purchase.** Dartmouth Col- 
lege boys trudged back and forth, 

•John Balch of Keene was the first post-rider. See N. H. State Papers, Vol. X, p. 553. 
Judging from the roads and the number of houses along them, as shown on Holland's Map, also 
from legislation in 17SG and ITS'", see X. H. State Papers, Vol. XX, pp. 419, 644, it seems 
probable that between Keene and Portsmouth this first post route was through Marlboro, Dublin, 
Peterborough, Arnherst, Merrimack, Londonderry, Chester and Exeter. This route apparently 
remained unchanged for about twenty years. In 1791, four post routes were established. 
"The first," that covering southwestern Xew P'ampshire, •'beginning at Concord, thence to pro- 
ceed through Weare, New Do-ston. Amherst, Wilton, Temple, Peterborough, Dublin, Marlborough, 
Keene, Westmoreland, Walpole, Acworth, Charlestown, Claremont, Newport, Lempster, Wash- 
ington Hillsborough, Henniker, Hopkinton to Concord." 

The post-rider was required to cover this route weekly, ("extraordinaries excepted,") re- 
versing direction of travel weekly. Postage was sixpence per letter "for every forty mhes 
and four pence for every number of miles less than forty." On this route Concord, Amherst, 
Keene and Charlestown were to have postmasters who were to- receive "two pence to 
be advanced on the postage of each private letter packet, etc." In towns where there 
were no postmasters the poEt-rider doubtless delivered letters as now delivered on R. F. D. 
routes. See X. H. State Papers, Vol. XXII, pp. 221, TS2. 

•"Specific instances of this are known to the writer from zeliabie and well confirmed 
tradition. 



in groups at the beginning and end 
of their vacation. 

Before the bridge over Sugar 
River, the first of a substantial char- 
acter in Claremont, was built in 
1785, a ford in summer, the ice in 
winter, a ferry boat in times of high 
water, served the settlers and early 
travellers. Daniel Warner who 
lived close by was the ferryman. A 
jovial group of Dartmouth boys who 
hailed him across the river as Mr. 
Charon, laughed heartily when he 
explained that they had mistaken his 
name. When later a neighbor, 
John Strobridge, told him the clas- 
sical significance, Warner became 
exceeding wroth, but was appeased 
by the further explanation that if 
he were Charon, his passengers must 
be considered lost souls crossing 
that dark river of Hades, the Styx. 

Early in 1785, Stanford Kings- 
bury, who built and owned the Jarvis 
house on Town Hill, Elihu Stevens, 
the grandfather of the founder of 
Stevens High School, John Cook, 
who built the Cook Tavern, and five 
others petitioned the General Court 
"to Grant a Lottery that Shall Neat 
Free of the Needful Expenses two 
Hundred, pounds for building a 
bridge Over Sugar River, to Accom- 
odate the Alain Country Road." 

It appears from the following ex- 
tract from the petition that not much 
enthusiasm in a financial form ex- 
isted on the part of the public, for 
we read: "Subscriptions were 
open'd in the Town and Generous 
Donations came in to the Am't of 



THE GREAT ROAD TO THE NORTH 



55 



Sixty Pounds Chiefly by Yr Peti- 
tioners (except a few individuals cm 
the Great Road who Expected to be 
Accomdated by .Said Bridge. 
Which money Was Carefully Laid 
out by yr Petitioners in procuring 
timber which is Now on the Spot. 
And in the Meantmie When Said 
Work Was Carried on Subscription 
papers Were forwarded to the Prin- 
cipal Gent'm in Each Town From 
Walpole to Haverhill begging their 
assistance in So Public & Important 
A Matter. • We had Many Kind 
Ans'rs from these Gent'm We had 
Addressed And Wrote to, but When 
a return of the Subscriptions Were 
Come in, found the Whole Ain't to 
be but about one pound ten ShiU's." 
And we read further, "That your 
Petitioners have Since in Public 
Town Meeting in said Claremont 
Urged the Assistance of the town 
but to No purpose." A lottery was 
therefore the last resort and was 
duly authorized to raise £300, by 
an act of the General Court passed 
lune 23, 1785. (See N. H. State 
Papers, Vol, XI, p. 379.) 

With the exception of the bridge 
between Newcastle and Portsmouth 
t his is the only bridge known to 
have been built in New Hampshire 
by the aid of a lottery, and is be- 
lieved to be the only one called 
"Lottery Bridge." It would be in- 
teresting to know the circumstances 
and incidents of the drawing, just 
when and where it took place, the 
cost of tickets, who drew the prizes 
and to what amounts ; but no record 
or even traditions of such details 
are known to have been preserved. 

Within the writer's recollection, 
back to 1860, the old covered wooden 
bridge, on this site, replaced by steel 
construction in 1893, has twice 
floated away at high water to ground 
on the meadows below. The first 
known instance of this was in the 
spring of 1802, when at two town 
meetings the Town refused to re- 
place the bridge. This appears in 
a letter written by Benjamin Sum- 



ner on June 8, 1802, from the Cu- 
pola Tavern to Squire Samuel Hunt 
who represented Charlestown in the 
General Court then in session at 
Concord. Sumner explains that he 
is obliged to write hurriedly 'To 
send by the Amherst maile Which 
will be hear at 4 P. M.," and says 
''it is currently reported and prob- 
ably true that the owners of the 
turnpike," (running through Clare- 
mont Village, Unity and Lempster 
to Amherst, N. II.,) "have influenced 
the action of the town with a view 
to divert travel from the Maine 
River and Country Rode into the 
Turnpike so they the owners of sd 
Turnpike will Collect more from the 
gates in Claremont than all other 
gates Will afford ! and No Wonder 
they exert themselves to, and are 
willing to Pay fines to the advantage 
of themselves — the River Rode be- 
ing Turned into the Turnpike will 
Thrible the Tolledge, and I believe 
much more at the gate in Clare- 
mont." Sumner then asks that ihe 
property owners who voted for the 
restoration of the bridge be ex- 
empted from paying any part of the 
fines imposed for the neglect of the 
town "to Comply with the order of 
Court" by restoring the bridge. The 
letter closes as follows : "As Oure 
member Mr. Jones is Not so favor- 
able to the Repairs of the Country 
Rode We Do not apply to him." 
"N. B. Doctr Sterne has this mo- 
ment Com in and Signes with me" 
"Our Respects wait on you" 

T. Sterne. 
Benj. Sumner" 

"To Saml Hunt Esqr." 

One hundred and sixteen years, 
almost to a day, after its departure 
by the Amherst mail on that after- 
noon in June, 1802, this same letter, 
faded and yellow with age, came 
back to the place where it was writ- 
ten. 

Prior to about 1800 the village of 
Claremont was on that part of the 



56 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

Great Road which crosses Town the horses thus spurred to a gallop, 
.Hill. Holland's, Map shows tour- approached "the Falls." The pre- 
teen houses on the village street in spective passengers walked acro-s 
1/74. * This number was in- the brige paying; their three cent 
creased considerably in the succeed- toll, saw their trunks trundled 
ing twenty years. Here were the across in wheelbarrows, and mount- 
village smithy, the village school, ed the stage in Walpole, on the 
the tavern, the country store, the New Hampshire side, 
workshop of the wheelwright, the For three quarters of a century, 
shoemaker, the cobbler and the until the railroad was built, in 1849, 
tailor; a busy place it was near the travellers in the river valley jour- 
close ot the eighteenth century neyed north and south over the 
where now the road is grass-grown Great Road. We can see the top- 
and as silent as the fields. heavy, six-horse stage-coach rocking 
The Great Road in connection on its leather thorough-braces, 
with ferries served both sides of the swaying around the curves, lurching 
Connecticut River until about 1790, over the hills, passing with perilous 
when the river road on the Vermont tilt the heavy, slow-moving, canvas- 
side was built. -It is doubtful if this covered freight wagons, and finally 
road was ever, for any considerable after sunset rounding up beside the 
length of time, used as a through Ralston Tavern, still standing on 
state route. To avoid the high Town Flill ; the tired travellers climb 
rates of toll at Bellows Falls, over down for their evening meal, the 
the first bridge to span the Con- jolly landlord greets them, the 
necticut River, the stage-horn was foam-flecked horses are led away to 
sounded long and lustily from the the stable, their day's work done. 
New Hampshire side as the coach, 

•On Holland's Map, not only then existing roads are shown, but dots indicate the 
houses along- these roads. Ttvy may be plainly seen on the original map, though hardly 
visible on the reduced reproductions. It is believed that the dots indicate buildings of a 
substantial character and not mere cabins, for on the site of Dartmouth College there are only 
threi dots, and only seven in all of P.anover, four of these near the river in the north 
part of the town. There must hnve been more than three buildings of some snrt on and around 
the college grouncs in 1774. An excellent engraving of Holland's map from the original 
plate may be seen in the collection of the New Hampshire Historical Society, also in the Boston 
Public Library. \Vriters of local histories should make far more use of this map than has 
been made in the past. It might well be reproduced as a bit ot" State enterprise, on the 
original scale and with the original clearness. 



THE LEDYARD BRIDGE (1659) 

By Perley R. Bugbee 

The old wooden bridge; the Ledyard bridge. 
Humbly it stands, connecting two states 
Joining lands on either water's edge 
Vermont's green and New Hampshire's granite. 

Near or distant, shed-like and mossy 
The shingled roof and its boarded sides. 
While picturesque, it's rather noisy, 
The planks rattle as o'er them, one rides. 



THE LED YARD BRIDGE 



b/ 



t 



■■ i 



■■ 






i^tai S&i. -;:•-, _- 



From river's source, through vales to the sea 
Bridges replace ferries to ride over. 
The first of the valley's to be free 
Was one from Norwich to Hanover. 



The first with single span and no piers 
Fell in the river from its own weight. 
The second toll bridge stood thirty years 
Serving the public humble and great. 

The third bridge builded in thirty-nine, 
Burned in the autumn of fifty-four. 
Then five years — interminable time ! 
The public by boat was carried o'er. 

The Ledyard is the fourth in number 
O'er the Connecticut at this spot, 
While all four were builded from lumber 
Ledyard's served the longest of the lot. 

O'er the river that flows on and on 

This bridge in many lives bears its part, 

O'er it Dartmouth's classes have come and gone, 

Ledyard's bridge is endeared to the heart. 



Hanover, N . H 



IN THE NAVY DURING THE WORLD WAIU 

THE EXPERIENCE OF JOHN WILLIAM JOHNSON 



April 6, 1917, the day we broke to 

with Germany, found me in Norfolk, Okl 

Virginia. At that time there seemed fina 

a better chance for action, travel and the 

experience in the navy than in the lear 

army, so I reported at the Receiving the 

Ship at the navy yard for enlistment ; my 
and, after waiting in line for over five T 

hours, was examined from head to less 

foot, inside and out, and was ac- nou 



report for duty on board the 
ahoma a week later, and was 
lly sworn in for four years in 

regular navy. I afterwards 
ned that my name stood first on 
list of enlisted men from Bath- 
home town, 
he Oklahoma was at that time 

than a year old, a superdread- 
ght of 32.C00 tons, and a speed 



„^:d 



John William Johnson 



cepted. So many ahead of me, ap- 
parently of fine physique, were re- 
jected that I considered myself un- 
accountably fortunate in being ac- 
cepted. As* I had passed my twen- 
ty-first birthday but a few months 
previously, this statement, above the 
officially witnessed signature of my 
mother, was demanded by the re- 
ceiving officer before 1 was allowed 
to serve Uncle Sam. 3 was ordered 



of 22 knots, a knot being one and 
one eighth miles. She was one of 
the largest ships in the service car- 
rying over 1500 men. She burned 
oil, an immense advantage in the 
way of cleanliness. Pier main bat- 
tery consisted of ten 14-inch guns ; 
and she carried a secondary battery 
of twenty-one 5-inch guns, also 
3-inch anti-aircraft guns, and two 
6-pound saluting guns. The shells 



! 



IN THE NAVY DURING THE WORLD WAR 



used in the 14-inch guns weigh over 
2,000 pounds, and can be fired 20 
miles. And the bore is large enough 
to admit the body of a man. 

Navy life is altogether different 
from civilian, and to acquire the 
navy dialect is like learning a for- 
eign language. A room is called a 
"compartment," the floor is the 
"deck," and the ceiling is referred 
to as the "overhead.'' Stairs are 
known as ''ladders/' and windows 
are called "ports." 

Time on shipboard is marked by 
bells. For instance, at noon, eight 
bells are struck; at twelve-thirty, 
one bell ; at one, two bells ; at one- 
thirty, three bells ; at two, four bells ; 
at two-thirty, five bells ; at three, 
six bells ; at three-thirty, seven bells; 
at four, eight bells, and so on. In 
the British navy seven bells are 
never struck, in commemoration of 
the fact that on a certain ship a 
mutiny had been planned to take 
place at seven bells. The captain 
got wind of the affair, seven bells 
were not struck, and the mutineers 
were foiled. 

A sailor's kerchief is black as a 
badge of mourning for departed 
naval heroes; the three white bands 
on his collar are for three great 
naval victories; and the thirteen 
buttons, ornamenting his trousers, 
are for the thirteen original states. 

Recruits in the army are known 
as "rookies," but in the navy as 
"boots," probably on account of be- 
ing booted around by boatswain's 
mates. There was one of these 
would-be sailors, or land-lubbers, on 
lookout duty in the "crow's nest." 
The "crow's nest" is a basket-like 
arrangement on the mast where a 
lookout is kept. After the man's 
watch was up, he was ordered down 
by the officer of the deck through 
the voice tube in these words "Lay 
down from aloft." As the sailor 
did not obey, and no attention be- 
ing paid to the order after it had 
been repeated several times, the of- 



ficer finally Inst patience and shout- 
ed "Climb down out of that tree!" 

After making a statement as to 
the education I had received, and 
passing examinations in mathema- 
tics, I was assigned to tin- naviga- 
tor's division to train for quarter- 
master. A quartermaster in the 
army is a clerk who attends to sup- 
plies, but in the navy a quartermas- 
ter's duties are altogether different. 
They consist chiefly in signalling, 
correcting charts, steering and keep- 
ing the ship's log. The log is a 
record of the ship's cruise. Every 
hour readings are taken of the bar- 
ometer, psychrometer, condition of 
the weather, form of clouds, 'etc. 

Signalling is carried on in various 
ways — wigwag and' semaphore by 
day, and blinker and searchlight by 
night. Wigwag and semaphore are 
often confused. They are not at all. 
alike. Wigwag employs one flag 
only, about three feet in diameter, 
and the continental code is used. 
In semaphore two flags, about a foot 
in diameter, are used ; and the letters 
of the alphabet axe indicated by 
different positions of the flags. 
Wigwag is comparatively slow, but 
after a few months' practice, I ob- 
tained a speed of forty words a 
minute by semaphore. Blinker is 
used for short distance signalling 
by night, and the dot and dash are 
marked by the length of time the 
light is exposed. For long dis- 
tances, twenty miles or more, the 
searchlight is used. 

As there seemed little hope of 
getting across on the Oklahoma, I 
requested a transfer, and the fol- 
lowing day I was ordered aboard 
the Paul Jones — a small torpedo 
boat. The only difference between 
a torpedo boat and a destroyer is 
that a destroyer has a longer cruis- 
ing radius. The torpedo boats are 
300 feet long and between 25 and 
30 feet wide at the beam — amid 
ships. Torpedoes are their chief 
battery, as their name indicates, but 



60 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



depth mines were successfully used 
against submarines. These long 
narrow boats — the destroyers and 
torpedo boats — are built for speed. 
and cut the water like a knife blade. 
They are the fastest craft afloat, 
surpassing in swiftness the cele- 
brated passenger ships known as 
'Ocean Greyhounds." 

In company with five other tor- 
pedo boats we left Philadelphia for 
the Mediterranean via the Azores. 
and Bermuda. Hamilton was the 
first foreign port we touched at. 
Here we delayed long enough to re- 
fuel ; and, as we were given shore 
leave, we visited the Islands. We 
rented bicycles to reach the different 
objects of interest, and avoided col- 
lisions by remembering to keep to 
the left as is the custom in that 
place. Back on board after our 
leave had expired, we left port, and 
all went well until the third day out, 
when we ran into a storm, and our 
deck load of coal was washed over 
board. The supply in our bunkers 
not being sufficient for us to reach 
our destination, we were obliged 
to turn back. The weather increas- 
ed in violence so that we were forced 
to run with the sea instead of buck- 
ing it. I stood a two-hour wheel 
watch, but it was impossible to keep 
the ship on the course. Soon after 
I came on watch the foremast 
snapped, and later the mainmast. 
As our wireless was strung between 
these masts, it was put out of com- 
mission. Before morning we lost 
an anchor ; two life rafts, and our 
life boat. The after compartments 
commenced to flood so that we were 
forced to batten down the hatches 
to keep the other compartments dry. 
But in spite of our efforts to the 
contrary, the water found its way 
through, and only by all hands turn- 
ing to with buckets were we able 
to keep afloat. The salt water even 
found its way into our fresh water 
tank so that we were without drink- 



ing water. We used the juice of 
tinned tomatoes to quench, our thirst 
and even drank catsup which did not 
have the desired effect. After three 
days of bailing and constant drench- 
ing, we were at the point of ex- 
haustion, and a ration of alcohol di- 
luted with water was served to us. 
In momentary expectation of the 
signal to abandon ship, rafts were 
made of the fallen masts, and emer- 
gency rations were issued. We 
lightened ship by casting overboard 
two torpedoes valued at $5000 each, 
our ice machines, and all heavy ar- 
ticles that could be dispensed with. 
Guns were constantly fired and tar 
was kept burning as distress sig- 
nals; and at night we sent up rock- 
ets and stars. We saw nothing be- 
fore us but berths in Davy Jones' 
locker, when the dense fog by which 
we had been surrounded lifted a 
little, Polaris was discerned, and a 
sight taken. We found we were 
hundreds of miles out of our course. 
and in a waste of waters where ships 
seldom pass, so that if we took to 
our rafts there was little hope of our 
being picked up. But we now took 
heart, redoubled our efforts, and in a 
short time the mainland of Bermuda 
was sighted, and we headed for it. 
As we neared the Islands our dis- 
tress signals were answered from the 
shore, and 1 sent a searchlight mes- 
sage requesting assistance. We got 
a reply saying that no help could 
be given us until daybreak. As the 
harbor was mined, we didn'^ care 
to take a chance on being blown up, 
so we anchored and continued bail- 
ing until morning. Finally a tug 
was sent out and, in a sinking con- 
dition, we were towed in. 

We later learned that we were 
suspected of being a submarine ; and, 
indeed, we looked much like one- 
being level with the sea and minus 
masts. The commander of the fort 
had been ordered to blow us up, but 
he refused to do so, thinking we 



IN THE NAVY DURING THE WORLD WAR 



61' 



might not be an enemy ship. In 
consequence he was courtmartialled 
for disobedience of orders. 

As we lost all our personal be- 
longings, including clothing, we 
were cared for at the British bar- 
racks, and a week later 1 was sent 
to the Perkins-— a much larger ship 
than the Paul Jones, and an oil- 
burner. On her we went to Liver- 
pool, where the ship was "camou- 
flaged," and from there to Queens- 
town, our base. Here we were 
given sections to patrol. We often 
saw submarines ; but as they were 
ii':) match for destroyers, on sight- 
ing us they would quickly submerge. 
It was the winter season, and the 
life was strenuous. For a man with 
good eyesight and not subject to 
seasickness the work was well-nigh 
incessant. Our chief duty was to 
answer calls for help, and pick up 
the survivors of torpedoed ships. 
Man}' times we arrived at the scene 
of the disaster in time to witness 
the destruction and sinking of the 
ship. Once we received an S.O.S. 
call ; and, when we arrived on the 
scene, we were greeted with tor- 
pedoes, two passing directly under 
us, and one over our bow, missing 
us by a few feet — an example of 
German treachery or strategy, as 
you will. 

His Majesty's ship, the "High- 
flier," was stationed near us, and I 
became acquainted with a British 
sailor who one day invited me on 
board his ship for luncheon. A ra- 
tion of grog is served British sail- 
ors at every meal. As a guest, I, 
too, was favored. But I did not like 
the odor or the looks of the mixture, 
and 1 passed my glass to my friend. 
After that I was cordially and fre- 
quently invited to meals on board 
the Highflier, not only by my friend, 
but by others who looked with en- 
vious eyes as he drank his double 
portion. 

The last part of the war I was 



stationed at New York on convoy 
duty.. July 4, 1918. we convoyed 
forty-five ships out of the harbor, 
the largest number that ever left 
any port at any one time. A diri- 
gible led the way, followed by seven 
destroyers on each side of the ships 
being convoyed, and also a number 
of cruisers. One cruiser always 
went all the way across, while most 
of the destroyers, after going out 
three hundred miles, returned to 
port for another convoy. However, 
I went across three times, landing 
at Brest. 

After the armistice was signed we 
lay in the North River for display. 
The line of ships which had seen 
active service extended for five 
miles, and was known as the "Vic- 
tory Fleet/'' 

During the winter we were sta- 
tioned in (Juantanamo Bay, the 
southern drill ground, as it is called. 
In the spring we returned to the 
States, and a few months later I 
received my honorable discharge. 

Sometimes a sailor or soldier is 
asked what is the hardest exper- 
ience he has ever had. When John 
Hay was an old man, he said the 
hardest hour of his life was at the 
time of the Civil War. He, being 
Lincoln's secretary, was required to 
write an order for the execution of 
an American soldier. Farly in the 
World War I was on signal duty 
on the Oklahoma when a message 
came to me from a transport loaded 
with marines saying "Permission re- 
quested to proceed as ordered." I 
replied in the affirmative, thus send- 
ing our brave American men across, 
many of them never to return. My 
years are not many, and serious 
hours may be ahead of me, but none 
that will' exceed in solemnity the 
one when I stood on the bridge at 
midnight, and watched that ship 
steam slowly down the bay, and out 
of sight. 



THE SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY 
OF PENACOOK ENCAMPMENT 



By Frank J. Pillsbury, P. C. P. 



Odd Fellows Hall in Concord was 
the scene of the celebration on Tues- 
day evening. November 25, of the 
seventy-fifth anniversary of Pena- 
cook Encampment. 

Albert N. Thompson, C. P., in a 
few well chosen words welcomed the 
audience and introduced as the 
chairman of the evening Capt. J. E. 
Morrison, P. C. P. and Scribe. In 
this position he proved a success as 
he does in many other places. 

The program follows : 
Prayer, Bro. Rev. Geo. F. Patterson 
Entertainer, Herbert A. Clark 

Historical Address, 

Frank J. Pillsbury, P. C. P. 
Duet, 

Mrs. Fred E. Browne. Organist 
Miss Florence P. Newell, Piano 
Piano Solo, Miss Florence Clough 
Entertainer, Herbert A. Clark 

Remarks by Grand Encampment 

Officers 
"America" by the audience standing 

Officers, November 26, 1844 
C. P., Nathaniel B. Baker 
H. P., Lewis Downing 
S. W., Stephen Brown 
Scribe, Jonathan Sargent 
Treasurer, William Walker, Jr. 
J. W. Thomas White 

Present Officers 
C. P., Albert W. Thompson 
H. P., Henry W. Hillson 
S. W r ., Walter H, Beane 
Scribe, J. Edward Morrison 
Treasurer, Edward C. Dutton 
J. W., Harry L. Peacock 

Committee of Arrangements 
Albert W. Thompson, C. P. 
Walter H. Beane, S. W. 
Arthur F. Oyston, P, C. P. 



Encampment Members in the 
World War 

Leon D. Cilley. Enlisted August 
15, 1918; Dartmouth College 
Training Detachment ;. discharg- 
ed, Dec. 14, 1918. 

Chester W. Clark. Enlisted Sept. 
22, 1917; Chemical Warfare 
Service; discharged, Jan. 30, 
1919. 

Ernest C. Dudley. Enlisted May 1, 
1918; Ordnance Dept.; dis- 
charged, Jan. 1, 1919. 

Forrest L. Kibbee. Enlisted May 1, 
1918; Ordnance Dept.; dis- 
charged, May 2, 1919. 

Walter E. Mavnard. Enlisted May 
27, 1918; U. S. Naval Reserve 
Force ; discharged, Jan. 29, 1919. 

Charles F. Strainge. Enlisted April 
26, 1918; 309th Infantry; dis- 
charged, June 9, 1919. 

Carl V. Whidden. Enlisted April 
18, 1917; -Battery C, 146 Field 
Artillery; wounded, Oct.. 27, 
1918; died, Oct. 28, 1918. 

Dion C. Wingate. Enlisted-May 25, 
1917; Field Artillery; discharg- 
ed, Jan. 30, 1919. 

AW the exercises were interest- 
ing. The musical part was much 
enjoyed. The address was well re- 
ceived and the entertainer— well, he 
certainly did entertain and please. 

The following Grand officers made 
remarks: Albert C. Wyatt, G. H. 
P., Laconia; H. A. Sanderson, G. J. 
W., Franklin; James G. Shaw, G. 
Rep. Franklin; Myron P. Crowell, 
G. Rep., Manchester; Charles E. 
Hardy, D. D. G. P., Concord ; Ernest 
C. Dudley, Deputy G. M. of Con- 
cord, and Frank D. Holmes, Com- 



ANNIVERSARY PENACOOK ENCAMPM ENT 



63 






mander of Patriarchs Militant, Con- 
cord, and Edward C. button, P. G. 

Rep., Concord, who were all listened 
to with attention. 



X 



% 



Ernest C. Dudley, P. C. P. 
D. G. M. Grand Lodge, I. O. 0. F. 

At the close of the exercises all 
repaired to the banquet hall where 
ice cream and cake were served and 
a social hour enjoyed. It was mid- 
night before the company separated. 

The historical address of the occa- 
sion was as follows : 

Mr. Chairman, Grand Officers, 
Ladies, Patriarchs and Brothers: 
Without any opening remarks we 
will at once proceed to speak of 
some of the events of the past seven- 
ty-five years. 

The persons who became connect- 
ed with the order of Odd Fellows 
when it was introduced into Concord 
became so interested in its workings 
and impressed with the worth of its 
principles that they soon felt a de- 
sire to know what the higher branch 
had for them ; so that steps were 
very soon taken to have an Encamp- 
ment instituted here. Accordingly 
seven of the brothers went to 
Nashua on Sept. 8, 1844, and re- 



ceived the degrees in Nash anon 
Encampment. The names of those 
parties were Nathaniel P.. Baker, 
Louis Downing. Jr., Thos. White, 
Stephen Brown. Jonathan Sargent,. 
William Walker, jr., and Charles A. 
Tufts. 

On November 25, 1844. but a lit- 
tle more than nine months after the 
institution of White Mountain 
Lodge, Most Worthy District Grand 
Patriarch Albert Guild of Boston, 
instituted the Encampment whose 
seventy-fifth anniversary we are now 
celebrating. If brevity is wit those 
men were certainly witty for the 
entire account of the exercises is 
contained in less than thirty lines 
in the record book. At this meet- 
ing seven brothers were instructed 
in the work, one among them being 
our respected brother Past Chief 
Patriarch George Main, whose one 
hundredth birthday was observed 
November 23, and of whom we may 
well feel proud as being the oldest 
Odd Fellow in the world. 

It is a very, very rare opportunity 
to have the pleasure of having a 
member who has lived a century, 
and is so well preserved as is our 
brother. So, I trust you will bear 
with me if some account of Brother 
Main's life as published in the Pat- 
riot of November 24, is given as 
follows : 

Mr. Main was born in Rochester, 
this State, in the part of the town 
known as Rochester hill, where the 
first church in that town was built, 
the first pastor of which, Parson 
Amos Main, being his great grand- 
father. 

Mr. Main's parents died when he 
was but 12 years old, leaving four 
children in all, two boys and two 
girls. His two sisters died when 
they were about 25 years old, but 
his brother lived to 89 years of age. 
For a long time he had charge of the 
business of the Abbott- Downing 
company in California. 

At the age of 23 years George 



64 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Main married Ellen M. Preston of 
Concord, the ceremony being per- 
formed by Rev. Moses G. Thomas, 
the first pastor of the Unitarian 
church. To them were born 10 chil- 
dren, four of whom are still living", 
Mrs. Holt, who tenderly cares for 
her father, and who^e son was 
wounded in France ; Frank A., 
George M., and Edward P. There 
are ten grandchildren and seven 
great-grandchildren now living. 



that he makes no complaints about 
not being able to see and it is a 
mystery to his friends how he man- 
ages to get around the house unaid- 
ed. 

On coming to Concord, Mr. Main 
entered the employ of the Abbott- 
Downing company, having charge of 
the paint shop and doing most of 
the ornamental painting on their 
famous carriages and coaches. In 
1854 he was asked by the Man- 




George Main, P. C. P. 
Oldest Odd Fellow in the World 



While returning from the wedding 
of Governor Rollins, Mr. Main was 
struck by a piece of wood from a 
burning building, causing him to 
lose the sight of one eye. In 1898, 
a bon-fire caused the sight of the 
other to. become weakened. For the 
past six years he has been totally 
blind. Otherwise Ids faculties are 
but little impaired, and his general 
health is good. His daughter states 



Chester Locomotive Works to or- 
nament their locomotives, as was 
then the custom, and he has the 
honor of having done the painting 
on the first machine sent out by that 
celebrated corporation. 

About 1846 he opened a paint, oil 
and artists supply store in Union 
block, so-called, his store being on 
the corner now occupied by Fitch's 



drui 



tore. 



He continued in that 



ANNIVERSARY FENACOOK ENCAMPMENT 



65 












business for nearly 20 years, closing 
it out in 1865, v.- hen he opened the 
green house on Merrimack street, 
the first in ■ Concord, and probably 
the first in the State. 

At the time President Pierce vis- 
ited Concord, Mr. Main made the 
largest United Slates flaig- ever made. 
up to that time, and it is doubtful 
it one has been made since then 
that is any larger. The dimensions 
were 150 feet long- and 90 feet wide 
and it took 2200 yards of bunting 
to make it. Unfortunately it be- 
came torn and 800 yards of bunting 
were used in repairing it. It is not 
known what became of the, flag. 
Some years before this he painted 
a beautiful banner for White 'Moun- 
tain Lodge of Odd Fellows, No: 5, 
which is among their most valued 
treasures, hanging in a glass case 
in their banquet hall. 

Mr. Main became a member of 
White Mountain Lodge March 22, 
1S44, six weeks after its institution, 
so that the claim that he is the old- 
est Odd Fellow in the world is well 
founded. Oldest not only hi years, 
but in length of membership. He 
is a past officer in this society, but 
ins life -has been such a busy one 
that he did not have time to pass 
through the chairs of the lodge. 

His many friends, both in and out 
of the Odd Fellows, rejoice in the 
length of days that has been given 
him, and trust that in the months or 
years that are to come he will be 
spared from pain and suffering. 

When he first came to Concord, 
Mr. Main lived for a time on War- 
ren street in a part of the building 
known as Gales Tavern, standing 
not far from where the present po- 
lice station is located. 

It may not be out of place to state 
that on his birthday Brother Main 
received one hundred one dollar 
pieces, two bouquets of one hundred 
pinks each, one of them from Pena- 
cook Encampment, two bouquets 
of chrysanthemums of one hundred 



each, one hundred pansies, one hun- 
dred dimes, one hundred stamps, 
a bouquet of one hundred, roses, a 
basket of fruit from White Mountain 
Lodge, nearly two hundred post- 
cards and a large number of letters 
from friends and Odd Fellows all 
over the country. There were num- 
erous other 'gifts, among them a 
handsome birthday cake with col- 
ored frosting bearing the dates Nov. 
23, 1819 and Nov. 23. 1919. He re- 
ceived one hundred or more callers. 
but stood it well, enjoyed the day 
much and suffered no bad effects 
from it. 

At this first meeting Nathaniel B. 



Baker was elected Chief Patriarch. 
He was a lawyer living on South 
street in one of the houses nearly- 
opposite the Chandler school. He 
was also one of the firm of Carroll 
& Baker, publishers of the New 
Hampshire Patriot and State 
Gazette At that time there were 
two Patriots, the one just mentioned 
and Hill's New Hampshire Patriot, 
published by Isaac Hill and Sons, 
William P. and John M., the latter 
"being the father of our respected fel- 
low citizen Rev. Dr. Howard F. 
Hill. Mr. Baker was born in Hen- 
niker Sept. 29, 1818, a graduate of 
Harvard College, came to Concord 
as a young man, read law in the of- 
fice of Franklin Pierce, and was 
one of Concord's foremost citizens 
having been called to occupy many 
positions of trust and honor. Was 
appointed chief engineer of the fire 
department in 1852, having pre- 
viously served several years as one 
of the fire wards. In 1850 his name 
appears in the directory as clerk of • 
the courts. Fie served as moderator 
at the town meeting in 1846, also 
1849-1853, being the last person to 
act in that capacity. 

The meetings of 1851 and 1852 
each occupied six days. Mr. Baker 
was a vigorous supporter and advo- 
cate for a. city charter, while his 
father, Abel Baker, was as strongly 



66 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



opposed to it. After three trials 
had previously been made on March 
10, 1853, the third day of the town 
meeting-, the friends of a city form 
of government were successful by 
a majority of 269 out of 1387 votes 
cast. At the first city election on 
March 26, Mr. Baker was elected 
moderator of Ward six. 

At the March election in 1850 he 
was chosen as one of the represen- 
tatives to the General Court and re- 
elected the following year. Each 
of these years he filled the position 
of speaker of the house and he is 
spoken of by his colleagues as being 
one of the most genial, 'popular and 
efficient persons who ever occupied 
the speaker's chair. 

He was the second citizen of Con- 
cord that had, to that time, served 
as speaker, the other one being Hon. 
Thomas W. Thompson, thirty-seven 
years before. 

He was the first clerk of the Con- 
cord Gas Light Company, was also 
one of the incorporators and orig- 
inal trustees of St. Paul's School and 
it was he who first offered the silver 
medal given for distinguished ex- 
cellence in the performance of school 
duties, and which has since been 
given each year on the last night 
of the school's session. 

In 1852 he was one of the presi- 
dential electors and had the pleasure 
of voting for his former preceptor, 
General Franklin Pierce. I-n March, 
1854, he w r as elected governor of the 
state, serving one term with credit 
to himself, but the change in politi- 
cal sentiments prevented his re-elec- 
tion. He was one of the five char- 
ter members of White Mountain 
Lodge, No. 5, I. O. O. F., was its 
second Noble Grand and the third 
Grand Master of the State. As has 
been already stated he was one of 
the charter members of Periacook 
Encampment, No. 5, was its first 
Chief Patriarch and the first Grand 
Patriarch of the jurisdiction. Was 



also a member of Blazing Star 
Lodge F. & A. M. 
^ in 1856 he followed Horace 
Greeley's advice and went west, lo- 
cating in Clinton, Iowa. The regard 
in which he was held, in the Hawk- 
eye State is shown in an extract 
from Green's history of Iowa sent 
from the office of the Adjutant Gen- 
eral of that state. 

"In 1859 he was elected to the 
Iowa Legislature and when the War 
of the Rebellion began he led the 
war wing of his party to give cordial 
support to Governor Kirkwood's ad- 
ministration. The Governor ap- 
pointed him Adjutant General of the 
State and all through the Rebellion 
his superb executive ability was 
given to the work of organizing the 
fifty-seven regiments of volunteers 
which Iowa furnished to the Pres- 
ident. He organized a system that 
has .preserved a permanent record 
of the service of every Iowa soldier 
who entered the army. As the war 
progressed the duties of Inspector- 
General, Quartermaster, Paymaster 
and Commissary-General were im- 
posed upon him, and the duties dis- 
charged with promptness unsur- 
passed. He was untiring in caring 
for the comfort of Iowa soldiers, 
and as the regiments were dis- 
charged, he gathered at the State 
Arsenal all of the battle flags which 
were brought home for careful pres- 
ervation. He planned and superin- 
tended the great re-union of Iowa 
soldiers in 1870, where, every one of 
the 20,000 veterans was eager to take 
him by the hand. He held the office 
of Adjutant General to the day of 
his death, which occurred on the 
13th of September, 1876. Governor 
Kirkwood issued a proclamation an- 
nouncing his death and enumerating 
his great services to the State. The 
national flag was displayed from the 
public buildings at half-mast and 
minute guns were fired the day of 
his funeral, which was one of the 



ANNIVERSARY PEXACOOK ENCAMPMENT 



67 



most imposing ever seen in the 
State. A monument was erected to 
his memory over his grave in Wood- 
j:,nd Cemetery, Des Moines, by vol- 
untary contributions of Iowa sol- 
diers/' 

We have given so much space to 
Governor Baker's life because we. 
feel that one who was so prominent 
in our order before it had became 
a popular institution is worthy of 
being thus remembered. 

Lewis Downing, Jr., was chosen 
High Priest. He will be remem- 
bered as one of the men who made 
Concord famous for its coaches. 
His residence is given in the direc- 
tory of that year as 19 Main street. 
The Senior Warden was Stephen 
Brown, who lived on School street 
nearly opposite the present High 
School building. His place of busi- 
ness as a tailor was 129 Main street. 
His advertisement in the directory 
alluded to says "He has constantly 
for sale every article in the line of 
his business." He became the third 
Grand Patriarch serving in 184/' -8, 
and in 1852-3 he was Grand Master 
of the state being the ninth person 
to occupy that exalted position. He 
was Grand Representative in 1847. 

The Scribe was Jonathan Sargent, 
a carpenter at Depot House, 84 Main 
street. Treas., Wm. Walker, Jr. of 
the firm of Walker & Co., Concord 
and Boston express, a former well 
known stage driver and later still 
better known as captain of the Lady 
of the Lake on Lake Winnipisaukee, 
living then at 64 Main street, but 
afterwards, for many years, living 
in a house which stood on the corner 
of Park and State streets, now oc- 
cupied by the State Library build- 
ing. Thos. White was elected Jun- 
ior Warden, a watchman at the de- 
pot and boarding with Amos W r ood, 
who conducted a bakery on West 
street and lived at 92 Main Street. 

Chas A. Tufts was appointed In- 
ner Guard. He gave his occupation 



as clerk and boarded with II. M. 
Rolfe, of the firm of Porter & Rolfe, 
who established the hrst store for 
selling hardware in the city and it 
is quite likely 'he was in their em- 
ploy. 

Brother Tufts went to Dover and 
became Grand Master in 1853-4, was 
also Grand Patriarch in 1851-2, the 
seventh to occupy that position. 
It is something we have reason to 
feel proud of that three of the seven 
charter members of our encampment 
served in the highest offices in both 
the Grand Loelge and Grand En- 
campment. 

It appears the first meeting was 
held in the afternoon as the record 
says took a recess till six o'clock in 
the evening. Not very late hours. 

Pour of the parties mentioned as 
receiving the work were elected at 
this afternoon session. Their names 
are Rev. J. F. Witherell, a Univer- 
salist clergyman, publishing a paper 
called the "Balm of Gilead" ; W. B. 
Safford, wholesale and retail dealer 
in ''West India Goods and Flour," 
opposite the State House, as his 
advertisement reads; Amos B. Cur- 
rier, who signed his occupation as 
"Tinker Merchant." Some of us re- 
member he dealt in stoves, tin and 
wooden ware about where the Hig-- 
gins Market now is. These, with 
Brother Main, were elected before 
the recess. At the meeting in the 
evening three other applications, 
were received and the parties 
elected. William Carr, a carpenter, 
whom some may remember as the 
drum major of the 1st N. H. Vol., 
when it went to the front in 1861. 
Cyrus Hill kept a hat and fur store 
at 178 Main street, living on Center 
street. Henry George, a stage 
driver, stopping at the Eagle Coffee 
House. The oldest of these parties 
were Brothers Brown and Carr, who 
gave their age as 45, the others 
ranged from 23 to 34 years. 

With the exception of Patriarch 



6S 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Downing and Hill, we think none 
of the fourteen have any relatives 
no \v 1 i v i n g a n 1 o n g u s . 

Quoting from the records: "Pro- 
ceeded to initiate through all the 
degrees of the encampment the fol- 
lowing brothers/' giving their 
names. "No ether business appear- 
ing before the encampment, pro- 
ceeded to close in ancient form to 
meet again Dec. 10. At this second 
meeting the Inner Guard having 
left town, Patriarch Main was ap- 
pointed to that position. The other 
officers and the committees were ap- 
pointed at this meeting, among them 
being two called "Sons of Nimrod." 
As nothing further is said of such 
officers we have no knowledge of 
what their duties or privileges were. 
At first the meetings' were held every 
week and at the one on Dec. 17, 
Robert N. Corning, father of our 
esteemed fellow citizen Judge Chas. 
R. Corning, was elected and received 
the degrees. There were four de- 
grees at this time. The wording 
was somewhat different from what 
we are used to as they say "closed 
in ancient form. Proceeded to con- 
fer the honors of the encampment." 
In the first constitution , the amount 
charged for dues was twelve and one 
half cents per month; sick benefits 
two dollars per week; death, benefit 
$10. If any officer was not present 
at a meeting he was fined ten cents, 



unless e 



xcused 



This caused some, difficulty and 
this provision seemed to become 
nonoperative by general consent. 
Article 8 reads: "Each patriarch 
shall, within three months after be- 
coming a member of this encamp- 
ment, furnish himself with suitable 
regalia as indicated by the charges 
or directed by the Grand Lodge of 
the United States." 

On March 1, 1852, the rent to be 
paid for the hall was fixed at ten 
dollars per year, and on Aug. 2 of 
that year it was voted "that the 
steward be directed to get our 



lamps changed so as to burn fluid." 
In January, 1853, a committee was 
appointed to consider introducing 
gas into the hall, but gas was not 
introduced till more than three years 
after, as at the meeting Aug. 12, 
1856, it was recorded that gas had 
been put in. This of course refers 
to gas for illuminating purposes, not 
any other kind of gas. 

September 10, 1859, the building 
in which was our hall was burned, 
but the charter, books and a large 
part of the other property was saved. 
For some time the meetings were 
held in a room in Exchange block. 
Nov. 22, 1859, the record says "have 
arranged with White Mountain 
Lodge for rent at $10 per year." 

February 12, 1861, a vote was 
passed that "members have their 
photographs taken with their rega- 
lias," The result of this vote is 
shown in the frames in the banquet 
room. Dec. 10, 1861, is the first 
record we find of any celebration, 
but from that time on they have been 
quite numerous and frequent. 

For' one held on Nov. 26, 1862. 
the committee at a subsequent meet- 
ing reported, "we had an oyster sup- 
per and other refreshments and that 
we had a social and good time gen- 
erally." 

January 3, 1863, a public instal- 
lation was held to which all Odd 
Fellows were invited. 
' On. Nov. 24, 1863, we had the 
pleasure of a visit from some thirty 
patriarchs members of Nashanoon, 
Wonolansett, Strawberry Bank and 
Norway Plains Encampments. 

May 9, 1865, voted to appear in 
regalia on the occasion of ceremonies 
in memory of President Lincoln, 
that we hire a band and that our 
committee confer with White Moun- 
tain Lodge regarding it. That year 
it was voted to have an anniversary 
oyster supper and that it be exclu- 
sively for Patriarchs, their wives and 
sweethearts. These anniversary af- 
fairs have been held quite regularly 



ANNIVERSARY PENAGOOK ENCAMPMENT 



69 



fur very many years. On one occa- 
sion the record says: "Voted to in- 
vite White Mountain Lodge and 
their ladies, to meet with us, and 
that the members of this encamp- 
ment have the privilege of bringing 
to the levee their families and such 
other lady friends as they please." 
Another occasion the vote was "each 
married member be allowed to bring 
his own wife and each single mem- 
ber one lady." 

July 23, 1867, record says "There 
being an alarm of fire the members 
left without closing in form." 

Sept. 13 of the same year the en- 
campment entertained the encamp- 
ment from Portland, Me. It was 
voted to hire a hall, give them a sub- 
stantial dinner, appear in a parade 
in full regalia accompanied by a 
band. In the evening to hold a 
levee and to invite the members of 
White Mountain Lodge and their 
ladies, and that our members have 
the privilege of. bringing to the levee 
their families and such other lady 
friends as they please. The record 
does not mention, but we feel safe 
in saving they had a big crowd and 
a fine time, 

Jul\- 22, 1S68, a return visit was 
made to the Patriarchs in Portland, 
being entertained in Boston by two 
encampments while on the way. 
The camp later voted thanks to the 
two encampments in. Boston and two 
in Portland for courtesies received. 

Annual supper Dec. 22, 1869, pro- 
vided the encampment be at no ex- 
pense therefor. One of those good 
old fashioned affairs when every one 
brought in substantials and dainties. 
A real social supper. 

Tahanto Encampment was insti- 
tuted March 9, 1871, by Charles P. 
Blanchard, G. P., with sixteen mem- 
bers who withdrew from us for that 
purpose. 

Qur relations have been cordial 
and friendly such as should exist 
between mother and daughter, be- 
tween those bound together by the 



same fraternal bonds, working for 
the same object. 

Many times we have been their 
guests and many times we have been 
pleased to welcome them to our so- 
cial gatherings. Joint installations 
have been very common, in later 
years and since the organization of 
Winnepoket Encampment triple in- 
stallations have been often held. 
May this kindly spirit never cease, 
may those links of friendship bind 
us together more closely, more firm- 
ly. 

Interest was revived in the musi- 
cal part of the work, Pch. John D. 
Teel being chosen as chorister. 
Record says "The singing of the 
closing ode was engaged in with 
vigor for the first time in years." 

Dec. 23, 1884, voted to donate 
$100 for the Odd Fellows Home. 
Several years before it was voted to 
forward $15 to the Wildey Monu- 
ment Fund in Baltimore, Md. 

First mention we find of degree 
staff is on the meeting July 28, 1885. 
On March 27, 1888, it was voted to 
purchase 5 shares at $100 per share 
in the I. O. O. F. Hall building. 

At the meeting held the night be- 
fore Christmas in 1889, Past Grand 
Master Smart stated that he had 
been a member of the encampment 
and had met in this hall for 41 years, 
and it made him feel homesick and 
sad to think this was. the last time 
we would meet here. 

On February 27, 1891, in conjunc- 
tion with Tahanto Encampment a 
visit was paid to Kearsarge Encamp- 
ment in Lawrence, Mass., and on 
April 25 of the next year they re- 
turned the visit. 

Each of these visits afforded much 
pleasure and satisfaction to all who 
took part in them. 

The 83rd anniversary of the order 
was observed in a fitting manner by 
the two lodges and two encamp- 
ments. 

June 13, 1911, a memorial service 
in memorv of those who had died 



70 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



during- 1910 was held. Two of the 
members had reached the great age 
of 91 years, P. II. P. Daniel PL Wil- 
liams, who had been a member for 
51 years, and P. C. P., Curtis White, 
whose membership covered 45 years. 
A fitting tribute was paid to P. G. 
John W. Bourlet. who died during 
the year and whose memory we ail 
so fondly cherish. Grand Pch. 
Charles S. Emerson delivered an 
address; there were readings, vocal 
and instrumental music, scribe says 
"Repaired to the banquet hall where 



r 

I 



<■• :r ; rs '^j 



Frank J. Pillsbury, P. C. P. 



refreshments were served and a so- 
cial hour enjoyed, which brought to 
a close a very pleasant evening's 
entertainment." 

May 28 , 1912, was observed as 
Family Night. An entertainment 
and music; 150 present. A credit 
to the encampment and to the very 
efficient committee who arranged it. 

June 28, 1912, voted to pay $50 
to become part owners of the Ster- 
iopticon Lantern, something which 
adds very much to the work. 

The July 1912 installation was a 



triple one, being held in the hall of 
Winneperket Encampment. Pena- 
£Ook. A pleasant, brotherlv affair 

Nov. 25, 1912. the School of In- 
struction was held. Some 250 pres- 
ent, nearly every encampment in the 
state being represented and one from 
Vermont. A fine meeting. Excel- 
lent work was done. 

The organizing session of the 
Grand Encampment was held in our 
hall Oct. 28, 1845, and the next 
twelve sessions were held with us 
also. We have had the privilege of 
having them with us more times 
than any other camp in the state. 
At this first session, Hon. N. B. 
Ba'er, our first C. P., was elected 
G. P. We also have to our credit 
more grand officers than any other 
encampment, having furnished eight 
G. P.'s the last one being our es- 
teemed brother Edward C. Dutton, 
all of these having also served as 
Grand Rep., with the exception of 
G. P. Baker, but Amos B. Currier 
served as such in 1849-50, making 
eight G. Rep. Four of our members 
have .served as Grand Scribes, viz. 
Gov. PL H. Silsby, John C. Wilson, 
Joseph B. Smart, and our lamented 
brother, John W. Bourlet. The 
Grand Treasurer's office has been 
filled by five members of our en- 
campment, Amos B. Currier 1850-56, 
John D. Teel 1859, William Hart, 
1860-61, Loring K. Peacock 1862-91, 
twenty-nine years, the longest term 
any one has served as such, Geo. A. 
Cummings 1891-93. Seven of our 
members have filled the office of 
Grand Master, two of them Pch. 
Baker and Stephen Brown having 
been Grand Patriarchs as well ; two, 
Pch. Smart and Bourlet having been 
Grand Scribes. The first three 
grand secretaries were members of 
our encampment occupying that sta- 
tion from 1844-63, viz. Geo. H. H. 
Silsby and Joseph B. Smart, who 
were" also Grand Scribes as already 
noted, Pch. Mitchell Gilmore served 
as Grand Secy. 1851-63, and was 



ANNIVERSARY PENACOOK ENCAMPMENT 



71 



Grand Treas. 1854-57, succeeding 
jonthaii E. Long from 1848-53. 

A number of brothers in other 
rrfaces who received their degrees 
without alluding to one wno so re- 
the positions of Grand Masters and 
Grand Patriarchs. 

"We feel a just pride in having 
among our membership the Deputy 
Grand Master Ernest C. Dudley 
who will, no doubt, be elevated to 
the honorable position of Grand 
Master, whom we feel sure will 
bring honor to Penacook Encamp- 
ment 3nd prove to be a most ef- 
ficient officer. In the Sovereign 
Grand Lodge, Pch. John W. Bourlet 
served as Official Reporter in 1890- 
97, 1901 and as Grand Guardian in 
JS99-1900. Eight of number enlist- 
ed in the war for God and humanity. 
We can not close these remarks 
without alluring to one who so re- 
cently "vanished into the unknown 
Kind" Pch. Fred L. Johnson, a true 



Odd Fellow, devoted to its princi- 
ples both in the encampment and 
the lodge and ever ready to do "his 
bit" for their advancement. His 
name will long be held in grateful 
remembrances. 

Statistics are dry, reading figures 
uninteresting to both hearers and 
readers, so we have refrained from 
giving any, but if it is the desire of 
the Patriarchs we will at no distant 
date prepare tables giving full ac- 
count of our work during the three 
quarters of a century just closed. 

Thanking you for your patience 
and with the hope and expectation 
that when those who come after us, 
gather to observe the centenniel an- 
niversary, the record of the next 
twenty-five years may be still more 
glorious than has been that of these, 
now gone into the past, become 
memories. I will say good night. 
God bless our order, bless every one 
of us. 



COMPENSATION 

By Martha S. Baker 

The woods and fields alike are stripped, 
Winds tossed their glories, brown and sere 
Yet sunset skies with glory tipped, 
Make heavenly battlements seem near. 
Bereft of splendor, yet the trees. 
Show grace in every swaying limb, 
Their bare arms stretching o'er the leas, 
Seem clad in dainty, lace-like film. 



Though silent are the song-bird's notes, 
The ear may learn to cherish more 
The cheery calls the still air floats, 
pjird neighbors still are near our door. 

Departed joys the heart make sad — 
Hope springs within the spirit new; 
Some compensation makes one glad, 
Yet other blessings sure are due. 



Why grieve for transitory joys, 
While others rise to take their place ; 
Some day will change these earthly toys, 
To lasting bliss through God's good grace. 

Concord, N. H. 



BERTRAM ELLIS 



By H. C. Pearson 



In the death, at Keene, on Jan. 4. 
of Bertram Ellis, the state of New 
Hampshire lost one of its best citi- 
zens, a man of distinguished and 
valuable service as journalist and 
public official; a courteous and cul- 
tured gent' eman, whose passing is 
mourned by many as the loss of a 
tried and true friend. 

Born in Boston, November 26, 
1860, the son of Moses and Emily 
(Ferrin) Ellis, he came to Keene 
with his parents when three years of 
age and there spent his boyhood, at- 
tending the public schools. At the 
high school, of which Professor 
Franklin W. Hooper, afterwards for 
many years the head of the Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., Institute, then was princi- 
pal, he fitted for Harvard College. 

Graduating at Cambridge in the 
class of 1884, with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts, he continued there 
as a student in the Harvard Law 
School, where he became a Bachelor 
of Laws in 1837, receiving in the 
same year the degree of Master of 
Arts. His loyal interest in the uni- 
versity was 'unabated throughout 
life, he being secretary for New 
Hampshire of the Harvard Law 
School Association and the first 
president of the Harvard Club of 
New Hampshire. While in the Law 
School he was one of the founders 
of the Harvard Law Review. 

For a year Mr. Ellis was in the 
New York law office of Evarts, 
Choate & Beaman and then for two 
years he practiced his profession at 
Denver, Colorado, whence he was 
called home to Keene by the illness 
and death of his father in 1890. 

Deciding to remain in Keene, Mr. 
Ellis joined the staff of the Sentinel 
newspaper and soon bought an in- 
terest in the property. In 1893 he 
became the editor of the Sentinel 
and so continued until ill health 



caused his retirement in 1918. Dur- 
ing the quarter century he had a 
large part in making "the Sentinel 
one of the best papers and most 
valuable pieces of journalistic prop- 
erty in the state. Calm, conserva- 
tive and judicious, readable, reliable 
and absolutely clean, the Sentinel 
was always a potent force for the 
right and its influence throughout 
its .section of the state was great. 
So well did it meet the needs of 
its constituency that competi- 
tion gradually faded away and for 
some years, now, it has had the rich 
field of Cheshire county practically 
to itself. 

As a writer and as a speaker Mr. 
Ellis was a master of good English, 
clear in exposition and convincing 
in argument. Sensationalism in 
matter or manner he abhorred and 
with some developments of modern 
journalism he was entirely out of 
sympathy. He believed in honor, 
honesty and helpfulness for his 
paper as sincerely as for himself. 
He was a member, and auditor, of 
the New Hampshire Press Associa- 
tion. 

Colonel Ellis first entered public 
life in New Hampshire, and at the 
same time gained his military title 
by service as aide-de-camp on the 
staff of Governor Charles A. Busiel 
in 1895-6. He was elected to the 
House of Representatives of 1897 
and was given the unusual honor for 
a new member of being appointed 
to the chairmanship of the impor- 
tant committee on appropriations. 
In 1899 he represented the 13th dis- 
trict in the state senate and in that 
body was at the head of the com- 
mittee on finance. Re-elected in 
1901, he was chosen president of the 
senate and made a splendid reputa- 
tion as a presiding officer. 

In 1904 he was a delegate to the 



BERTRAM ELLIS 



73 



Republican national convention and 
in November was elected for au- 
othei term in the Legislature, this 
time in the lower branch. At the 
session of 1905 he was again chair- 
man of the committee on appropria- . 
tions, but. when he came back in 
1907 for his fifth term under the 
dome, he was the choice of his party 
for speaker of the house and in that 
difficult position did himself great 
credit. 

In 1910 Colonel Ellis was a candi- 
date for the Republican nomination 
for governor, a position for which 
he was in line through the distin- 
guished excellence of his ten years' 
legislative service; but the time of 
one of our periodic political upheav- 
als was at hand and' he was defeated 
in the primary by Robert P. Bass of 
Peterborough. 

Mr. Ellis' public service was 
marked by the same qualities of 
careful thought, nonest, hard-work- 
ing endeavor and valuable accom- 
plishment which distinguished his 
private life and journalistic career. 
As a legislator he was always at his 
post, never derelict in duty, striving 
sincerely for the best interests of 
his constituents and the state. As a 



presiding officer he was the personi- 
fication of fairness;, of easy dignity: 
a master of parliamentary pro- 
cedure; quick and sure in his de- 
cisions. Main-, perhaps most, of the 
great men in New Hampshire's 
political history have held during 
their careers the position of Speaker 
of the House or President of the 
Senate. Colonel Ellis is one of the 
few to have held them both and to 
have filled each place with unsur- 
passed efficiency and credit. 

While his public service was thus 
state-wide in character, Mr. Ellis 
always felt the deepest interest in 
his home city of Keene and what- 
ever was for its benefit received his 
hearty co-operation and valuable aid. 
For 21 years, from March, 1893, 
he was a member of the city school 
board, serving, during most of that 
time, as its president. He had been 
a trustee of the Elliott City Hospital 
since its incorporation in 1896 and 
was a member of the Country Club, 
the Wentworth Club and the Mo- 
nadnock Club, all of Keene ; as well 
as of the Harvard Club of Boston. 

He leaves a widow, Mrs. Alice H. 
Ellis, to whom he was married 
October 9, 1909. 



VIGNETTE 

By Walter B. Wolfe 

You came — 

And hillside, meadow, all 
Was bursting with the joy 
Of pregnant spring. 
The sun sang — and I — 
When last you came 



And now you are no more — 
No longer the song of birds 
Or rustling of shimmering aspens 
Tell of thee : 

Only the dull wind 
Soughing in the pines, . 
A nest of other seasons, 
A sere leaf fluttering to earth 

Grieve for you 

Hanover, N. H. 



THRU THE YEAR IN NEW HAMPSHIRE 



No. 12 

By Rev. Roland D. Sawyer 



February — the Final Month 

"Winter bleak hath charms for me, 
When winds rave thru the naked 
tree." — Burns. 

The year is waxing old, but it does 
not grow feeble. Individuals grow 
feeble with the years, but Nature is 
always strong and robust. Nature 
gives us hints of her strength these 
days, shows us that her strength is 
not diminished by the stronger roar 
of the winter winds and the warmer 
fays of the February sun. 

Thk Febuary Wind 

Forerunner of the March winds 
are these February breezes. I love 
the music of the winter winds, and 
it never seems quite so good as in 
February. I like to sit nights, or 
lie awake in bed. and listen to it. 
The sound begins in the distance, 
coming louder and louder and it 
sweeps thru the near-by trees, then 
it becomes a roar as it stops at the 
house — the house creaks and groans, 
the windows rattle, then it passes off 
and I hear its dying moans in the 
trees of my neighbor. Splendid is 
the rattling wind of March, and 
splendid again the warm breezes of 
summer, and magnificent is the dry 
crackling wind of autumn, but none 
compare with the winter roar. 

We feel so secure and satisfied as 
we sit here and listen. Its the feel- 
ing that came into the hearts of the 
settlers when they heard the wolves 
howl, and the frost crack like the 
rifle of the dreaded Indian. Again 
its the feeling that is race-old — the 
feeling of the primitive man, as snug 
in his cave-home he chuckled at the 
animals prowling about. A seat by 
the fire and the sound of the wind 
always bring similar moods — moods 



of peace and satisfaction; it's a line 
mood for the closing month of Na- 
ture's year. 

The February Sun 

Linked with the February wind 
as a twin-charm of the month comes 
the February sun. The big, warm- 
ing sun which tells us spring is 
coming. We arise in the morning 
and find the glass away below zero 
but we feel complacent for we know 
the February sun will run that ther- 
mometer up in a little while. The 
world may be wrapped in white, but 
it soon disappears and the laden 
trees drop their mantles of snow, for 
the bright sun of these days is 
coming nearer and warmer. We all 
of us are about tired of winter and 
we hail the February sun as har- 
binger of spring. 

We often speak of the jovs of sun- 
set, and we most often think of a 
summer sun-set when we thus talk ; 
but is there any sun-set which feels 
any better than the February sun 
as.it slants down behind the snow- 
crested hill. The short winter day 
draws to its close — we go to the 
barn to do the chores — we fill our 
nostrils with the wholesome smell 
of the cattle, of hay and horses. Let 
the sun go down outside, here in 
the barn is warmth and life ; har- 
mony, fellowship, peace is here; Ave 
stroke the sleek sides of cow and 
horse, we look into their eyes — they, 
like us, know that the days are get- 
ting longer and warmer and the 
nights shorter. In only a month 
the sap will run, we will tap the 
trees, get ready for another series 
of open months — verily the setting 
of the February sun rills us with 
the spirit of confidence and hope. 
And after all, is not the spirit of 



EDITORIAL 



/b 



confidence and hope which comes to 
us in the dosing of Nature's year, 
the best gift she could give, us ? The 
setting of the last sun in the short 
month of February goes down in 
benediction ; the feeling of assurance 
\> ours as it disappears beyond the 



hills; we know that the March sun 
of the morrow will rise, stronger, 
warmer, melting, the snows in hill 
and valley, and giving evidence that 
the old-time promise is ever good, 
and ''seed-time and harvest shall 
never fail in the earth." 



EDITORIAL 



in the leading article of this issue 
Chairman James O. Lyford of the 
state bank commission gives some 
impressive facts and figures as to 
the importance of our savings banks 
in the. industrial life of our State. 

Why this is so is because one of 
the cardinal virtues of the people of 
New Hampshire from the day the 
first white man appeared in this cor- 
ner of the continent has been thrift. 
Patience and perseverance, brains 
and bravery were needed in great 
quantities for the conquest of the 
stubborn soil, the revealing of the 
hidden resources of New' England. 
But for the perfecting of their work, 
for the conservation of what they 
achieved, the one prime requisite 
was thrift ; and thrift was developed 
among our forefathers — and mothers 
■ — in a degree rarely equalled in the 
world's history. 

Economies that seem hard and 
bitter as we look back upon them 
now, were not the exception, but 
the rule ; and yet the lives of those 
among whom they were practiced 
were not stunted and impoverished 
thereby. On the contrary, when the 
time came for the peaceful conquest 
of the continent, for the building of 
that mighty empire which now 
stretches from seaboard to sea- 
board, New Hampshire and New 
England were ready, not only with 
the money they had saved, but also 
with the strong pien and women 



they had nurtured, to finance and to 
lead that wonderful, era of de\xlop- 
ment and of progress. 

To Yankee thrift, as well as to 
Yankee ability, initiative and exe- 
cutive, the nation owes a debt it 
never has refused to acknowledge 
and upon which it has paid interest 
by allowing this little corner of the 
country an influence in all great af- 
fairs, political, industrial, educa- 
tional, economic, out of proportion 
to our numerical ratio. 

The day of the pioneer has passed 
in this country. The day of the 
builder is now and ever will be. It 
began with civilization and when it 
ends' the world will end with it. 

The men who made New England 
built upon the cornerstones of relig- 
ion, education, industry and thrift. 
First they built their church;- next 
their schoolhouse ; next their 
saw and grist-mill. They labored 
a.s much of six days in the week 
as the Indians would let them, and 
from the beginning, even in the days 
of their direst poverty, they put 
something by, made some addition 
to their little store of savings. 

The New Hampshire of today is 
a much pleasanter place in which to 
live than was the New. Hampshire 
of even half a century ago. The in- 
ventive spirit of our people, added 
to their constant aspiration for pro- 
gress and development, has made the 
luxuries of the past the necessities 



76 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



of the present, and in their place has 
created new uses, as alluring" as di- 
verse, for surplus wealth. 

One need not be reactionary in 
thought or purpose in order to feel 
some fear lest, in our quickstep ad- 
vance along- the easiest ways of pro- 
gress, we have cast aside as cum- 
brous and needless equipment too 
many of the old virtues. 

It is not intended to ask here what 
is the real condition of religion in 
New Hampshire today; are we as 
well educated, essentially as were 
our fathers ; are we as industrious 



as we ought to be in order to make 
the most out oi life? 

Pessimistic ans we rs might b e 
given to some of these questions. 
But when we ask, "Is the good old 
habit of thrift gone from among us?" 
we are able to answer "No," and to 
prove it by Mr. Lyford's figures. 
And just one of many reasons why 
we rejoice thereat is this: The man 
with a savings bank account is apt 
to be a better citizen, a more useful, 
reliable and up-building member of 
the community, than the man with- 
out. 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



A Pilgrim In Palestine, By John 
Finlev. Illustrated. Pp., 251. 
Cloth, $2 net. New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

This "account of journeys on foot 
by the first American pilgrim after 
General Allenby's recovery of the 
Holy Land" is of interest to prac- 
tically every one because of the vivid 
picture it gives of present conditions 
in the most sacredly historic sec- 
tion of the world's surface. It is of 
especial interest to New Hampshire 
readers because the author is one 
of the Granite State's most loyal 
summer residents and because so 
many of his pedestrian trips, of 
which this tramp through Palestine 
is the climax, have been along our 
valleys and over our hills. One re- 
calls how this distinguished edu- 
cator, then president of the College 
of the City of New York, came on 
foot from his country place in Tarn- 
worth, "among the dearest of all our 
Mountains— the White Hills of New 
Hampshire" to the inauguration of 
a Dartmouth head at Hanover : and 
how not even the sharpest-eyed stu- 
dent saw through the dust disguise 
another "Pr.exy." It is impossible 
for a traveller by other means of 



locomotion to get so close to the 
people and places he visits as does 
the man on foot. And when the man 
on foot is at the same time a keen 
observer, a true philosopher, a grace- 
ful poet and a master of readable 
prose, the result is bound to be a 
book of travels not to be missed 
by the reader in search of something 
worth while. And to all of these 
qualifications may be added in Doc- 
tor Finlev's case that of a very skil- 
ful photographer as is shown by 
the more than a score of this vol- 
ume's • remarkable illustrations, due 
to his camera craft. Doctor Finlev 
went to Palestine as Red Cross com- 
missioner, a fact which, added to 
his close friendship with the British 
commander. General Allenby, gave 
him unusual opportunities for offi- 
cial observation ; but no official rec- 
ord, however complete, could make 
so real to us as does his dramatic 
narrative the events of December, 
1917, and thereafter in the land of 
Jordan. This is emphatically, a dif- 
ferent kind of war book. 

The Nemesis of Mediocrity. By 
Ralph Adams Cram. Pp., 52. 
Cloth, $1. Boston: Marshal! 
Jones & Company. 



books of new Hampshire interest 



// 



VVali,ed Towns. Bv Ralph Adams 
Cram, Pp.. 105. " Cloth, $1.25. 
Boston: Marshall Junes Com- 
pany. 

Few essays are written nowadays 
as thought provoking in content and 
as attention arresting in style as 
those of Dr. Ralph Adams Cram, 
distinguished architect, author and 
educator, and native of Hampton 
Falls, New Hampshire. Of his two 
i-olumes here listed, "The Nemesis 
of Mediocrity" is one of a trilogy, 
of which the other members are 
titled "The Great Thousand Years" 
and "The Sins of the Fathers," 
which savagely indict the society of 
today for its sins of "imperialism, 
materialism and the quantitative 
standard." In "The Nemesis of 
.Mediocrity" Dr. Cram complains 
that the world has been made flat; 
the mountain tops cut off to fill in 
the valleys. The day of great lead- 
ers has passed. "Of all the ruined 
sanctuaries, that of statesmanship is 
the most desolate." "Democracy, 
without the supreme leadership of 
men who by nature or divine direc- 



tion can. speak and act with and by 
authority, is a greater menace thai 
autocracy." 

But in "Walled Towns" the critic 
relents, some shade of hope pierces 
palely his pessimism, the destroyer 
becomes the builder, the genius that 
created the Cleveland Memorial 
Tower at Princeton applies itself to 
ordering the social confusion. We 
may yet be saved, he says, by dis- 
carding imperialism and adopting 
the unit of human scale; by sub- 
stituting for the quantitative stan- 
dard the passion for perfection ; by 
turning from materialism to the 
philosophy of sacramentalism. It is 
a splendid dream of a renovated 
civic life which Doctor Cram pre- 
sents to our twentieth century vis- 
ion, and while his philosophy is bold 
and startling, it is likewise clear 
and inspiring. The errors of mod- 
ernism he presents in all their gross- 
ness, but he also shows how we may- 
be saved from their consequences. 
As one of his admirers says of his 
books as a whole, "They rear the 
spire of a reasoned faith." 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



FRANK C. CLEMENT 

As the result of a fatal automobile 
and train accident on November 3, 1919, 
Frank C. Clement of Warren, was 
snatched out of active life. Mr. Clement 
was a native of Warren, where he was 
bom May 28, 1853, and where he had 
lived an honored and highly respected 
citizen until the time of his sudden 
death. For twenty-five years he had been 
a successful wholesale potato merchant, 
doing business in parts of Massachusetts 
and up and down the State of New Hamp- 
shire, always meriting the confidence and 
respect of the many with whom he had 
dealings. During many years, Mr. 



W 



The late Frank C. Clement 



Clement was a trustee of the Library 
for over thirty years, and was a charter 
member of the Grange. Not only was 
Frank Clement a successful business 
man, a politician of no mean reputation 
and a man active in all local organiza- 
tions, but a devoted husband and father, 
surrounding those whom he loved with 
all of the blessings and comforts of an 
ideal home, widely known for its perfect 
hospitality enjoyed by a large circle of 
loyal friends. He is deeply mourned 
and will be sadly missed by his wife, 
three sons, and two daughters, who sur- 
vive him, and by a host of friends in all 
parts of the country. 

JOSIAH G. DEARBORN 

Josiah G. Dearborn, born in Weare, 
March 20, 1829, the son of Josiah and 
Sarah (Green) Dearborn, died January 
9, 1920, at the home of his daughter, 
Mrs. Luther C. Baldwin, in Providence, 
R. I. He was a graduate of Frances- 
town Academy and Dartmouth College 
and took normal school training for the 
profession of teacher which he followed 
successfully for several years in Man- 
chester and Boston. A Democrat in 
politics he was a member of the New 
Hampshire Legisltaure in 1854-5; regis- 
ter of probate of Hillsborough county, 
1860-5; state treasurer, 1S74-5; postmas- 
ter of Manchester, 1889-93. He was also 
auditor of Hillsborough county for many 
years and was at one time a member of 
the Manchester school board. For 25 
years he was a trustee of the Merrimack 
River savings bank, of Manchester. He 
was a member of the New Hampshire 
bar and of the state bar association. Mr. 
Dearborn married, August 14, 1851, 
Sabrina L. Hayden, who died August 14, 
1880. Besides Mrs. Baldwin two other 
daughters survive, Mrs. Josephine G. 
Russell and Miss Cora M. Dearborn. 



Clement was a politic?! leader in his 
native town and was well known 
throughout the State for his active part 
in the Legislature, where he three times 
represented Warren, and in the Constitu- 
tional Conventions of which he was twice 
a member. He will be greatly missed in 
his home town, where he was connected 
with every movement for the betterment 
of the community. It was through his 
untiring efforts that the Public Library 
of the town was of such exceptional ser- 
vice to the people and that Warren 
Grange did so much for the town. Mr. 



DR. CHARLES A. FOLSOM 

Dr. Charles Albert Folsom, who died 
in Epping, December 12, was born there, 
February 21, 1874. He graduated from 
Dartmouth College in the class of 1S99 
and after studying medicine practiced 
that profession with great success in the 
city of Manchester for 14 years. At col- 
lege he was prominent in athletics, hold- 
ing the record of playing on the varsity 
baseball nine in every game of the four 
vears during which he was at Hanover. 
He is survived by his wife, his aged 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



79 



mother, two brothers,. George F. and Ed- 
win S. Folsam, and a sister, Mrs, Ed- 
nioncl G. Blair 



george i. McAllister 

George I. McAllister was born in Lon- 
donderry, Dec. 11, 1853, the son of 
Jonathan and Caroline (.Choate) McAl- 
lister, and died at Manchester, December 
31. He was educated at Pinkerton and 
Kimball Union academies and at Dart- 
mouth college, where he graduated with 



I 



Washington lodge. He was also a mem- 
ber of the I. O. 0. F. and 0. U. A. 
M., and of the state and county bar as- 
sociations, Manchester Historic associa- 
tion, Manchester Institute of Arts and 
Sciences, Thayer Society of Engineers, 
etc. He was at one time president of 
the Manchester association of Dartmouth 
alumni. December 22, 1886, Mr. McAl- 
lister married Mattie M. Hayes, by whom 
he is survived, with two children, Mrs. 
Harry F. Hawkins and Lieut. Harold C. 
McAllister, and seven grandchildren. 

WILLIAM H. CHILD 

William Henry Child, born in Cornish, 
December 22, 1S32, the son of Stephen 
and Eliza (Atwood) Child, died there 
January 22, 1920. Save for a few years 
spent in teaching in the middle West, 
he w r as a lifelong resident on the an- 
cestral acres which have been tilled by 
five generations of the family. He was 
a member of the class of 1856 at Kimball 
Union Academy and served for 10 years 
on the Cornish school board. He was a 
Republican in politics, a deacon in the 
Baptist church and for 20 years super- 
intendent of its Sunday school. He had 
been an interested worker in the Patrons 
of Husbandry since 1873; was a member 
of the Sons of Temperance for many 



m 



. 



. .. , I 



The late George I. McAllister 



the class of 1877. He studied law with 
the late Judge David Cross and the late 
Senator Henry E. Burnham and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1881, having prac- 
ticed his profession in Manchester con- 
tinuously from that time. By church 
affiliation he was a Baptist and in poli- 
tics a Republican. He was deputy in- 
ternal revenue collector, 1SS5-1SS9, and 
was a delegate to the constitutional con- 
ventions of 1902 and 1918. Mr. McAl- 
lister stood very high in Masonry, having 
received the 33rd degree, (honorary) 
Ancient Acepted Scottish Rite, in 1900. 
He had been grand master of the grand 
lodge of New Hampshire and grand com- 
mander of the Knights Templar of the 
state. He was a member of Bektash 
temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Concord, 
of the New Hampshire Consistory, 
Nashua, and of the various Masonic 
bodies in Manchester, where he had 
been recorder of Trinity cornmandery 
for 30 years and was a past master of 



r 



The late William H. Child 



years; and was a past master of 
his Masonic lodge and past district 
deputy grand master. He was often call- 
ed upon to address farmers' institutes, 



ifA-tfa. 



I 7*S -•*, 



The late Col. Daniel Hall 



&V-S'3. 



,,_ -„..-,. .. . _ . . 



The late Col. Daniel Hall 



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C GXCO&D, 3f, H« 



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*3, N II., as ;:. ■.. . . sail t . it 



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ANITE MONT 



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,Y 



LU 



MARCH, 1920 



No. 3 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



By H. C. 

When the voters of New Hamp- 
shire go to the polls on Tuesday, 
November S, 1920, each will be hand- 
ed two ballots. One of the strips 
of paper will bear the names of the 
various candidates to be voted for, 
from presidential elector^ to repre- 
sentatives in the legislature. On 
the other will be printed the follow- 
ing questions : 

1. Do you approve of empower- 
ing the legislature to impose and 
levy taxes on incomes, which taxes 
may be classified, graduated and pro- 
gressive, with reasonable exemp- 
tions; — a^ proposed in the amend- 
ment to the constitution? 

2. Do you approve of providing 
in terms that taxes on property when 
passing by will or inheritance ma}' 
be classified, graduated and progres- 
sive, and with reasonable, exemp- 
tions; — as proposed in the amend- 
ment to the constitution? 

3. Do you approve of giving the 
Governor authority to approve or 
disapprove any separate appropria- 
tion contained in any bill or resolu- 
tion ; — as proposed in the amend- 
ment to the constitution ? 

4. Do you approve of providing 
that the whole number of members 
in the House of Representatives 
shall not be less than 300 nor more 
than 32.5 ; that representation shall 
be in proportion to the average total 
number of ballots cast in presiden- 
tial elections; the legislature to make 
the apportionment of representatives 
at definite periods; and of providing 
that there shall be required for each 
representative additional to the first, 
three times the number of ballots 
required for one representative, with 



Pear soil. 

the proviso that a town, ward or 
place which has cast less than the 
number of ballots required to entitle 
it to a representative all of the time 
may send a representative a propor- 
tionate part of the time ; — as pro- 
posed in the amendment to the con- 
stitution ? 

5. Do you approve of amending 
the Bill of Rights by striking out 
the provision that no person who is 
conscientiously scrupulous about the 
lawfulness of bearing arms shall be 
compelled thereto, provided he will 
pay an equivalent ; — as proposed in 
the amendment to the constitution? 

6. Do you approve of amending 
the Bill of Rights by striking out 
the words "rightly grounded on 
evangelical principles" after the 
words "As morality and piety," and 
striking out the word "Protestant" 
before the words "teachers of piety, 
religion and morality ;" — as pro- 
posed in the amendment to the con- 
stitution? 

7. Do you approve of amending 
the Bill of Rights by striking out 
the provision that pensions shall not 
be granted for more than one year 
at a time ; — as proposed in the 
amendment to the constitution? 

Prior to election day the Secretary 
of State will have distributed to the 
voters through the town and city 
clerks 125,000 copies of these ques- 
tions, the amendments to the con- 
stitution and the parts of the con- 
stitution which it is proposed to 
amend. 

Every voter is expected to mark a 
cross in the square marked "yes" or 
the square marked "no" accompa- 
nying each of these questions. 



84 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Where the "yes" crosses are twice 
as 'numerous as the fi iio" crosses, the 
constitution will be amended as pro- 
posed under that number. Pro- 
posed amendments which fail to se- 
cure a two-thirds vote in their favor 
will be defeated. 



was a joint resolution providing for 
taking the sense of the qualified vot- 
ers of the Stale on the subject of a 
revision of the constitution during 
the year 1918. The vote was taken 
November 7, 1916, and resulted in 
favor of such revision, 21,589 to 



\r 






Hon. Albert O. Brown of Manchester 

President of the Convention. . 



Thus the verdict will be passed 
upon the work of the' constitutional 
convention of 1918-1920, the tenth 
in the history of the State and the 
only one to resume its work after 
so long a recess as that caused by 
the World War. 

In another respect, also, it is al- 
most unique, the small number of 
the amendments which it proposes, 
seven, being equalled by but. one of 
its predecessors. 

Chapter 235 of the Laws of 1915 



14,520. 

Chapter 121 of the Laws of 1917 
provided for a convention of dele- 
gates to revise the constitution to 
meet at the capitol in Concord on 
the first Wednesday in June, A. D. 
1918, and Chapter 236 made an ap- 
propriation of $35,000 '-for the ex- 
penses of such convention. By the 
provisions of Chapter 121 the dele- 
gates to the convention were elected 
at the town meetings of 1918, on the 
second Tuesday in March, and at 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



85 



special elections held in the cities 
on the same day. 

T!ie convention duly met in the 
Bali of .Representatives at the Slate 
House on Wednesday, June 5, 1918. 
Major William H. Trickey of Tilton 
cpM>:<\ the delegates to order: Rev. 
William Hathaway Pound, a dele- 
gate from Wolfeboro, offered prayer, 
and Hon. Rosea W. Parker of Clare - 
mont was chosen temporary chair- 
man by acclamation. 

A committee on credentials was 
appointed, with Judge William E. 
Kinney of Claremont as chairman, 
whose report was the next order of 
business, 

On motion of Leslie P. Snow of 
Rochester, the temporary secretary 
was instructed to cast one vote for 
lion. Albert O. Brown of Manches- 
ter for president of the convention. 

Judge A. Chester Clark of Con- 
cord was elected secretary, and 
Judge Bernard W. Carey of New- 
port, assistant secretary, of the con- 
vention, in the same manner. 

A committee on permanent organ- 
ization of the convention was ap- 
pointed, with Frank P. Quimby of 
Concord as chairman, which subse- 
quently reported as follows : For 
chaplain, Rev. Archibald Black of 
Concord ; serge an t-at-arms, Walter 
J. A. Ware! of Hillsborough ; door- 
keepers, Guy S. Nea! of Acworth, 
George Lawrence of Manchester, 
Albert P. Davis of Concord, Edward 
K. Webster of Concord ; warden of 
coat room George Goodhue of Con- 
cord, assistant, John C. O'Hare of 
Nashua ; messenger, Frank L. Aid- 
rich of Manchester, who resigned, 
and was succeeded by Melvin J. Di- 
rnond of Danville ; stenographers, 
Miss Margaret A. Conway of Con- 
cord, Miss Bertha Goodwin of New- 
port; pages, Joseph H. Lane of Con- 
cord, Walter Pillsbury of Derry. 

A committee on Rules was ap- 
pointed with Hon. James L. Gibson 
of Conway as chairman. 

An unsuccessful attempt was 



made to adjourn the convention at 
this point without action upon any 
proposed amendments, but was de- 
feated on a rollcatl, 167 y 2 to 180^. 
Another motion, to limit the atten- 
tion of the convention to amend- 
ments bearing upon the subject of 
taxation, was beaten 166 to 149. 

Thursday morning, June 6, seats 
were drawn, and the introduction of 
resolutions embodying proposed 
amendments to the constitution was 
begun. In the afternoon the con- 
vention went into committee of the 
whole, discussed Resolution No. One 
relating to the taxation of growing 
wood and timber, and by a vote of 
159 to 122 decided that it was inex- 
pedient to amend the constitution 
in the manner proposed. 

Friday morning, June 7, 1918, fur- 
ther resolutions were introduced, 
and the President announced the 
standing committees of the conven- 
tion. 

The following resolution, offered 
by Arthur E. Kenison of Ossipee, 
and amended by Elmer E. W r ood- 
bury of W'oodstock, was debated at 
length and finally adopted bv a vote 
of 230 to 79y 2 : "Whereas, the 
United States of America is engaged 
in the great international conflict 
now on, in which the citizens of New 
Hampshire are doing their full share, 
and because of the facts of this great 
war, conditions of all kinds are con- 
stantly changing so that the stan- 
dard of yesterday is not the standard 
of today : 

"Resolved, That when the Con- 
vention adjourns at the morning ses- 
sion it adjourns to the call of a com- 
mittee, consisting of the President 
and one member from each county, 
such call to issue for the reconven- 
ing of this Convention, whenever 
in the opinion of the majority of the 
Committee the public good requires 
it, and, in any event, within one year 
.after the conclusion of the present 
war and the establishment of peace, 
such call to be seasonable for the 



So 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



submission of such proposed amend- 
mentis as may be agreed upon at 
the succeeding biennial election.'' 

The committee authorized by this 
resolution was appointed as follows : 
Albert O. Brown of Manchester, 
president, ex-officio ; John Scammoh 
of Exeter, Leslie P. Snow" of Roches- 
ter, Arthur E. Kenison of Os.sipee. 
William A. Plummer of Laconia, 
James O. Lyford of Concord, Charles 
S. Emerson of Milford, Harris H. 
Rice of Rindge. Jesse M. Barton 
of Newport, Edwin J. Bartlett of 
Hanover, and John C. Hutchins of 
Stratford. 

This committee took no action un- 
til December, 1019, when it voted 
to call the convention together for 
the resumption of its work on. Tues- 
day, January 13, 1^20. 

When that day arrived it was 
found that 31 of the delegates or- 
iginally elected to the convention 
had died and that 13 had resigned. 
The secretary of the convention had 
died and the chaplain had removed 
to another state. Some, but not all, 
of the vacancies, had been fdled by 
special elections, the committee on 
credentials, reporting to the conven- 
tion the following' new delegates : 

Reginald C. Stevenson, Exeter; 
Harry C. Peyser, Portsmouth ; 
Frank H. Pearson, Stratham ; 
Charles A. Fairbanks and Edward 
Durnin, Dover; W r illiam T. Gunni- 
son, Rochester; George A. Blan- 
chard, Moultonborough ; Plarry W. 
Burleigh, Franklin; Joseph J. Do- 
herty. Concord ; George E. Barnard, 
Hopkinton ; Fred C. Johnson, South 
Hampton; George Gale, Bartlett; 
John A. Hammond, Gilford; Ben- 
jamin F. W. Russell, Peterborough; 
William B. Cabot, Dublin; Herman 
C. Rice. Keene; Almoin E. Clark, 
Acworth ; William Birch, Lyman; 
Horace E. Morrison, Piermont ; 
Walter I. Lee, Thornton; Fred H. 
Noyes, Stewartstown ; Wilbur L. 
Phelps, New Ipswich ; James R. 
Turner, Wentworth's Location; 



John A. Jaquith, Northfield; Leroy 
M. Streeter and Joseph P. Chate'l, 
Manchester. 

Judge Carey was promoted from 
assistant secretary to secretary to 
fill the vacancy caused by Judge 
Clark's death; and Wayne M. 
Plummer, Esq., of Laconia. was 
elected assistant secretary. The 
committee on organization recom- 
mended the choice as chaplain in 
Rev. Mr. Black's place of Rev. Har- 
old IT. Niles of Concord, chaplain of 
the Legislature. Many vacancies 
on the standing committees of the 
convention were filled by new ap- 
pointments by the President ; and 
there was a new drawing of seats, 
advance choices being given, as in 
the original lottery to the half dozen 
delegates over 80 years of age, to 
the members of the G. A. R., and to 
General Frank S. Streeter of Con- 
cord, president of a former conven- 
tion. 

The convention got into action 
with unexpected promptness through 
the enterprise of the committee on 
legislative department which met on 
the evening of Monday, the 12th, 
and prepared for submission to the 
convention a resolution embodying 
the income tax amendment to the 
constitution. Chairman Lyford of 
the committee and President Brown 
of the convention supported this res- 
olution in strong speeches and fav- 
orable action was taken upon it 
without a roll Gall, on Wednesday. 
Other subjects debated during the 
first week were the giving of gen- 
eral authority to the legislature in 
the matter of taxation and the spe- 
cial taxation of growing wood and 
timber. On Wednesday evening, 
Hon. Joseph Walker of Brookline. 
Mass., spoke on the initiative and 
referendum, and on Thursday even- 
ing President Ernest M. Hopkins 
of Dartmouth College was heard 
on "The Factors of Social Unrest." 
Eight new amendments were pro- 
posed to the convention during this 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



87 



first week of the renewed session. 

The . second week saw three 
amendments adopted without oppo- 
sition; tnose relating; to inheritance 
taxes, items in appropriation bills 
and the ''Protestant" wording of the 
Bill of Rights. There was an ex- 
cellent debate upon the growing 
wood and timber amendment, after 
which it was defeated 137 to 95. 



that the delegates were not minded 
to remain at the state capitol any 
longer than that. 

■ On Tuesday, the 27th, the ques- 
tion of the future size of the legisla- 
ture brought one of the best debates 
of the session. 

Wednesday brought the settle- 
ment of the question by the adop- 
tion of the Lyford plan, so-called. 



\ 



Hox. James O. Lyford of Concord 
The Efficient Floor-leader of the Convention. 



e session 
apparently, a great 



Called up again during the last week 
of the convention it was again beaten 

&}>y 2 to 93 y 2 . 

The third week of th 
opened with 

amount of work still to be done ; but 
after Chairman Bates of the finance 
committee had announced that the 
appropriation for the expenses of 
the convention would be exhausted 
P? Thursday night it was evident 



On this day the initiative and refer- 
endum was debated and defeated 
144>4 to 80^. Thursday, the 
final day, was featured by an earnest 
discussion of the pensions amend- 
ment, and by a series of political 
reminiscences given by Delegates 
Lyford and Metcalf of Concord and 
Rrennan of Peterborough, in the 
form of a debate on the resolution 
proposing the abolition of the gov- 



88 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



ernqr$> council, which was defeated. 
Final adjournment was taken at 
4.30 legislative time, in the afternoon 
of Thursday, January 26, after the 
usual votes of thanks and responses 
and the adoption of the report of 
the committee on finance, showing 
the payment of $23,335.91 to the 419 
delegates for 17 days' attendance. 

Resolutions prepared by Mr. Met- 
calf and presented by him with ap- 
propriate words of eulogy, were 
adopted upon the deaths of the fol- 
lowing delegates: Albert S. 
Wetherell of Exeter, Alfred F. How- 
ard and Calvin Page of Portsmouth, 
John T. Welch and John PI. Wesley 
of Dover, Ernest A. Wescott of 
Rochester, James E. French of 
Moultonborough. George W. Stone 
of Andover, Gilbert Hodges of 
Franklin, Mason T. Ela of Warner, 
Richard R. Allen, Henry Weber, 
Eugene B. Worthen and George I, 
McAllister of Manchester, F'red J. 
Crowell and William J. O'Neil of 
Nashua. Mortier L. Morrison of 
Peterborough, Rockwell F. Craig of 
Marlow, Henry A. Clark of Acworth, 
Dr. W. E. Lawrence of Haverhill, 
Prof. Frank A. Updyke of Hanover, 
John E. C lough of Lyman, John F. 
Merrill of Thornton, Frank C. Clem- 
ent of Warren, J. Howard Wight 
and George W. Gordon of Berlin, 
Edson I. Hill of Concord, George 
W. Morrill of Gilford. Lewis H. Coy 
of W'entworth's Location, Bard 
B. Plummer of Mil ion and Frank 
J. Peas lee of Bradford. 

The delegates who resigned dur- 
ing the convention recess were 
Charles W. Whitcomb of Stratham, 
Eben O. Garland of Bartlett, De- 
Witt C. Howe of Concord, Albert 
S. Carter of Northfield, Henry C. 
Davis of Hopkinton, Charles M. 
Norwood of Keene, William H. 
Watson of Keene, Harry A. G. Abbe 
of Dublin, Leon D. Ripley of Stew- 
artstown, Thomas M. Dillingham of 
Roxbury, Philip P. Gordon of New 
Ipswich, Charles F. Floyd of South 



Hampton and Arlo E. Barnard of 
Picrmont. 

The seven amendments adopted 
by the convention were stated at the 
opening of this article. The 28 upon 
which the convention voted that it 
was inexpedient to amend the con- 
stitution as proposed would have 

Given the General Court authority 
to specially tax growing wood and 
timber. (Two resolutions.) 

Given the General Court authority 
to levy all ''reasonable" taxes. (Two 
resolutions.) 

Allowed the future amendment of 
the constitution by the General 
Court submitting proposed amend- 
ments to the people for ratification. 
(Four resolutions.) 

Allowed the Governor to intro- 
duce bills in the Legislature with 
precedence over others. 

Made office-holders automatically 
candidates for re-election unless they 
declined in writing to be so con- 
sidered. 

Limited the right of trial by jury 
in civil cases. 

Created the office of legislative 
draftsman. 

Abolished the executive council. 
(Two resolutions.) 

Established a referendum upon 
measures enacted by the General 
Court. 

Exempted certain classes of citi- 
zens from taxation. 

Created a single-chamber General 
Court of 100 members chosen from 
20 districts. 

Established the size of the House 
of Representatives at 100 members 
chosen from districts. 

Given the full right of suffrage to 
women. (Two resolutions.) 

Made a state senate of 40 mem- 
bers. 

Given the Governor $5,000 a year 
salary, and the councilors $500 each. 

Increased the pay of members of 
trie Legislature. 

Regulated out-of-door advertis- 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



89 



Allowed cities and towns to own 
and operate street railways. 

Increased the mean number of 
population required for additional 
representatives in the legislature. 
(Two resolutions.) 

Of the proposed amendments on 
which the convention took favorable 
action, that relating to an income 
tax has never before been submitted 
to the people, nor has the "con- 
scientious objector" amendment to 
the Bill of Rights, 

An inheritance tax amendment 
was submitted in 1912 and had 
18,432 votes in its favor to 9.699 
against, failing of ratification by less 
than a thousand votes. 

The amendment in relation to the 
veto power of the Governor was 
beaten in 1912, haying 17,942 votes 
in its favor to 9,325 against. 

Attempts to reduce the size of the 
legislature failed at the referendum 
of 1912 bv 21,399 to 10,952; in 1903 
by 20.295' to 13,069; and in 1851 by 
6,189 to 33,652. 

The pension amendment was 
beaten in 1912 by 16,703 to 11,440 
votes, while the so-called 'non-sec- 
tarian" amendment to the Bill of 
Rights has been submitted to the 
people by every constitutional con- 
vention beginning with 1851. and al- 
ways has failed of acceptance by 
interest in it displayed during the 
popular vote. Judging from the 
convention there will be more of a 
campaign for the pension resolution 
than any of the other amendments. 

In an address before the Men's 
Club of the Universalist Church in 
Concord a few days after the close 
of the convention. Hon. James O. 
Lyford had this to say of its work: 

"The Constitutional Convention 
of 1920 was the most business like 
convention that ever assembled in 
New Hampshire to revise the or- 
ganic law of a state. Other con- 
ventions have contained more men 
of distinction than this — men better 
known throughout the state and be- 



yond its limits, but in the quality of 
its average membership and in their 
ability for quickly reaching prac- 
tical results, the convention of 1920 
must be accorded the precedence. 

"The members were representa- 
tive men of their communities — 
men of strong common sense, who 
readily grasped the meaning of the 
propositions submitted for their 
consideration. There was little or 
no oratory in the debates, and little 
inclination on the part of those who 
talked to waste time in flights of 
eloquence. Whoever could state a 
proposition clearly received the un- 
divided attention of the convention. 

"The speeches were all brief, the 
resolution for the taxation of timber 
occupying the most time of any ; 
and when the question before the 
convention was understood the 
members were ready to vote upon 
it. They were not tenacious of op- 
inion or obstructive in tactics to 
carry or defeat an amendment. 

"If a proposition did not meet 
with favor, it was graciously aban- 
doned ofter a vote test, and fre- 
quently without call for a division 
of the convention. There was the 
utmost courtesy in the debates 
which were frequently lightened by 
touches of humor. The spirit of the 
convention from the start was to 
confine its w^ork to important 
amendments and to submit as few 
questions to the people as possible." 

The lack of oratory mentioned by 
Mr. Lyford. was one of the unusual 
features of the convention. Only 
50 of the delegates made speeches 
of any length, and it has been esti- 
mated that five per cent of the mem- 
bership did 95 per cent of the talk- 
ing. Such prominent members as 
former Congressman Hosea W. Par- 
ker of Claremont, Judge William A. 
Plummer of Laconia, W. R. Brown 
of Berlin, John Scammon of Exeter, 
D wight Hall of Dover, and Merrill 
ShurtleiT of Lancaster took no part 
in the debate and General Frank S. 



90 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Streeter of Concord was not heard 
from until the very last day of the 
convention, when Fie was moved to 
spirited support of the pensions 
amendment. 

The principal speeches of the con- 
vention were those made by Presi- 
dent Albert O. Brown in opening its 
two sessions, in reviewing the work 



of the convention. Mr. Lyford cer- 
tainly was the. "floor leader" of the 
convention and his work in that re- 
spect was splendidly done. His 
able "first assistant" was Hon. Les- 
lie P. Snow of Rochester. 

If the convention had been a po- 
litical body, it would be said that the 
"minority" was well led by Major 



Hon. Hosea W. Par 
Temporary President 

accomplished and in taking the floor 
upon the important questions of tax- 
ation. The name of Hon. James O. 
Lyford of Concord will figure most 
frequently in the index, and some 
of those references will be to inter- 
esting and informing remarks upon 
subjects under discussion; but most 
of the references will be to the num- 
erous occasions upon which he made 
the proper motion or suggested the 
proper action to facilitate the work 



ER OF ClaREMONT 

of the Convention. ■ 

James F. Brennan of Peterborough, 
with frequent assistance from Hon. 
Henry H. Metcalf of Concord, and 
vigorous occasional interjections by 
ex-Mayor J. J. Doyle of Nashua; 
while Hon. Rosecrans W. Pillsburv 
of Londonderry, Speaker Charles \V. 
Tobey of Temple.. William A. Lee 
of Concord and E. Percy Stoddard 
of Portmouth were as energetic as 
usual in debate. 

From an oratorical standpoint the 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



91 



gems of the Convention were the 
speeches of Levin J. Chase of Con- 
cord and Justin O. Wellman of New 
London, while careful, thoughtful 
and diligent stud)- of the topics be- 
fore the convention was evidenced 
in the remarks of George H. Duncan 
of [arTrey, Robert W. Upton of Bow, 
Elmer E. Woodbury of Woodstock, 
Marshall D. Cobleigh of Nashua, 
Dean C. H. Pettee of Durham, 
Philip W. Ayers of Franconia and 
John H. Foster of Waterville. 

In addition to Messrs, Ayers and 
Foster, the debate on the taxation 
of growing wood and timber, which 
was the best of the convention, en- 
listed John C. Hutch ins of Stratford, 
John T. Amey of Lancaster, C. H. 
Duncan of Hancock, Charles B. 
Hoyt of Sandwich, Horace F. Hoyt 
of Hanover, John A. Edgerly of 
Tr.ftonboro, John F. Beede of Mere- 
dith, Judge Omar A. Towne of 
Franklin, Robert M. Wright oi San- 
bornton, Charles S. Emerson of Mil- 
ford, Royal L. Page of Gilmanton, 
B'. F. W. Russell of Peterborough, 
George H. Eastman of Weare, Dr. 
VV. R. Sanders of Deny. Judge 
Jesse M. Barton of Newport, John 
Byrne of Lebanon, George A. 
Veazie of Littleton, George W. 
Pike of Lisbon, Arthur L. Foote of 
Wakefield, Rev. T. S. Tyng of Ash- 
fend, William J. Callahan of Keene, 
Henry F. Pearson of Webster, and 
W alter B. Farmer of Hampton 
Falls. . 

The reduction in size of the legis- 
lature, whether by the adoption of 
the district system or by the plan 
finally chosen, called forth good 
speeches from a number of 
trie delegates previously men- 
tioned and also from former 
Councilor John B. Cavanaugh 
of Manchester, John P. George 
of Concord, John T. Winn of Nashua 
Curtis B. Childs of Henniker and 
Harry G. Dean of Danbury. Fred 



S. Pillsbury of Manchester ably 
championed the cause of the "con- 
scientious objector." Principal 
Wallace E. Mason of the Keene Nor- 
mal School led the fight for the pen- 
sions amendment. Professor Ed- 
win J. Bartlett of Hanover and A. 
F. Wentworth of Plymouth made 
their only speeches for and against 
the initiative and. referendum. 
Charles S. Emerson and Benjamin 
F. Prescott of Mil ford, Arthur E. 
Kenison of Ossipee. Robert R. Chase 
and William F. Glancy of Manches- 
ter, C. J. Newell of Alstead and A. 
H. Schoolcraft of Dorchester were 
others who were heard from during 
the debates of the convention. 

Mr. Emerson, ex-Mayor Harry 
W. Spaulding of Manchester, Gen- 
eral Streeter, Judge Barton, Hon. 
John Scammon. Mr. Cavanaugh, 
Lion. John C. Hutchins and Speak- 
er Tobey had the honor of act- 
ing as temporary presidents of the 
convention or as chairmen of the 
committee of the whole, and all em- 
ulated successfully the eminent fair- 
ness and business-dispatching ability 
of President Albert O. Brown. 

The standing committees of the 
convention, as appointed by the 
President in June, 1918, were as fol- 
lows : 

On Bill of Rights and Executive 
Department — Streeter of Concord, 
Flail of Dover, Buxton of Boscawen, 
Cavanaugh of Manchester, Pattee of 
Manchester, Gaffney of Nashua, 
Jacobs of Lancaster, Bartlett of 
Hanover, Bowker of Whitefield, 
Howard of Portsmouth, Towne of 
Franklin, Charron of Claremont, 
Meader of Rochester, Norwood of 
Keene, Clement of Warren, Frost of 
Fremont, Towle of Northwood, 
Bartlett of Pittsfield, Goulding of 
Conway, Tilton of Laconia. To fill 
vacancies caused by deaths and res- 
ignations, Gunnison of Lvochester, 



92 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Woodbury of Woodstock and Dort 
of Troy were appointed to tin's com- 
mittee in January, 1920. 

On Legislative Department — Ly- 
fo'rd of Concord, Ainey of Lancaster, 
Snow of Rochester, Barton of New- 
port, Doyle of Nashua, Scammon 
of Exeter, Brennan of Peterborough, 
Spaulding of Manchester, Watson 
of Keene, George I. McAllister of 
Manchester, Hale of Laconia, Evans 
of Gorham, Wright of Sanbornton, 
Brown of Berlin, Duffy of Franklin, 
Eastman of Portsmouth, Butler of 
Haverhill, Haslet of Hillsborough, 
Hutchins of Stratford and Foote of 
Wakefield. The new members of 
this committee at the January ses- 
sion were Parker of Claremont and 
Clarke of Walpole. 

On Judicial Department — Plum- 
mer of Laconia, Howe of Concord, 
Demond of Concord, Upton of Bow, 
Hamblctt of Nashua, Belanger of 
Manchester. Prescott of Milford, 
Colby of Claremont, Madden of 
Keene, Donigan of Newbury, Aid- 
rich of Northumberland, W'oodbury 
of Salem. Lewis of Amherst, Pettee 
of Durham, Smith of Haverhill, Doe 
of Somersworth, Sise of Ports- 
mouth, Baker of Hillsborough, 
Hodges of Franklin, Chandler of 
Chatham. The vacancies on this 
committee were filled by Price of 
Lisbon and Peyser of Portsmouth. 

On Future Mode of Amending the 
Constitution and Other Proposed 
Amendments — Stone of Andover, 
Page of Portsmouth, Wallace of 
Canaan, W r alker of Grantham, Var- 
ney of Rochester, Bartlett of Derry, 
Lawrence of Haverhill. Jones of 
Lebanon, Craig of Marlow, Emer- 
son of Milford, Hull of Bedford, 
Rogers of Pembroke, Morrison of 
Peterborough, Young of Easton, 
Shirley of Conway, Ripley of Stew- 
artstown, Farrell of Manchester, 
Hodgman of Merrimack, Schel- 



lenberg of Manchester, Spring 

of Laconia. By the death of 
Mr. Stone and Judge Page, former 
Councilor Wallace became chairman 
of this committee and there were 
added to it as new members Metcalf 
of Concord, Stevenson of Exeter, 
Booth of Hinsdale, Annis of Cole- 
brook, Kenison of Ossipee and 
Home of Rochester. 

On Elections— Shurtleff of Lan- 
caster, Brown of Concord, Rollins 
of Alton. Wetherell of Exeter, Avres 
of Franconia, Huntress of Keene, 
Stanley of Lincoln, Roy of Man- 
chester, Chapman of Manchester, 
Bergquist of Berlin, Hallinan of 
Nashua, Towle of Newmarket, Des- 
chenes of Manchester, Young of 
Rochester, Glaney of Manchester, 
Schenck of Tamworth, Rice of 
Rindge, Savers of Manchester, 
Davis of Croydon, Smart of Ben- 
nington. The only death on this 
committee was that of Mr. Wether- 
ell, whose place was taken by Mr. 
Duncan of Jaffrcy. 

On Finance — French of Moulton- 
borough, Wight of Berlin, Welch 
of Dover, Bates of Exeter, Pariseau 
of Manchester, Hill of Plaistow, 
Brown of Hampton, Davis of Hop- 
kinton, Locke of Laconia, Water- 
man of Lebanon, Emerson of Man- 
chester, Laberge of Manchester. 
Cater of Portsmouth, Dame of 
Newport, Playford of Newton, Mc- 
Elroy of Manchester, Shaw of Sal- 
isbury, Dillingham of Roxbury, 
Worthen of Manchester and Spauld- 
ing of Stoddard. This committee 
lost four members by death and 
two by resignation. Mr. Bates be- 
came the new chairman and the 
additional members named were 
Blanchard of Moultonborough, Mc- 
Hugh of Gorham, Fairbanks of 
Dover, Parker of Goffstown, Well- 
man of New London and Russell 
of Peterborough. 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



93 



On Journal — Tobey of Temple, 
Veazie of Littleton,. Emerson of 
Hampstead, McDaniei of Notting- 
ham, Hurd of Dover, Knox of Maid- 
bury, A. M. Chase of Concord. Shaw 
of Chichester, Greer of Goffstown, 
Dickinson of Winchester, Faulkner 
of Swanzey, Peal of Plymouth, 
Hancock of Milan. Pound of Wolfe- 
boro, Clark of Nashua. Frye of Wil- 
ton, True of Plainfield, Perkins of 
Laconia, Dionne of Nashua, Rogers 
of Newport. 

On Credentials — Kinney of Clare- 
mont, Bailey of Sunapee, Temple- 
ton of Exeter, Marvin of Newcastle, 
Andrews of Somers worth, Marshall 
of Dover, Kenison of Ossipee, Morey 
of Hart's Location, Smith of Cen- 
ter Harbor, Moses of Tilton, Met- 
calf of Concord, Dean of D anbury, 
Fessenden of Brookline, J. J. Mc- 
Allister, Jr., of Manchester, Pierce 
of Winchester, Bullock of Rich- 
mond, Woods of Bath, Woodbury 
of Woodstock, Hutchins of Berlin, 
and Philbrook of Shelburne. Mes- 
srs. Metcalf, Woodbury and Keni- 
son resigned from this committee 
at the opening of January sessions 
and Kennett o 4 " Madison, Bunten 
of Dunbarton and Hoyt of Plan- 
over were appointed in their places. 

On permanent organization — 
Quinby of Concord, Livingston of 
Manchester, Entwistle of Ports- 
mouth, Cobleigh of Nashua, Perkins 
of Antrim, Gray of Columbia, Sher- 
ry of Dover, Nute of Farmington, 
Philbrook of Laconia, . McNally of 
Rollinsford, Well man of Keene, 
Ball of Washington, Connor of 
Manchester, Sanders of Derry, Per- 
ley of Enfield, Edgerly of Tufton- 
borough, Bilodeau of Rochester, 
Head of Hooksett, Thompson of 
Concord, Roy of Somersworth. 

On Rules — Gibson of Conway, 
Sherman of Claremont, George of 
Concord, Weston of Derry, Wesley 
of Dover, Childs of Henniker, Ma- 



son of Keene, Chase of Manchester, 
Horan of Manchester, Pike 'of Lis- 
bon, Pillsbury of Manchester, Wes- 
cott of Rochester, Thomas of Straf- 
ford, Whitcornb of Stratham, Stod- 
dard of Portsmouth, King of Wal- 
pole. Paul of Claremont, Lombard 
of Colebrook, Robichaud of Nashua, 
Young of Laconia. 

. A special committee on assign- 
ment of committee rooms was ap- 
pointed with Mr. English of Little- 
ton as chairman. 



Delegate Frank S. Streeter of 
Ward Four, Concord, was President 
of the Constitutional Convention of 
1902 and chairman of the standing 
committee on Bill of Rights and Ex- 
ecutive Department in the Conven- 
tion of 1918-1920. Born in East 
Charleston, Vt., August 5, 1853, the 
son of Daniel and Julia (Wheeler) 
Streeter, he was educated at St. 
Johnsbury Academy, Bates College 
and Dartmouth College, graduating 
from the last named institution in 
1874. Since 1892 he has been a 
member of its board of trustees and 
had an active and important part in 
shaping the tremendous develop- 
ment of the college in the past quar- 
ter-century. In 1913 he received 
from his alma mater the degree of 
Doctor of Laws. General Streeter 
studied law with the late Chief Jus- 
tice A. P. Carpenter and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1877. For 40 
years he has practiced his profession 
in Concord and has been a dominant 
figure in the bar of city and state, 
as well as taking part in many im- 
portant cases outside of New Hamp- 
shire. A Republican in politics, he 
was a member of the Legislature in 
1885, serving on the Judiciary com- 
mittee ; member of the state commit- 
tee since 1892 ; president of the state 
convention, and delegate-at-large to 
the national convention, 1896; mem- 
ber of the national committee, 
1907-8. Mr. Streeter served on the 



94 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



staff of Governor Charles A. Busiel 
as judge advocate general. From 
March, 1911, to August, 19.13. lie was 
a member by Presidential appoint- 
ment of the International Joint 
Commission. He has been presi- 
dent of the State Historical Society, 
the State Bar Association and the' 
State Defense Leasrue, and is now 



degree Mason, has been president of 
the Wonolancet Club, Concord, for 
many years and is a member of 
numerous other clubs in Manches- 
ter, Boston and Washington, in 
which cities he is almost as well 
known as in his home town. Gen- 
eral Streeter married, November 14, 
1877, Lillian, daughter of Alonzo P. 



Chairs 



Gen. Frank S. Sir 
of the Bill of Rights and 



president o: 
ucation, a v 
as of the lug 
which he ha 
siduously si:; 
Governor jo: 
He was very 
a member of 
tee of the St: 
lie Safety c 
lines. Gen 



he State Board of Ed- 
ark which he regards 
best importance and to 
s devoted himself as- 
ce his oppointment by 
m H. Bartlett in 1919. 
active in war work as 
the executive cornmit- 
3.te Committee on Pub- 
rid on various other 



2ETER of Concord 

Executive Department Committee. 

and Julia (Goodall) Carpenter of 
Bath. They have two children, 
Julia (Mrs. Henry Gardner) and 
Thomas W-, of the American In- 
ternational Corporation, New York 
City. 



era! Streeter is 



12nd 



Delegate William Alberto Plurn- 
mer of Ward Four, Laconia, 
was the only justice 



of the 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



95 



state's supreme or superior courts 
to sit in the convention, so 
that his appointment as chairman of 
the standing committee on Judicial 
Department was very fitting, as well 
as justified by his ability and ex- 
perience Judge Plummer was born 
in Gihnanton, December 2 ? 1S65, the 
son of Charles Edwin and Mary 
Hovt (Moody) Plummer, and was 



Superior Court of the state, serving 
until 1913, when, upon the reorgan- 
ization of the state's judicial system 
he became an associate justice of the 
Supreme Court and so continues. 
The value of his services to the state 
in this position, for which he is em- 
inently fitted, is universally recog- 
nized. Before his appointment to 
the bench Judge Plummer was a 






m ... - 



^ 



Judge William A. Plummer of Laconia 
Chairman of the Committee on Judicial Department. 



educated at Gilmanton Academy, 
Dartmouth College and the Boston 
University Law School, holding de- 
grees from the two latter institu- 
tions. He was admitted to the New 
Hampshire bar in 1889 and practiced 
"is profession successfully at La- 
conia, in partnership with Colonel 
Stephen S. Jewett, until 1907, when 
he was appointed a judge of the 



leader in the Democratic party of 
the state, serving in the House of 
Representatives in 1893 and again 
in 1907, and being chosen a dele- 
gate to the national convention of 
the party at Chicago in 1896. At 
the legislative session of 1907 he 
was the floor leader of the minority. 
Judge Plummer was for 19 years 
a member of the school board of the 



96 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



city of Laconia and for 16 years 
its president. He is a director of 
the Laconia National Bank and the 
Laconia Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation and a trustee and vice-pres- 
ident of the City Savings Bank of 
Laconia. A 33rd degree Mason, he 
is a past grand master of the grand 
lodge of New Hampshire and also 
belongs to the Knights of Pythias, 



Delegate Leslie Perkins Snow of 
Rochester in his several speeches 
upon the more important matters 
coming before the convention dis- 
played the same clearness of thought 
and expression, the same ability as 
an orator and logician, which have 
won him such eminent success in 
the legal profession. Tie was born 
in Eaton, October 19, 1862, the son 




,4 

.....J 



Hon. Leslie P. Sx 

Photo by B 

Elks, county, state and national bar 
associations, New Hampshire His- 
torical Society, etc. Judge Plum- 
mer married, January 1, 1890, Ellen 
Frances Murray of Canaan. Their 
son, Wayne M. Plummer, a gradu- 
ate of the Boston University School 
of Law and a member of the New 
Hampshire bar, was assistant secre- 
tary of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion. 



ow of Rochester 

chrach 

of the late Edwin Snow, one of the 
prominent men of his day in New 
Hampshire public life, and was ed- 
ucated at the Bridgton, Me., Acad- 
emy; Dartmouth College, A. B., 
1886; and Columbian Law School 
(now George Washington Univer- 
sity) LL. B. 1890. When little 
past his majority he served as mod- 
erator of the town of Eaton and as 
representative from that town in the 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



97 



House of 1887 was one of the young- 
est members of that famous body. 
He acted as special pension exam- 
iner, \8S7~)&d,- for the United 
States Government, serving in Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, and Colorado and at 
Washington. He was admitted to 
the Maryland bar in 1890 and to 
that of the state of New Hampshire 
in 1S91 ; and lias since practiced his 
profession continuously in Roches- 
ter, at first as a member of the firm 
of Worcester, Gafnev & Snow until 
Mr. Gafney died m 1898 and Mr. 
Worcester in 1900. He then con- 
tinued the business individually un- 
til 1917 when the present firm of 
Snow, Snow & Cooper was organ- 
ized. The position which Mr. Snow 
occupies in his profession is shown 
by the fact that he is at the present 
time president of the New Hamp- 
shire Bar Association. Among his 
ot.her activities are the presidency 
of the Rochester National Bank 
since 1902; vice-president Rochester 
Trust Company ; president Gafney 
Home for the Aged ; five years mem- 
ber of the Rochester school board. 
During the war he was president of 
the Public Safety Committee of 
Rochester; member of the executive 
committee of the Rochester Red 
Cross chapter; city food adminis- 
trator and acting food administrator 
for Strafford county; chairman of 
the first, second, third and fourth 
Liberty Loan local committees ; 
chairman Strafford county War Sav- 
ings and Thrift Stamp campaigns ; 
chairman Christmas, 1918, Red 
Cross Roll Call; Strafford county 
district chairman of the United War 
Work campaign ; member of the 
committee of the New England Fed- 
eral District for placing certificates 
of indebtedness. In addition his 
two sons, Conrad E. and Leslie W., 
were both commissioned officers 
with the A. E. F. in France. Mr. 
Snow is a 32nd degree Mason, 
Knight Templar and Shriner, an 
Odd Fellow and a member of the 



Theta Delta Chi college fraternity 
(president of its New England As- 
sociation in 1886.) 



James F. Brennan, delegate from 
Peterborough, was born in that 
town March 31, 1853; graduated 
from the Maryland University, 
class of 1884/ with the degree of 
LL. B. ; was admitted to the Mary- 
land and New Hampshire bars the 
same year; and has since success- 
fully practiced law in his native 
town. He has held many public 
offices, being a member of Governor 
Felker's staff, 1913-15, with the 
rank of major ; member of the House 
of Representatives. 1913, 1915 and 
1917, during which three sessions 
he was on the Judiciary Committee, 
his party's candidate for speaker and 
floorleader, and advocated some of 
the most important legislation of 
those sessions. Of the 26 bills he 
introduced during his terms as leg- 
islator 23 were enacted into law. 
He took a prominent part as dele- 
gate in the Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1918-20, serving on the Leg- 
islative Committee. He is the first 
Democrat elected as a representa- 
tive or delegate from the strongly 
Republican town of Peterborough 
in nearly seventy years. He 
was one of the three trus- 
tees of the State Library from 
1903 to 1909; a member of the State 
Board of Charities and Correction 
from 1899 to 1918; and has been 
chairman of the Public Library 
Commission of New Hampshire 
since its establishment by statute 
to the present time. He is a mem- 
ber of. the New Hampshire Histor- 
ical Society, the American-Irish His- 
torical Society and the Peterborough 
Historical Society, and was elected 
historiographer of the last two at 
their organization. He is a lifelong 
Democrat, serving on its state exe- 
cutive committee many years ; was 
a delegate-at-large to his party's 



98 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



national conventions in 1904 and 
1916; lias been presiding officer of 
the Democratic State Convention ; 
and has been heard on the hustings 
in many campaigns. He served on 
the Selective Draft Hoard for his 
district during the World War, has 
held many offices in Peterborough 
and is now one of the new Peter- 
borough Hospital grantees and 



session of the constitutional conven- 
tion, but that utterance will remain 
longer in the minds of his fellow 
members than the numerous re- 
marks of some others. That is Mr. 
Chase's habit as to public life ; to 
make few speeches, but to have 
those which he does make well-con- 
sidered, well-expressed and worth 
while. The result is that whenever 



„ 






• ' ■;,.;-.-.. '. 






Major James. F. Brexxan of Peterborough 
trustees and one of the three trus 



tees of the Town Library. He has 
travelled widely in America and 
Europe ; was never married ; has an 
extensive library ; and is especially 
interested along literary- and histor- 
ical lines. 



Delegate Levin Joynes Chase of 
Ward Three, Concord, made just 
one speech during the January, 1920 



he is heard, on public or semi-pub- 
lic occasions, he is given the closest 
attention. Mr. Chase was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa., February 6, 1862, 
the son of Reginald Heber and 
Susan (Stanwood) Chase, and was 
educated in private schools in that 
city. For many years he was in 
the employ of the Wells-Fargo Ex- 
press Company at San Francisco, 
Cab, but since January 1, 1909, he 
has been the manager of the Con- 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



99 



cord Electric Company and a lead- 
ing figure in the life of the Capital 
City, in 1913 and 1915 he repre- 
sented his ward in the State House 
of Representatives and there made 
a reputation for eloquence, wit and 
substance in speech which has made 
him much in demand throughout the 
State as an after dinner speaker and 
orator of occasion. He is a. trustee 






married Bertha Louise Adams, and 
their home is in the West Concord 
suburb of the capital city. As a 
writer, Mr. Chase has few equals 
and no superiors in New Hamp- 
shire ; but the fact that much of his 
work has not been published over 
his own signature has deprived him 
of the full credit which is due him 
for the grace of style, breadth of 



-» y.- r --.- ,j5-. 



" 



• / % 



\ 



dLSm 



Hon. Levin J. 

Photo by the Kimball 

of the Concord Public Library, and 
was for several years president of 
the Concord Board of Trade, a po- 
sition to whose duties he devoted 
much valuable time and result- 
bringing attention. He is a mem- 
ber of the Sons of the American 
Revolution, Elks, Wonolancet Club, 
Snowshoe Club, Beaver Meadow 
Coif Club ; Is an Episcopalian and 
a Republican. January 2, 1905, he 



Chase of Concord 

Studio. Concord, X. H. 

knowledge and culture, bright wit 
and keen observation which are in 
. evidence in all his contributions to 
the printed page. 



Delegate Willis George Buxton 
of Boscawen shares with Delegate 
Rosecrans W. Piilsbury of London- 
derry the distinction of having had 
the greatest amount of experience 



100 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



in amending constitutions, each 
having been a member of the con- 
ventions of 1889, 1902, 1912 and 
1918-1920. In this convention Mr. 
Buxton was a member of the stand- 
ing committee on Bill of Rights and 
Executive Department and mani- 
fested the independence and indi- 
viduality for which he is well known 
by heading the list of signers of the 



1882, when he became a partner of 
the late Judge Nehemiah Butler at 
Penacook and upon the latter's 
death a year later succeeded to the 
practice which lie has since con- 
ducted. Mr. Buxton has long been 
prominent in politics, being a mem- 
ber of the Republican state commit- 
tee 22 years and of the Progressive 
state committee during its existence. 



Hon. Willis G. Buxton of Boscawen 



minority report in favor of abolish- 
ing the Governor's council. Mr. 
Buxton was born in Henniker, Aug- 
ust 22, 1856, the son of Daniel M. 
and Abbie A. (Whittaker) Buxton, 
and was educated in the academies 
at Clinton Grove and New London 
and at the Boston University Law 
School. Admitted to the New 
Hampshire bar in 1879, Mr. Buxton 
practiced at Hillsborough until 



He was chairman of the committee 
on elections and a member of the 
committee on revision of statutes 
in the House of Representatives of 
1895, and chairman of the judiciary 
committee in the State Senate of 
1897. He was a delegate to. the 
Progressive national conventions of 
1912 and 1916. He was associate 
justice of the Concord district court 
for two years and is now judge of 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



101 



the Boscawen municipal court. He 
has served his town as its treasurer, 
library trustee, health board and 
school board member and treasurer 
and superintendent of the water pre- 
cinct. Judge Buxton is a Mason, 
Knight Templar and Odd Fellow; 
member of the New Hampshire His- 
torical Society; trustee of the Mer- 
rimack County Savings Bank ; trus- 



ability and in general qualifications 
for its work, there were few in its 
membership of experience in public 
affairs equal to that of Delegate 
John H. Brown of Ward Six, Con- 
cord. Born in Bridgewater, May 
20, 1850, the son of James and Judith 
B. (Harran) Brown, he was edu- 
cated at the New Hampton Insti- 
tution, where he graduated in 1870. 




tee and secretary, since 1895, of the 
New Hampshire Orphans' Home at 
Franklin. He married June 4, 1884, 
Martha J. Flanders of Penacook. 
Mr. and Mrs. Buxton have travelled 
widely and their hospitable home at 
Penacook is a center of culture and 
civic spirit. 



While the constitutional conven- 
tion of 1918-1920 averaged high in 



Gen. John H. Brown of Concord 

Photo by the Kimball Studio, Concord, N. H. 

In youth he was engaged in trade 
at Bristol and also was in the lum- 
ber business and was a surveyor of 
land. For a time he was a railway 
mail clerk and then for many years 
freight and claim agent for the Bos- 
ton, Concord & Montreal and Bos- 
ton & Maine railroads, during this 
time becoming a resident of Con- 
cord, where he is an extensive owner 
of real estate and a leading citizen. 



102 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



His public service began at Bristol, 
where he was postmaster 1882-5, 
eight years selectman, four years 
deputy sheriff and representative in 
the Legislature of 1891. On the 
staff of Governor Charles A. Busiel 
he served as commissar) general, 
thus gaining the title by which he 
commonly is addressed. General 
Brown was an "original McKinley 
man" and in this capacity was 
chosen a delegate to the Republican 
national convention of 1896. In 
1900 he was one of the state's pres- 
idential electors. For 12 years, 
from 1905 to 1917, Mr. Brown was 
postmaster of Concord, giving that 
important office one of the best ad- 
ministrations in its history. At a 
special election to fill the vacancy 
in the council of Governor Henry 
W. Keyes caused by the death of 
Hen. Edward H. Carroll of Warner, 
General Brown was elected without 
opposition, and at the following reg- 
ular election he was chosen for a 
full term in the council of Governor 
John H. Bartlett. There his good 
judgment and wide knowledge of 
the state's affairs proved invaluable, 
particularly in his service as the 
member from the council on the 
board of trustees of the state hos- 
pital. In the constitutional con- 
vention he served on the standing- 
committee on elections. General 
Brown married, June 10, 1872, Mar- 
ietta Sanborn Lougee of Laconia. 
He is a 32nd degree Mason and 
Shriner and a member of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society, Wo- 
nolancet Club, etc. 



The following veterans of the 
Civil War were elected as delegates 
to this Constitutional Convention : 
Nathaniel P. Ordway of Greenland, 
Thomas Entwistle of Portsmouth, 
Martin L. Schenck of Tarmvorth, 
William H. Trickey of Tilton, Joab 
N. Patterson of Concord, Ansel C. 
Smart of Bennington, Daniel W. 



Hayden of Hollis, Robert E. 
Wheeler of Manchester, Mortier L. 
Morrison of Peterboro, (died during 
the recess of the convention) Ed- 
ward A. Kingsbury of Keene, Asa 
C. Dort of Troy, 'Dr. George W. 
Pierce of Winchester, Hiram C. 
Sherman of Claremont, Daniel R. 
Gilchrist of Monroe, John Gray of 
Columbia, Antipus H. Curtis of 
Northumberland. There was no 
more notable group than this in the 
convention and one of the pleasant- 
est features of the session was the 
honor paid its members in giving 
them prior choice of desirable seats. 
Although most of the oldest mem- 
bers of the convention were included 
in this group their fidelity to duty 
was as marked as in the Sixties and 
theirs were not the names which 
were missing from the rollcalls. 
One of the youngest appearing of 
this body of tine old veterans and 
one of the most genial and popular 
of all the delegates was Martin L. 
Schenck of Tarn worth, who was ap- 
pointed by the President a member 
of the standing committee on Elec- 
tions. Mr. Schenck was no stranger 
to the state house, for he represented 
his town in the General Court of 
1917, serving on two standing com- 
mittees, Roads, Bridges and Canals 
and Military Affairs, and making 
many friends in the Capital City 
who were glad to welcome him back 
as a delegate to the convention. 
Born near Fleming-ton, N. J., he is 
the great-grandson of Major John 
Schenck of the New Jersey line in 
the Revolutionary War, and his 
own service in the Civil War, two 
and a half years in Stoneham's cav- 
alry division of the Army of the 
Potomac and Grierson's cavalry di- 
vision of the Army of the Tennessee, 
under the immediate command of 
Generals Meade, Grant and Sher- 
man, reflected credit upon his 
patriotic ancestry and his own sterl- 
ing qualities. Among his memories 
are some of Abraham Lincoln in the 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



103 



White House and of every presi- 
dent from Grant to Wilson, with all 
of whom he has shaken hands. Mr. 
Schenck was educated in public 
and private schools at Trenton. N. 
]. He is an Episcopalian, a 32nd 
degree Mason and a member of the 
Sons of ihc American Revolution 
and various clubs as well as of the 



■u 



honor of an unanimous election as 
delegate from the Republican Ward 
Seven, Concord. Mr. Metcalf was 
born in Newport, April 7. 1841, the 
son of Joseph P. and Lucy (Gould) 
Metcalf. He was educated in pub- 
lic and private schools, at Mt. 
Caesar Seminary, Swanzey, and at 
the law department of the Univer- 






Hon. Martin L. Schenck of Tamworth 
and the Second Cavalry 



G. A. R 

Veteran Association of New Jer 
sey. 



No member of the convention 
showed more evident interest in its 
work, was more constant in at- 
tendance and attention, than the vet- 
eran journalist and publicist, Henry 
Harrison Metcalf, who, though a 
deep-dyed Democrat, was given the 



sity of Michigan, from which he re- 
ceived the degree of LL. B. in 1865. 
Studying law with Hon Edmund 
Burke of Newport, he was admitted 
to the bar in 1866, but engaged in 
journalism the next year, with the 
result that it became his life work. 
At different times he has edited the 
White Mountain Republic, Little- 
ton, the People and Patriot, Con- 
cord, the Manchester Union, the 
Dover Press and the Granite Month- 



104 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Hon. H. H. Metcalf of Concord 



ly, of which he was the founder, 
besides doing a large amount of 
other literary work, including the 
compilation and publication of sev- 
eral volumes of biography. Mr. 
•Metcalf is a member of the board of 
trustees of the Universalist State 
Convention, president of the New 
Hampshire Old Home' Week Asso- 
ciation, past president of the New- 
Hampshire S. A. R., and past lect- 
urer of the State Grange, Patrons 



of Husbandry. He was secretary 
of the Concord Board of Trade for 
18 years and of the State Board of 
Trade for nine years. Mr. Metcalf 
has had state-wide prominence in 
politics for half a century, since his 
service as secretary of the Demo- 
cratic State Committee, 1869-70. 
He was a delegate to the national 
convention of the party in 1876: 
president of its state convention in 
1900; and Congressional candidate 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



105 



b the Second District, 1910, besides 
serving' as chairman of the city com- 
mittee in Concord for several years. 
In 1913 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Samuel I). Felker editor of 
state papers and in the same year 
received the honorary degree of 
Master of Arts from Dartmouth Col- 
lege. Mr. Metcalf married, Decem- 
ber 18, 1869, Mary jane Metcalf of 
Littleton, and they have three chil- 
dren and seven grandchildren. 



Delegate Charles Sumner Emer- 
son of Milford was one of the most 
useful members of the convention, 
whether in committee service, de- 
bate from the floor or temporary 
presiding officer, as during the con- 



of the Milford Building and Loan 
Association, vice-president of the 
Granite Savings Bank, president of 
the Milford Hospital Association, 
and past president and secretary of 
the Milford Board of Trade. A 
Congregationalist in religious belief, 
he was moderator of the New 
Hampshire Conference of that de- 
nomination, 1915-16. He is a past 
grand master of the I. O. O. F. of 
the state and has been grand rep- 
resentative to the Sovereign Grand 
Lodge for 10 years, serving on im- 
portant committees in that connec- 
tion. By appointment of Governor 
Henry W. Keyes he is chairman of 
the New Hampshire committee on 
the Pilgrim Tercentenary. A Re- 
publican in politics. Mr. Emerson 
has been town moderator since 1910; 
was chairman of the committee on 
public improvements of the House 
of Representatives in 1907 and 1909, 
in that capacity being instrumental 
in bringing about the remodelling 
of the State House and the build- 
ing of the first trunk line highways; 
and his friends intend that he shall 
be a member of the State Senate of 
1921. During the war Air. Emer- 
son was chairman of the Hills- 
borough County, District No. 2, se- 
lective service board, and two of 
his sons were lieutenants in avia- 
tion. Mr. Emerson married, June 
13, 18S9, Esteile F. Abbott, and they 
have three sons and a daughter. 



Charles S. Emerson* of Milford 

sideration of the initiative and ref- 
erendum amendment. Mr. Emer- 
son was born in Milford, April 2, 
1868, the son of Sumner B. and 
Martha A. (Bales) Emerson. He 
was educated in the Milford public 
schools and at dishing Academy, 
and has followed in the footsteps of 
his father as the leading merchant 
of his home town. He is president 



Delegate Benjamin F. W. Russell 
of Peterborough was born in Bos- 
ton, July 8, 1875, educated in schools 
of Concord, Massachusetts, and was 
graduated from the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, class of 
1898. He purchased the "Old Town 
Farm" at Peterborough, New 
Hampshire, in 1912; became a resi- 
dent and voter there in 1914, and is 
there engaged in the breeding of 
Guernsey cattle and general farm- 
ing'. He is a member of the firm 



106 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Of Little & Russell, architects, 45 
Bromiield street. Boston, — archi- 
tects of the Peterborough. Town 
House, American Guernsey Cattle 
Club Building. Peterborough His- 
torical Building and the Peter- 
borough Hospital. He is a member 
of the Peterborough Grange and 
Men's Club, Union and Algonquin 
Clubs of Boston, and Brookliue 
Country Club ; president of Old 
Phoenix Mill Associates Corpora- 



Department, introduced and made 
very able speeches in tavor of the 
important proposal for increasing 
the powers of the Legislature in re- 
spect to taxation. Born in Bow, 
February 3. 1884. Mr. Upton grad- 
uated from the Boston University 
Law School in 1907, receiving the 
degree of B. L. magna cum laude. 
and in the same year began the 
practice of his profession in Con- 
cord as a member of the firm of 



;• ••- 
i 

I 
I 



i 



Hon. B. F. W. Russell of Peterborough 

tion of Peterborough, and of the 
Peterborough Hospital Corporation. 
Mr. Russell was chosen at a special 
election to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Hon. Mortier L. 



Sargent, Xiles & LTpton. Since the 
death of Mr. Sargent, and the with- 
drawal of Mr. Niles because of his 
public service, Mr. Upton has prac- 
ticed alone and with great success. 



Morrison. Among the many good A Republican in politics, he repre- 

speeches made in the convention in sented his town in the House of 

favor of the special taxation of Representatives of 1911, serving on 

growing wood and timber his was the Judiciary and Ways and Means 

one of the best. committees, two very important as- 

signments. He made the original 

draft of the bill establishing the 

Delegate Robert W. Upton of New Hampshire Tax Commission 

Bow, member of the standing com- arid also that of the factory inspec- 

mittee of the convention on' judicial tion law passed in 1917. Mr. Up- 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



107 



ton is a member of the executive 
committee of the New Hampshire 
Old Home Week Association ; of the 




Robert \V. Upton, Esq., of Bow 

I. O. O. F. and Grange ; and of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society. 
He married, Sept. 18, 1912, Martha 
S. Burroughs of Bow and they have 
three children. 



Judge Omar A. Towne, delegate 
from Franklin, made two of the best 
speeches of the convention, one 
each at the June and January ses- 
sions, in favor of the amendment 
allowing the special taxation of 
growing wood and timber. Born 
in Stoddard, Feb. 2, 1851, he was 
educated in the public schools and 
at the Penacook and Wolfeboro 
academies. Since 1875 he has been 
engaged in business at Franklin, at 
first as a printer and bookseller. 
In 1884 he bought the Franklin 
Transcript, in 1889 the Merrimack 
Journal and has made the consol- 
idated Journal-Transcript one of the 
best and most influential newspa- 
pers in the State. He also is en- 
gaged in the real estate business. 



Judge Towne is a Republican, a 
Baptist, a 32nd degree Mason, 
Knight Templar and an Odd Feb. 
low. He was the first president of 
the New Hampshire Weekly Pub- 
lishers Association and also has 
been president of the New Hamp- 
shire Press Association and the New 
Hampshire State Board of Trade. 
He was a delegate, to the constitu- 
tional convention of 1889, 22 years 
a member of the Franklin board of 
education; since 1905 justice of the 
Franklin police and municipal 



1 
1 



Judge Omar A. Towne of Franklin 

courts ; secretary and treasurer of 
the Franklin Building and Loan 
Association, clerk of the Webster 
Birthplace Association and of the 
Franklin Hospital Association. 



Delegate John Levi Header of 
Rochester, member of the standing 
committee on Bill of Rights and 
Executive Department, is one of 
those in the convention who filled 
in the recess between its sessions 
with service in the Legislature. In 
the State Senate of 1919 he repre- 
sented the 23rd district, serving as 



108 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



chairman of the important Commit- 
tee on Finance. Senator Meader 
was born at Conic (in Rochester) 
September 11, 1878, the son of John 
E. and Clara E. (Varftey) Meader. 



M 



Hon. J. Levi Meader of Rochester 

He was educated in the public 
schools of Rochester and at the 
Moses Brown School, Providence. 
R. I. Entering the employ of the 
Gonic Manufacturing Company. 
upon leaving school, he learned the 
business thoroughly and was the 
superintendent of the plant 1908- 
1915, since which time he has been 
the company's agent. Mr. Meader 
was a member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives in 1907, and in 1917 was 
mayor of his city. He is a member 
of the Republican state committee 
and chairman of the Republican 
city committee. In religious belief 
he is affiliated with the Friends and 
in fraternal circles he is a member 
of the various Masonic bodies, 
lodge, chapter, council, commandery 
and shrine. Senator Meader mar- 
ried, Oct. 2, 1901, Lila Anna Mal- 
vern of Chicago and they have three 
children. 



Delegate John Fred Beede of 
Meredith, a member of the standing 

committee on Time and Mode of 
Submitting to the People Amend- 
ments Agreed to by the Convention, 
was born in Meredith, April 8, 1859, 
and educated in the public schools 
there, at Tilton Seminary and at 
Yale College, class of 1882. Banking 
was his choice as a life work and 
for three years after graduation 
he was engaged in that business in 
Boston, New York City and Buffalo. 
Returning to Meredith upon the 
death of his father in 1885, he has 
been since that time an officer of the 
Meredith Village Savings Bank and 
its president since 1904, Of the 



«i 



"^■1 



Hox. J. F. Beede oe Meredith 

People's National Bank at Laconia 
he has been a director for 20 years. 
Mr. Beede is a trustee of Tilton 
Seminary, president of the Congre- 
gational Society of Meredith Vil- 
lage and interested in many local 
enterprises of that town* succeeding 
as one of its principal business men 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



109 



his father, the late John \V. Beede. 
Mr. Beede is a Republican in pol- 
itics. He married in 1901 Martha 
[>., daughter of the late Hon. Wood- 
bury L. Welcher of Laconia, and 
they have two children, Frances 
Melcher and John Woodbury. 



Delegate Horace F. Hoyt of Han- 
over, whose voice often was raised 
in the convention in behalf of the 
fanner and his interest's, was born 
in Enfield, October 26, 1842, the son 
of Horace F. and Caroline E. (Har- 
dy) Hoyt. Since childhood lie has 
resided in Hanover where he at-; 
tended the public schools. For more 



fairs, member committee on equali- 
zation of taxes; superintendent 
Hanover Town Farm, -1887-90; 
served as tax collector for Hanover 
30 years in succession ; trustee of 
public funds; director and treasurer 
Planover Public Library ; president 
Etna Creamery Association ; direc- 
tor and trustee Baptist Church. 
Etna ; director Dartmouth Savings 
Bank; Mason for more than 50 
years; member Franklin lodge, and 
St. Andrew's Chapter, R. A. M., 
Lebanon, and has taken the Templar 
degrees; Patron of Husbandry 42 
years; chaplain Mascoma Valley 
Pomona Grange 27 years, and New 
Flampshire State Grange 12 years. 
and still in office. Mr. Hovt is a 
Baptist and a Republican. He cast 
his first vote for Abraham Lincoln 
for president, and has missed vot- 
ing at no election since, except the 
primary of 1916, when he was ill 
in a hospital. 



i 



Hox. Horace F. Hoyt ok Hanover 

than 50 years he has been conspicu- 
ous in public, among the of- 
fices which he has held being select- 
man of Hanover, 1868-73; commis- 
sioner for Grafton county, 1894- 
1912, nominated by acclamation 
eight times; member New Hamp- 
shire House of Representatives 1893, 
chairman committee on retrench- 
ment and reform; 1915, chairman 
committee on count}' affairs (vice- 
president Farmers' Council), 1917 
chairman committee on county, af- 



Delegate Frank Wilbert Hamlin 
of Charlestown was born in that 
town, June 14, 1863, the son of 
George Washington and Ellen L. 
Hamlin. He was educated in the 
public schools and as a young man 
began a highly successful business 
career in his native town which has 
continued to the present time ; he 
being the proprietor of the Hamlin 
Department Store since 1887 and 
president and director of the Con- 
necticut River National Bank of 
Charlestown. Fie is treasurer and 
junior warden of St. Luke's Epis- 
copal Church there; justice of the 
municipal court ; trustee and treas- 
urer of the Silsby Free Library ; 
and trustee of the town trust funds. 
A Republican in politics, he was a 
member of the House of Represen- 
tatives of 1903, serving as chairman 
of the committee on Claims, and in 
the State Senate of 1909 represented 
the Seventh District, being chair- 
man of the committee on Banks and 



110 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



.a member of the committees on Re- 
vision of the Laws, Incorporations, 
Claims and School for Feeble- 
Minded. In 1919 he was appointed 




Hon. F. W. Hamlin of Charlestown 

a trustee of the State Industrial 
School. He was a leader and active 
participant in all the War "drives" 
and did more than his share in 
bringing them through to success. 
This year Mr. Hamlin has an- 
nounced his candidacy for the nomi- 
nation of his party as Councilor in 
the Fifth District, a place for which 
his public and private record alike 
show him to be well qualified. He 
is a member of the various branches 
of the I. O. O. F. order. December 
26, 1887, he married Ada E. Perry. 



Delegate Orvillc D. Fessenden of 
Brookline, a member of the conven- 
tion's committee on credentials, has 
had three experiences as a constitu- 



tion mender, having represented his 
town In the conventions of 1902 and 
1912, as well as that of 1918-1920. 
He also has served under the dome- 
as a member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives in 1897, when he was 
a member of the committee on pub- 
lic health, and in 1905. when he 
served on the committee on manu- 
factures. Mr. Fessenden was born 
in Boston, April 11, 1865, and was 
educated in the public schools and at 
dishing Academy, Ashburnham, 
Mass. He is a dealer in flour, grain, 



I s 



Hon. O. D. Fessenden of Brookline 

coal, wood and lumber and a leading 
citizen of his town, where he has 
been moderator and member of the 
school board, chairman of the Pub- 
lic Safety Committee, etc. In 1918 
he was a candidate for State Sen- 
ator from the 12th district. 



Delegate Asa C. Dort of Troy was 
born in Marlborough in 1843 and 
educated in the town schools, at 
Tilton Seminary and at the New 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



111 



Hampshire Commercial College. He 
served in the First New Hampshire 
Cavalry in the War of the Rebellion 

as quartermaster sergeant of Com- 
pany D and is a member of the. 
Grand Army of the Republic. Of 
the Masonic order he. has been a 



i . 

Hon. Asa C. Dort of Troy 

member for 55 years. Mr. Dort 
has held the offices of town clerk, 
fire chief, school treasurer and town 
treasurer for 46 years. He was a 
member of the Legislatures of 1S79, 
1881 and 1919, serving on the com- 
mittees on Liquor Laws and Manu- 
factures. Mr. Dort is a Republican 
in politics and a Congregationalist 
in church affiliation. He is mar- 
ried and has one daughter. 



It is probable that no delegate to 
the convention gave more time to 
the study of subjects coming before 
it for consideration than did George 
Henry Duncan of Jaffrey, one of the 
best posted men in New Hamp- 
shire upon the science of govern- 
ment and a fluent speaker in its ex- 
position. Born in Leominster, 
Mass., December 23, 1876, the son 



of George C. and Mary E. (Cool- 
idge) Duncan, he was educated at 
the Miirdock School, Wm'chendon, 
Mass., and Amherst College, class 
of 1899. Upon the death of his 
father he took up his business as a 
druggist at East Jaffrey and has 
since continued it. He has served 
his town as selectman, member of 
the school board, delegate to the 
constitutional conventions of 1912 
and 1918 and a member of the House 
of Representatives of 1915, serving 
on the committee on Revision of 
the Statutes. From 1915 to 1917 he 
was postmaster at East Jaffrey and 
has been president of the Jaffrey 
Board of Trade. He is a director 
of the Annett Manufacturing Com- 
pany. Mr. Duncan is a Democrat 
in politics, a Mason and Patron of 
Husbandry. November 19, 1900, he 



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Hon. G. H. Duncan of Jaffrey 

married Helen Prescott and they 
have one son, George. The Single 
Tax and the Initiative and Refer- 
endum are two important principles 
of government in which. Mr. Dun- 
can has taken an especially active 
interest. 



112 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Delegate Jackson Morton Hoyt, 
born in Newington, Jan. 15, 1850, 
the sixth in descent from William 
Hoyt, who settled there in 1703. has 
been a lifelong resident of the town 
and has served it in some official 
capacity almost continuously since 
he became of age. Chosen town 
clerk at the age of 21, he has served 
as such, in all, 12 years; selectman, 
four terms as chairman of the board ; 
tax collector, member of the school 
board, highway agent, supervisor of 



api 









Hon. Jackson M. Hoyt of Xewington 

the check list, auditor, superintend- 
ent of public cemetery for many 
years (which office he now holds, 
with that of moderator for town and 
school meetings), and is the only 
person in town who holds a commis- 
sion as justice of the peace. At the 
State election in 1918 he was unani- 
mously chosen representative to the 
General Court, receiving the support 
of both political parties, although a 
pronounced Democrat. His early 
education was obtained at the dis- 
trict school in Newington, supple- 
mented with a three months term 



at a business school in Boston. He 
is a member of the Congregational 
Church, and has been senior deacon 
the last eight years and clerk since 
1894, also sexton 36 years. He has 
written a history of the Newington 
church covering a period of 200 
years, which was read by him at the 
anniversary in 1915, and published 
in January, 1916, in the Granite 
Monthly. He claims farming as his 
occupation, although much of his 
time he is engaged in carpentering 
or painting, besides his employment 
in the public cemetery, in which he 
has been employed more or less 
since 1867. During the World War 
he acted as town historian. In 1890 
he copied the early records of the 
town from 1713 to 1S20, and with- 
out question is more familiar with 
the history of the town than any 
person living, and is often consulted 
by those seeking information con- 
cerning the old families and their 
descendants. 

When a young man-lie taught in 
country schools in nearby towns. 
In 1878 he married Miss Mary S. 
Pickering, seventh in descent from 
John Pickering, who settled at 
Portsmouth about 1636. They have 
had nine children, four sons and 
five daughters, of whom seven are 
now living, and seven grandchil- 
dren. About 1875, Mr. Hoyt began 
to write local news for the Dover 
Press, -a Democratic paper publish- 
ed by the Plon. Henry H. Metcalf, 
now of Concord. After the discon- 
tinuance of the Dover paper he fur- 
nished locals from Newington for 
the Portsmouth Times, gradually 
retiring with, now and then, an 
obituary notice. On the 70th anni- 
versary of his birth, Mr. Hoyt was 
at Concord in attendance at the 
Constitutional Convention, where 
he had the pleasure to become ac- 
quainted with two of his kindred, 
Colonel Charles B. Hoyt from 
-Sandwich, and Deacon Horace F. 
Hoyt from Hanover, whom he 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



113 



. 





• 


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'-- 


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Jk'&i . 



' ■ - I 




114 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



found, by consulting his genealogy, 

to be sixth cousins to him, all three 
having descended, in the eighth 
generation, from John Hoyt, who 
settled at Salisbury, Mass., about 
1635. 



No more effective speech was 
made in the convention than that 
in which Delegate John Corbin 
Hutchins of Stratford successfully 
opposed the amendment looking to 
the special taxation of growing 
wood and timber. In both his re- 
marks from the floor and his hand- 
ling of the convention as its tempo- 
rary presiding officer, Mr. Hutchins 
made it evident why he is generally 
regarded as in the very front rank 
of New Hampshire's public 'men. 
Born in Wolcott, Vt., February 3, 
1864, the son of Lewis S. and Mar- 
cia M. (Aiken) Hutchins, he was 
educated in the public schools and 
at Hardwick, Vt., Academy. He 
taught schools for a few terms be- 
fore locating at North Stratford in 
18S4 to begin a business career 
there which has been one of eminent 
success in mercantile lines and as 
a lumberman. He is president of 
the Farmer's Guaranty Savings 
Bank of Colebrook, director of the 
Farmers and Traders National 
Bank, trustee of the Guaranty Trust 
Company, Berlin, director and vice- 
president of the Coos Telephone 
Company. Mr. Hutchins is a Dem- 
ocrat in politics, attends the Baptist 
Church and is prominent in many 
fraternal orders, having been grand 
chancellor of the Knights of Py- 
thias of the State, and being a 32nd 
degree Mason and Knight Templar, 
Odd Fellow and Elk. Mr. Hutchins 
has held all the town offices in 
Stratford ; was a member of the 
House of Representatives in 1899 
and the State Senate in 1913, where 
he was the minority leader and 
chairman of the committee on edu- 
cation ; delegate to the national 



Democratic conventions of 1908 and 
1916; and in the latter year the can- 
didate of his party for Governor. 
Mr. Hutchins was appointed in 1918 
by Governor Henry \Y. Keyes as 
a trustee of the New Hampshire 
College and in 1919 by Governor 
John H. Bartlett a member of the 
state board of education. Mr. Hut- 
chins married, Oct. 24, 1889, Saidee 
H. Mayo, and they have two sons, 
Lieutenant Ralph M. Hutchins and 
Paul A. Hutchins. In the consti- 
tutional convention Mr. Hutchins 
was a valuable member of the stand- 
ing committee on Legislative De- 
partment. 



Delegate William H. Trickey of 
Tilton, who is, also. Rev. William 
H. Trickey, Universalis! clergyman, 
Major William H. Trickey, veteran 



U 



Major William H. Trickey of Tilton 

of the Civil War, and Commandant 
William H. Trickey of the New- 
Hampshire Soldiers' Home, had the 
honor of calling the convention to 
order at its initial session in June, 



THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



115 



1918, and was the author of the 
liberalizing amendment to the Bill 
of Rights, upon which the conven- 
tion took favorable action. Born in 
Exeter, Me., Jan. 22. 1841, the son 
of William and Abigail. (Nudd) 
Trickey, he was educated in the 
schools of Wolfeboro. and enlisted 
as a private in the Third New 
Hampshire. Volunteers, July 29, 
1861. He was promoted through 
each rank to that of major in the 
same regiment, commanded his 
company in the attack on Fort Wag- 
ner, and his regiment in the attack 
.on Fort Fisher; was four times 
wounded during the war ; -and was 
mustered out August 2, 1865. He- 
has been commander of the New 



Hampshire department, G. A. R., 
and of the Massachusetts Corn- 
man derv of the Loyal Legion and 
is a 32nd degree Mason. After the 
war he was engaged for a time in 
the manufacture of shoes at Dover, 
where he served in the city council 
and was a member of the Legisla- 
ture, 1870-1. For some years he 
was in the United States mail ser- 
vice. Deciding to enter the min- 
istry, he graduated from the divinity 
school at Tufts College and held 
pa-storates at Newfields, Claremont 
and Hinsdale, N. H., and Danvers, 
Mass., before taking the position at 
the Soldiers' Home, which he has 
filled so ably and acceptably since 
June 1, 1907. 



INTANGIBLE 



By Ruth Basse it Eddy 



It is not what your vibrant lips invoke, 

Nor e'en the deep, sweet solace of your eyes : 

It is not what you say or what you do, 
It's something deeper in the soul of you 

That makes my love, like scented incense rise, 

And fold you in the blessing of its smoke. 



HOW LONG WAS A MILE? 

By George B. Upham. 



Every schoolboy can tell us that 
the statute mile is 5,280 feet; but 
it is not generally known when and 
by what statute its length was so 
fixed. 

Two lines of an Act of Parliament, 
in the thirty-fifth year of Elizabeth's 
reign, 1593, fixes the length of the 
•land mile in all English speaking 
countries today. 

This statute reads as follows : 
"No new Building shall be erected 
within three Miles of London or 
Westminster. One Dwelling-house 
in London or Westminster, or three 
Miles thereof, shall not be converted 
into more. No Inmates or Under- 
fitters shall be in the Places afore- 
said* — Commons or Waste Grounds 
lying within three Miles of London 
shall not be inclosed.** A mile 
shall contain eight Furlongs, every 
Furlong forty Poles, and every Pole 
shall contain sixteen Foot and an 
half." 

It by no means follows that this 
statute became immediately known 
to the public, or when known was 
readily accepted as fixing the length 
of the mile in common use, for we 
well know that the English people 
are very slow to accept changes, or 
innovations of any kind. We also 
know that the mile in common use 
in England in the seventeenth cen- 
tury was longer than the statute 
mile. 

When, therefore, did the statute 

•The earliest dictionary defines Underfitter as "a Law word for an Inmate or Ledger." 
This word also appears as undersitter, the variation doubtless arising from the similarity of 
the old English long s and the letter f. As early as 1580 and for more than half a century 
later proclamations and laws repeatedly but vainly sought to prevent the growth of London 
and its extension into the suburbs. The earliest proclamation of Elizabeth on this subject 
Indicates that she and her advisers feared, if the city further increased in numbers, it woum 
be impossible to supply it with food and the necessities of life at reasonable prices, also truu 
they feared plague or pestilence. The population was about 160,000 at that time. tie sub- 
urbs, without the walls, then had a bad name, as "all those disreputable persons who coma 
find no shelter in the city settled in these outlying districts." A writer of the time oftserveu 
"how happy were the cities if they had no suburbs." 

••Mile has come down into our daily speech from the Latin mille, thousand. The Roman 
mile was a thousand paces, (mille pa**uum), their pace being the length of the fiouoi skp, 
that made by one foot from the place where it was lifted until it wad pu ton th e gr ounu 
again. Their foot was about 11.64 English inches, and their mile about 432 feet shorter than 
the statute mile. 



mile come into common and general 
use in England and in America? 
What was the length of the mile 
of the Pilgrims around Plymouth, 
and of the Puritans around Boston, 
when they built their roads and set 
up their milestones in the seven- 
teenth century ? What was the 
length of the mile of the surveyors 
who made early surveys in the New- 
Hampshire wilderness? The en- 
cyclopedias do not tell us. The 
specialists in the great libraries in 
Boston could not say ; nor could 
they, after considerable search, refer 
the inquirer to any source whence 
the information could be obtained" 
The U, S. Bureau of Standards at 
Washington did not know. The U. 
S. Coast and Geodetic Survey 
"passed the buck" to the U. S. Gen- 
eral Land Office, which replied that 
it had no records relating to the 
subject. Finally the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey, the last of the depart- 
ments appealed to, kindly referred 
to an article on the "Old English 
Mile," written by Professor William 
Flinders Petrie, of London Univer- 
sity, and published in the Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh—Session of 1883-84, Vol. 
XII, pp. 254-266, which article, so 
far as known to the writer, contains 
more information on this subject 
than any other publication extant. 
Yet valuable as Professor Petrie's 
article is, he does not tell us when 



HOW LONG WAS A MILE? 



117 



the Statute mile came into common 



and general use.* 



At the beginning - 



Professor Petrie 
says: "The length of the old Eng- 
lish mile has hitherto been so un- 
certain that any fresh light upon it 
is well worthy of study." After 
mentioning . certain new sources of 
information, he continues "It is 
proposed, therefore, in this paper to 
bring together all the data worth 
consideration, beginning with the 

most recent and so arrive at 

some definite statements within 
known limits of uncertainty." 

Later in his paper he says : "It 
may seem rather astonishing to see 
on all maps, until within recent 
years, such a careful definition of 
miles as 'statute miles, 69y 2 to 1°; 
but the need for this explicitness 
arose from the great confusion 
which existed between different 
miles." 

In Gibson's edition of "Camden's 
Britannia," published in 1695, and 
containing forty or more maps of 
English countries and localities, 
there are no less than three varying 
scales on nearly all the maps for 
three different kinds of miles, two 
of them considerably longer than 
the statute mile. The "great" mile 
equalled 1.29 statute miles, the 
"middle," 1.167, and the "small" 
1.037. Petrie says of them: "Now 
these values are very exactly in the 
proportion of 10, 9, and 8: and since 
we cannot doubt that the 1.037 was 
intended foi the statute mile of 
8 furlongs, it seems that these three 
miles were 10, 9, and 8 furlongs re- 
spectively." 

Even more to the point of our in- 
quiry are Petrie's studies of the 
maps of Ogilby, the great surveyor 
of England, to whom the first accur- 
ate road maps and measurements 

*Petrie refers to the old English miles as 



are due. He published his atlas, 
"Itiherarium Angliae/' in 1675 — the 
typographical edition of his work, 
"The Travellers Guide." is dated 
1699. It mentions "the miles of 
'horizontal distance' (i.e., as the 
crow flies), those of 'vulgar compu- 
tation,' (i.e., the old long miles), 
and those of 'dimensuration/ (i.e., 
the statute miles)." In Petrie's in- 
vestigation of the Ogilby maps "the 
roads were broken up into lengths 
of about forty miles each for pur- 
poses of ; comparison of the mile 
lengths. The lengths compared to- 
gether are in all 154 in number, of 
which 134 belong to the old mile, 
the other 20 to the Northwest of 
England and the Welsh mile. 
From the mean of these 134 lengths 
the old mile appears as 1.307" 
statute miles. 

Now comes the most significant 
statement, for our purposes, in 
Petrie's article. Still writing of 

"The 
which 



these 134 lengths he says: 



posting miles 



are given, 



though agreeing in general with the 
old miles, yet in nine cases are 
shorter, and in two cases a little 
longer, the shortest form is equal to 
the statute mile." He does not 
tell us how many there were of the 
"shortest form," but if there were 
only nine of them "shorter" than the 
old mile, we may fairly take it that 
there were still fewer of the "short- 
est form" which he says was "equal 
to the statute mile." 

If about a century after the legal- 
ization of the statute mile so little 
was it in common use in England, 
what may we expect of New Eng- 
land at the same period and later? 

If the old English mile, equal to 
1.307 statute miles was the "popu- 
lar"** and "posting" mile in Eng- 
land down through the seventeenth 

"the popular mile during the four centuries 



it," ending: about 1700. 

'sometimes Governor of Virginia and Admirall of New England. 



In which we have traced 
••Captain John Smith. 
clearly aware of the statute mile of eight furlongs, for in his "Sea Grammar," published m 
lc ~7, writing of the highest mountain as "ten furlongs perpendicular," he says "that is a mile 
and a quarter." But Captain John Smith was not only abreast of his time, he was far 
ahead of it, and knew the value of the statute mile a.s an equal multiple of the furlong. In 
his charts, as might be expected, he uses the nautical mile, sixty to the degree. 



118 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



century and probably later, was the 
common road or milestone mile, and 
the usual surveyor's mile of New- 
England, an}- shorter or different 
length at the same time? That 
seems unlikely., although of course. 
possible.* No reason is apparent 
why the statute mile should have 
been commonly adopted here any 
earlier than in England. 

Several pamphlets and articles 
about Mile-stones in New England, 
•particular!} around Boston, have 
been written, but, with one ex- 
ception, it does not seem to have 
occurred to the writers to consider 
the distance between them. In 
writing of the milestones between 
Boston and Quincy, Mr. Read says: 
"The total distance, 10 ->4 miles plus 
one rod, indicates that the stones 
were not placed in their proper lo- 
cations, and furthermore the dis- 
tances between them vary from 78 
to 120 chains." This seems hope- 
less. It is nevertheless hoped that 
some of our learned antiquarians 
will give careful consideration to the 
length of the early New England 
mile. In such inquiry it would be 
useless to consider milestones set 
later than the early part of the 
eighteenth century, and perhaps use- 
less to consider the earlier 
ones, for few, if any. of 
these are now in their orig- 
inal locations. If sure of the old 
route some information might be 
gained by measuring accurately to 
an early milestone twenty or thirty 
miles distant from the "Town 
House," formerly on the site of the 
present Old State House, in Boston; 
but early surveyor's records, stating 
the length of the mile in feet, would 
be more convincing. 

Much that Professor Petrie writes 
is of great interest to the topogra- 
pher, civil engineer and surveyor. 
One of his very interesting conclu- 
sions is that by the change of the 

•See, an article by Charles F. Head, in F 
and one by Samuel A. Green In Proceedings JIa: 



mediaeval English foot from 13.22 
inches to the foot of 12 inch.es, "we 
have lost the basis of a decimal sys- 
tem of measures, and thus compli- 
cated our land measure in a most 
troublesome manner." He gives the 
series of measures making up the 
mediaeval mile as follows: 
1 foot 13.22 inches 

6 feet — 1 fathom 79.32 inches 

10 fathoms — 1 chain 793.02 inches 
10 chains — 1 furlong 7932.00 inches 
10 furlongs — Imile 79320.00 inches 
equals 1.252 statute miles. 

It may be noted that the number 
of inches in the mediaeval furlong, 
as per the above table, is only 12 
more than in the modern furlong. 
The furlong, Anglo-Saxon furlang, 
was the length of a furrow, the 
standard drive of a plough before 
it was turned. "The statute mile 
and furlong were probably indepen- 
dent of each other originally. The 
earliest mile near the statute mile 
was one of 5000 feet, defined in the 
Canterbury registers as 7 l / 2 fur- 
longs. 3 perches and 2 palms, about 
1350 A. D. Then about 1470 A. D. 
a mile appears of 8 furlongs, which 
first received legal recognition in 
1593 A. D. Now if the mile of 8 
furlongs had always existed, it is 
very unlikely that one containing a 
fractional number of furlongs would 
have arisen, so it is probable that 
the furlong is the older measure, 
and that the mile was adapted to fit 
it. And this is also indicated by 
the register of Battle Abbey men- 
tioning furlongs but not miles, so 
the furlong appears a long time be- 
fore the mile." 

In summing up, Petrie says: "On 
the whole I should incline to fix the 
value of the old English mile as 
1.300 statute miles during the end 
of the fifteenth on to [the end of] 
the seventeenth centuries, and to 
suppose that during the fourteenth 
century and at the beginning of the 

.eeedinss Brookline Historical Soc. 1909, p. 21. 
i. Historical Soc. lisOS-9, Vol. 42, 3 series, p. 11. 



HOW LONG WAS A MILE? 



19 



fifteenth, it was lengthening from 
a value of 1.265 which it had in the 
thirteenth century. As it had 
lengthened thus, it is not improba- 
ble that the original value of it was 
still shorter, perhaps not exceeding 
1.250 statute miles." But from the 
quotation above it appears there was 
in the fourteenth century a shorter 
mile of 5000 feet. 

This, Petrie thinks, was length- 
ened to 5280 feet to moke it the even 
multiple of the furlong. It is rather 
strange that in speaking of dis- 
tances we here in New England or- 
dinarily say ''an eighth of a mile," 
instead of using the ancient and in- 
teresting word furlong. It would 
probably be heard frequently in the 
mountains of North Carolina, where 



in daily use are many words we 
rarely hear, but which in Shak- 
speare's time were in common use 
in England. 

The varying length of the early 
mile is of interest in New Hamp- 
shire history, if for no other reason 
because it probably entered into fix- 
ing the location of the Mason Curve. 
The Masonian Proprietors would 
naturally desire to place the Curve 
as far west as possible thereby en- 
larging their domain. 

What was the starting point on 
the sea for the measure of the sixty 
miles inland where the)' were to 
begin the survey of the curve, and 
what was the length of the mile they 
used? These questions will be con- 
sidered in the next article. 



A MARCH DAY 

By Kate J. Kimball 

Without, the brown ground is streaked with old snow 

The trees are still gray, the stinging winds blow. 

Not even the pines look cheerful and green, 

There, only a rusty blackness is seen. 

My well-cherished vines are lifeless and bare. 

My lovely trim garden, can it be there? 

In that acre of ice and mud and snow 

Will my delicate peas and lettuce grow? 

Of the strawberry vines there's not a trace. 

Asparagus, where is your filmy lace? 

Not a robin sings, nor Mister Bluebird. 

Not even the brave Chickadee is heard. 

"Is there one lovely thing without," I cry. 

"Where's the lace of the elms against the sky?" 



But within,, just see my grate fire glow. 
(There's a furnace, too, in the cellar below.) 
Here on my table three daffodils bloom, 
Little golden suns in my pleasant room. 
I am warm and safe in my sheltered nook. 
I read on and on in a thrilling book. 
I read of old Europe distraught and torn, 
And thank God America's young and strong. 
Thank God for the men that flung life away, 
That I may live on in safety today. 



?*>* I'* 



COL. DANIEL HALL 



Colonel Daniel Hall of Dover, sol- 
dier, scholar, lawyer, author, orator, 
and publicist, died at his home, 
Thursday, January 8, 1920, in the 
88th year of a life distinguished alike 
for the length of its days and for 
the usefulness, love and honors with 
which they were filled. 

The story of his career is so well 
and widely known, even to the 
younger generation, that only the 
bare recital of its most salient facts 
is necessary or desirable here. But 
some brief record of what he accom- 
plished and some simple tribute to 
the talents and virtues he possessed 
should appear in the historical and 
biographical records of the state 
magazine. 

Colonel Hall was born in Bar- 
rington, February 28, 1832, the son 
of Gilman and Eliza (Tuttle) Hall ; 
being in the eighth generation from 
Johri Hall, the hrst deacon of the 
First Church in Dover, and in the 
seventh g-eneration from Captain 
John Tuttle, one of the great men 
of town and province in the seven- 
teenth century. 

His early life w r as spent, upon his 
father's farm, but even in boyhood 
days in the district school the 
scholarly bent of his mind was dis- 
closed and promise given of the 
future culture which he attained. 
Save for a few months in the acad- 
emies at Strafford and Tilton, he 
fitted himself for college, and while 
there earned most of the money for 
his expenses, teaching every winter 
in the schools of Barrington; yet 
he graduated at the head of the 
brilliant Dartmouth class of 1854, 
of which but two members now sur- 
vive, President Benjamin A. Kim- 
ball of the Concord & Montreal 
Railroad, and Leander M. Nute of 
Portland, Me. 

After leaving college he was for 



four years a clerk in the Xew York 
custom house, at the same time be- 
ginning the study of law. This he 
completed in the office of Daniel M. 
Christie at Dover, having lost his 
official position through becoming 
one of the founders of the Republi- 
can party, and was admitted to the 
Xew Hampshire bar in May, 1860. 

In the summer of 1861, having the 
friendship of Senator John P. Hale, 
he was appointed clerk of a special 
Senate committee engaged in inves- 
tigating the surrender of the Nor- 
folk, Va., navy yard to the Confed- 
erate government, and when that 
work was finished he became clerk 
of the Senate committee on Naval 
Affairs, of which Mr. Hale was 
chairman. 

In March, 1862, he was commis- 
sioned captain in the United States 
Army and participated in the bat- 
tles of Fredericksburg. Antietam, 
Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. 
Invalided home in December, 1863, 
he was nursed back to health by 
his mother, and in June. 1864, was 
appointed provost marshal for the 
First New Hampshire district, with 
headquarters at Portsmouth, and so 
continued until the end of the w r ar. 

After leaving the army, Captain 
Hall resumed the practice of law 
in Dover, but was judge advocate 
with the rank of major in the militia 
under Governor Frederick Smythe 
and an aide-de-camp, with the rank 
of colonel, on the staff of Governor 
Walter Harriman. 

While studying law, Colonel Hall 
had been school commissioner for 
Strafford county, 1859-60. He was 
clerk of the supreme court for Straf- 
ford county, 1866-74; judge of the 
Dover police court, 1868-74; reporter 
of the decisions of the New Hamp- 
shire supreme court, 1876-7; United 
States naval officer of customs for 



COL. DANIEL HALL 



121 



the port of Boston, 1877-85, and del- 
egate to the state constitutional con- 
vention of 1912. 

Esteemed throughout his active 
life a leader in the Republican party, 
he was the president of its state con- 
vention in 1873; chairman of its 
state committee 1874-7; and chair- 
man of the state delegation to the 
national convention of 1876. 

Colonel Hall was a member of the 
board of managers of the state Sol- 
diers' Home at Tilton from 1889 
until- his death. A member of Post 
17, G. A. R., he was commander of 
the department of New Hampshire 
1892-3. He was also a member of 
the Loyal Legion. 

Much interested in historical and 
genealogical research, he had been 
president of the New Hampshire 
Historical Society and the Northam 
Colonists Historical Society of 
Dover and was an interested mem- 
ber of the Piscataqua Pioneers So- 
ciety. Before these bodies he had 
delivered valuable addresses in line 
with their objects and purposes. 

Both as a writer and speaker Col- 
onel Hall always was eloquent, in- 
teresting and instructive. His great- 
est effort in this direction undoubt- 
edly was his oration at the unveiling 
of the statue of John P. Hale at 
the State House in Concord in Aug- 
ust, 1892; but the volume of Occa- 
sional Addresses, which he pub- 
lished in that year, contains many 
other excellent examples of the 
great store of knowledge and the 
unusual command of language which 
lie brought to the consideration of 
any topic. 

Colonel Hall married, on January 
25, 1877, Sophia, daughter of Jona- 
than T. and Sarah (Hanson) Dodge 
of Rochester, a woman of great 
ability and the finest character, who 
proved a worthy helpmate of her 
distinguished husband until her 
much mourned death, December 1, 
1918. 

Their only child is Arthur Welles- 



ley Hall, born August 20, 1878, a 
graduate of Harvard, and lawyer in 
Dover, who married Inez, daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs-; Frederick H. Bun- 
ker of Dover. Their son, born Feb- 
ruary 12, 1909, carries on the name 
of his grandfather. 

In the last years of his life Colonel 
Hall further endeared himself to his 
fellow citizens of Dover by two acts, 
the presentation of a beautiful sol- 
diers 7 monument to the city and the 
establishing of the Woodman Insti- 
tute, which will preserve his mem- 
ory among future generations. 

An old friend of Colonel Hall and 
a long-time contributor to this mag- 
azine, John B. Stevens of Dover, 
has written from the heart the fol- 
lowing tribute to one of New Hamp- 
shire's best citizens : 

"Colonel Flail died in old age, not 
by a violent stroke from the hand 
of death, not by a sudden rupture 
of the ties of nature, but by a grad- 
ual wearing out. Like ripe fruit, 
he has dropped into his mother's 
lap. 

"He was very well known 
throughout the state, and to Dover 
was an open book. The sympathetic 
pen of Dr. A. H. Quint has dealt 
with the incidents of his early life, 
his chief characteristics, deeds and 
words, and a host of newspapers 
have told us he was in all ways ac- 
complished, trustworthy and exper- 
ienced. But something remains. 
There are aspects of the character 
of my old friend, which have not 
been made so prominent as' they 
deserve. 

"As a young man he was a be- 
liever in most of the doctrines of 
the Democratic party, but unalter- 
ably of opinion that slavery was 
wrong and its extension a mon- 
strous evil. It is not strange that 
development made him a Republi- 
can. But it is unlikely that the 
young man worked out his problem 
logically. The open and cultivated 
mind of youth, under favorable cir- 



122 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



cumstances, takes a higher place 
than that of the mere reasoner. It 
is a higher faculty to see than it 
is to demonstrate what ought to be 
seen. 

"His personal appearance at mid- 
dle age was striking. He was chief* 
h remarkable for an exceptional 
smile, and the winning fashion of 
his manifestations of interest in 
whatever was in hand. His eyes 
and mouth were full of character, 
his manners simple and dignified, 
and he had that graceful ease which 
comes fiom early familiarity with 
able, men, secure position, friend- 
ship, books and society. 

''Born in Barrington and educat- 
ed at Dartmouth, he made Dover 
his home for many years, and here 
in quiet perseverance, broken only 
by State and Federal office-holding 
all the work of a" long and most in- 
dustrious and successful life has 
been done, and well done. 

"The writer's earliest recollection 
of him dates back to a period an- 
terior to his settling in Dover. We 
used to meet in Deacon Lane's 
bookstore. What a treat it was to 
roam at will among the varied treas- 
ures the worthy possessor knew 
nothing about. The writer recalls 
looking up to his somewhat older 
companion Avith mingled awe and 
admiration. From the time of that 
brief and distant association our 
ways diverged. We knew of him 
only by hearsay until he began the 
study of law with Daniel M. 
Christie. 

"We are not competent to speak 
of him as a councilor-at-law, but we 
can say he 'never spared himself 
when the faintest shadow of obliga- 
tion seemed to call for effort or sac- 
rifice. His fidelity was a proverb 
and an axiom. Very eloquent he 
was, as all who heard his public 



speech will testify. We leave his 
military career to the surviving vet- 
erans, who shared war's dangers 
with him. The printed record 
shows toilful and dutiful expendi- 
ture of young strength in his coun- 
try's behalf. 

"Early in life he began to lay the 
foundation of a noble library.' It 
grew with his years and became a 
near and dear and ever more pre- 
cious possession. In a day when 
the study of language and literature 
began to be considered antiquated — 
a culture not demanded by modern 
life — the sedulously studied English 
of Colonel Hall elicited strong ex- 
pressions of appreciation from 
'mouths of wisest censure.' Col- 
onel Hall was a polished scholar 
of the old school. He had a won- 
derful hold on traditional human 
feeling — talked with unusual attrac- 
tiveness of manner, with sure direct- 
ness, with strong sense and fine 
taste. 

"Long after his printed thoughts 
have ceased to be sought, some 
touch of nature in them, some trait 
of insight or ingenuity of solution 
will come into Dover fireside con- 
versation and remind a future gen- 
eration of the man whose memory 
we honor today. He was a fearless 
champion of all noble causes — a 
booster of misunderstood and fre- 
quently unpopular causes — a defen- 
der of free speech, free toil, free 
schools, guarded ballot boxes. 
Never was man more faithful to his 
vision, never one with whom con- 
viction and avowal, conviction and 
action, were more indissolubly 
joined. 

"This is the estimate of one who 
knew him intimately for many 
years and who will retain a pleasant 
memory of his talents and diligent 
search after truth." 



A. W. O. L. IN BELGIUM 



Btj a. New H 



arapshire 



P. T. Girl (Miss Miinia S. Howe) 



It was a sunny June afternoon 
when orders came for two of us to 
leave German}-, where we had been 
with the Third Army in the capacity 
of Reconstruction Aides in Physio 
Therapy. 

We knew that this meant home 
and the good old U. S. A. 

It would have sounded good to 
say and think U. S. A. in France, 
where we had spent almost a year 
with our boys and where we felt 
at home ; but to be leaving Germany 
was joy itself. 

We loved her scenery ; but scen- 
ery, it seems, does not make a peo- 
ple, in spite of the theory of en- 
vironment. 

You will say, as many do, "Why, 
we hear so much of their kindness 
to all the Third Army!" 

If you can call plain, every day 
"handshaking." for the sake of 
what's coming out of it, kindness, 
perhaps we had it. But should you 
engage in conversation with a Ger- 
man long enough for him to become 
stirred over the war he would al- 
ways end with "Huh ! We'll get you 
by another twenty years." 

Well, we were happy to be going 
back across the border from this 
untouched, picturesque land to the 
shell-torn country where we felt we 
were among friends. 

For some days my pal and I had 
contemplated a little journey A. W. 
O. L. into Belgium. We said "Too 
had, after seeing so much while on 
leave and on duty, not to see that 
first little country to be trampled 
on by the Boche in his descent on 
humanity." 

So this bright June day settled the 
argument and at 4 a. m' the followr 
mg day we were bouncing in an am- 
bulance toward the Bahnhof in 
trier en route to Luxemburg. At 
Luxemburg we purchased military 
tickets for Brussells (for only five 



francs) and after a hot ride through 
a peaceful, rural country arrived in 
Brussells at 2 p. m. 

First, we thought we would slide 
by the M. P.'s. but on second 
thought we knew we could talk a 
24-hour pass out of one of them and 
decided we would play safe to start. 
So, with the desired slip of yellow 
paper, we walked across the Place 
into a busy city and made straight 
for the Y. M. for information in re- 
gard to trips, etc. 

We found a splendid trip, leaving 
at 8 the following morning for 
Bruges, Zeebrugge and O.stende — 
two days — and that 24-hour pass ! 
"Nevermind, we'll go. All they 
can do to us is to confine us to quar- 
ters on arrival at Brest." 

So that afternoon we spent taking 
glimpses of Brussells — petit Paris, 
they call it, and so it is, and more 
charming in some ways for its srnall- 
ness. 

Needless to say the Palais de Jus- 
tice, the largest building in the 
world, held us for some time ; as 
did the old King's Palace and Flotel 
de Yille, ornate buildings, with 
beautiful carvings and statuary 
adorning the outside and inside, old 
Flemish architecture and full of his- 
tory and legends. 

We visited lacemakers, with their 
bobbins flying, feasted on the 
biggest, juiciest strawberries ever 
grown ; and, of course, tried to 
buy a Belgian police dog; but since 
so many Americans had this craze 
we couldn't produce enough francs, 
the demand having caused the dogs 
to be valued more highly than in the 
old days. 

We turned in very early to make 
ready for our trip the following day, 
saying, "We'll see more of Brus- 
sells on our return." 

The railway trip to Bruges takes 



124 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



one through one of the most beau- 
tiful bits of lowland country imag~ 
inable — cunning little white cot- 
tages; huge windmills, waving their 
arms like great birds ; long stretches 
of green fertile fields — and then the 
first signs of destruction. 

It's a strange hurt chat one senses 
when suddenly awakened from a 
lovely quiet dream, looking over 
these beautiful fields, by the loom- 
ing up of the wreck of a home, or 
twisted railroad tracks hurled into 
space, wires pulled down, great 
gaps in the earth, bridges gone. 

Then, again, we dropped into a 
peaceful country, and as we neared 
Bruges, saw no destruction. You 
see Bruges was a German sub.- 
shelter and the} guarded it safely. 

A young aviator was our guide, 
and a good one, too. He walked us 
straight up the narrow, cobblestoned 
street, leading to the Main Place 
and the famous old Belfry of Bruges 
with its sweet chimes sounding 
every quarter hour. Some way or 
other w r e felt near at home in this 
quaint town. It must have been 
the tower, I believe, and the thought 
of Longfellow's poem. 

Of all the crooked streets and odd 
people ; speaking Flemish and 
dressed in all kinds of garments, too 
full and too small ; big wooden shoes 
and no shoes: and all staring at Les 
Americaines and we at them ! 

We were billeted in a small house 
with a ladder stairway, huge straw 
beds and the usual scarcity of water. 
Our lunch was excellent, in spite 
of the "poison fright," as one woman 
persisted in calling poisson frite. 

Immediately after lunch we hiked 
through the town to the submarine 
bases and sheds on the large canal 
leading to Zeebrugge. A tunnel 
had been built underground to these 
sheds and the Germans and their 
agents had gone back and forth daily 
erecting their gun bases and sheds, 
unknown until too late. 

The sheds are of concrete, im- 
mense buildings, holding eight sub- 



marines. The cement roof is seven 
feet thick and the rest in proportion. 
It took a crew, in from their daily 
work, three or four weeks to rest 
before going out again. Frutn this 
base 10 submarines were kept at sea 
and eight resting continually until 
May, 1918, when they were bottled 
up by the daring British fleet at 
Zeebrugge and deserted Bruges for 
good. 

We rambled through the debris of 
subs, blown up in the canal and of 
other damaged boats, and gradually 
found ourselves back on the road to 
town and to visit Rubens' old studio, 
built in 1634. 

It has his first picture on its walls 
and many curios of interest in the 
room. Out in the quaint little gar- 
den we were refreshed by a large 
stein of beer and then were ready 
to walk on to see more of this his- 
toric town. 

We ventured into a 16th century 
church where nuns were chanting 
their vesper hymns and prayers ; a 
dear little place modelled after the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre at 
Jerusalem. W r e must also see the 
Chapel of the Holy Blood, built in 
840, where we learned of the Pro- 
cession of the Holy Blood held every 
May, two weeks after the first Mon- 
day after the second of May. A 
vial brought from Jerusalem by a 
count, a leader in the Second Crus- 
ade, contains the Holy Blood, and 
it is placed in a casket worth six 
million francs. The original casket 
was destroyed by the Iconoclasts, 
but John Crab of Bruges modelled 
the present gem after the original 
in 1648. It is in honor of this vial 
of blood that all the people march 
in the famous procession every May. 

But we must hasten on to the 
old Palace of the Lords, to the canals 
and a lace shop, and finally to climb 
the Belfry and look down on the 
old pointed roofs of Bruges, and, 
at last, weary, but happy, to bed. 

The following day beamed on^us, 
and we set out for Zeebrugge. Ike 



A. W. O. L. IX BELGIUM 



125 



saw 



conn try here is very like Holland, 
which is only eight or ten miles 
away. We walked about four miles 
along a splendid esplanade on the 
North Sea to the famous Mole, 
where the British bottled up the 
Germans by sinking the Thetis, 
Iphigenia and Intrepid. Later, we 
saw the Vindictive at Ostende 
where she endeavored to block the 
canal there, but was rammed and 
unable to complete her work. 

So many, man}- things we did and 
! But above all these wonder- 
sights and interesting and in- 
structive trips comes the most glo- 
rious scene and the saddest — the one 
never-to-be-forgotten panorama — 
Ypres and Flanders fields. 

We left the train at 6.30 a. m. to 
walk over these fields. The sun was 
breaking through a haze that made 
the crushed white walls of Ypres 
look more ghostlike. 

We shuddered at the ruins — the 
Hall of Cloth crumbled except for 
the one lone tower partly standing, 
raising its head to heaven, the one 
thing left in the city high enough 
to reach up toward those thousands 
of British and Canadian boys who 
fell all around Ypres and whom Col- 
onel McCrae, before he fell, immor- 
talized by his. poem, "We Shall Not 
Sleep." 

The poppies 
among the ruins and the graves, one 
little hopeful sign of life for those 
returning to endeavor to rebuild 
their homes and villages. 

It is rightly termed No Man's 
Land. Who could live in that dis- 
torted, shell-torn land, filled with 
ruins, debris, graves, tanks, dug- 
outs, and row upon row of white 
crosses ! ... 

We found one courageous soul 
upon our return from tramping, the 
keeper of the big hotel in Ypres, 
back there to live again. Tears 
filled his eyes as he spoke of his 
"grande hotel" and his old home and 
fiends; but there in his little shack 
was the beginning of the second ho- 



bloomed bright 



tel, and we enjoyed one of his own 
good meals, cooked with little or 
nothing, but good, nevertheless. 

We had left our party the night 
before, and suddenly our 24-hour 
pass loomed before us. This was 
our third da)- out from Brussells. 
So we looked back upon the black, 
broken shadows of the trees and all 
that sad scene, and turned our faces 
towards Brussells once more. 

Well, will wonders never cease! 
We passed the M. P. and out into 
the Place, so well pleased with our- 
selves that we decided to try Ant- 
werp the next day. So early to 
bed, up again at daybreak, and up 
to that beautiful seaport city to visit 
the famous art galleries with Ru- 
bens' and Van Dyck's originals, and 
the old cathedral with its immense 
organ, wonderfully carved pulpit 
and Rubens' masterpiece, "The 
Descent from the Cross." It was 
good to find these beautiful old edi- 
fices and art treasures left whole. 

W r e walked all day and learned 
to love the city and the little Bel- 
gian girl whom we found to be an 
old friend in Bordeaux, wdiere she 
was a refugee and working in one 
of our canteens. 

At evening w r e trotted back to 
Brussells. Yes, w^e must leave the 
next morning or be led out by the 
Provost Marshal's gentle hand ; so 
we didn't see all we wanted of Brus- 
sells, but we made one more trip, 
to the place of Edith Ca veil's exe- 
cution and to the graves of those 
Belgian martyrs shot in Brussells 
by Germans .as alleged spies. One 
never saw r a more unlovely spot. W T e V.? 
stood where the firing squad had' 
stood, then turned and left, sick at 
heart with our thoughts. ■ " 
. Back we. journeyed to our. hotel 
to pack up our kits .and leave, this 
time for our. port 'and home. ' ~ f ',A. 
glorious A..W. O. L. trip it was, 
lasting ,10 days more and taking' us '. ' 
out of Belgium, back to France and 
.soon after to the grand olci U. S. A. ' 



NEW HAMPSHIRE'S MOST FRIENDLY TREES 



B\ Rev. Roland D. Saivvcr 



No. 1. 
The Pixe. 



"And the Lord God planted a gar- 
den, and put therein the man he 
had formed, and out of the ground 
made, to grow ever}* tree that is 
pleasant to the sight and good for 
food." — The Scriptures. 
Nature has two great forces which 
far outrun all others in their influ- 
ence on mankind, the ocean and the 
forests. From the depths of the 
sea.s came all forms of life, and the 
connecting arms of rivers and seas 
made civilization possible. The 
fish and the shell-fish sustained the 
earliest tribes, and then as man 
made his bow and arrow he was 
able to follow along the sea-edge 
and follow the streams, and finally 
to branch off" thru the great forests, 
living upon the nuts, fruits, and an- 
imal life which he found living: 
there. Trees were man's early 
shelter, his first altars for worship ; 
the leafy coverts were his inalien- 
able possession which he defended 
with his life. 

And as civilization began among 
the trees in the history of man, so 
it began in the New World. The. 
settler from Europe found the great 
Atlantic coast from Virginia to 
New England an almost universal 
forest. The hardy groups that set- 
tled Dover, Exeter, Hampton and 
Portsmouth, and later pushed up 
into other parts of the State, located 
amid the great forests where the 
woodman's axe had n'er been heard 
till their own hardy blows rang out. 
The entire Atlantic coast was a 
pathless wilderness to all save the 
native sons of the forests, the red- 
men. And those forests, which had 
dropped their life upon the earth 
for thousands of years, had made 
fertile the ground for man's seed. 



The settler cleared away the moss- 
covered giants, let the sun warm 

the dampness of the forests, and 
dropped his rye. buckwheat, beau?. 
corn, turnips — and Mother-Nature 
did the rest. 

The primitive forests varied 
somewhat, but the predominating 
tree, was the pine. That beautiful, 
fragrant and musical tree was to 
our ancestors the most friendly of 
all the family of the forest. Maine- 
calls itself the "Pine-Tree State," 
but New Hampshire could have 
claimed the title just as well, for 
we had as many of the pines to the 
acre as Maine, and they ran just as 
high and straight; for we find as 
late as about 1750 the King of Eng- 
land ordered all pines that were 
over 150 feet in height and suitable 
for masts should be blazed and kept 
for His Majesty's Navy. Many of 
the noble trees of primitive growth 
ran above 200 feet in height. New 
Hampshire down to 1784 carried 
the Pine Tree on its state shield. 

The Pine is a great democratic 
tree, it is found in every land, and 
is loved by every race, but of all 
the kinds of pine, none is so beau- 
tiful, graceful and friendly to man 
as the white pine — the native pine 
of New Hampshire. It is a pyramid 
of beauty and majesty, and the warm 
sun plays in flickering rays thru its 
silken needles; looking into a pine 
grove as we approach it we see a 
most beautiful series of whorls of 
branches, banked one upon another. 
There is a delicate fragrance, from 
the pine and a gentle and musical 
purring which fills the soul with 
peace. Whether seen from afar as 
it gives character and beauty to the 
landscape, or from close range as 
we lie upon a carpet of needles at 
its roots, the pine-tree is always a 
joy to the sight. The evergreens 



NEW HAMPSHIRE'S MOST FRIENDLY TREES 



127 



are the friendliest family of trees 
for man and animal and the white- 
pine is the friendliest of the family. 

The evergreens are the oldest 
trees, best known to man. most use- 
ful to him ; and none are more use- 
ful than the white-pine. The scrip- 
ture does not say, but I am quite 
sure the tree that the Lord God first 
planted for man was the White- 
Pine. The wood of the pine is so 
light, . inflammable , soft-grained, 
easily cut and handled, that it early 
became the favorite tree for use in 
building and warming the home, 



for implements and the like, among 
our ancestors. The pines were tents 
of coolness and shelter spread out 
in protection over the settlers of 
New r Hampshire, and we their sons 
and daughters should love and fit- 
tingly admire and preserve, the 
stately, graceful, friendly trees that 
have meant so much to near 300 
years of human life in our state. 

Winnicunnit, "the beautiful place 
of the pines." was the Indian name 
for old Hampton, and it might fit- 
tingly have been the name of the. 
entire state. 



THE SUMMIT: CUBE MOUNTAIN, FEBRUARY 22, 1919 

By IF alter B. Wolfe. 

You climbed the peak with me 

Ernest, Ned and Paul, 

Toiled up thru drifted snows 

Ever onward 

Unto the summit's glory, 

Windswept, barren — 

With drifted snows 

Vying with the grey-green lichen 

Upon the cokl grey rock. . . . 

You reached the heights, 

Looked out into the haze, 

And passed — 

Alone I stood 

Far, far above the banked snow clouds — 

There, far below, the silent valleys 

Patched with flecks of sun and shade, 

And the habitations of men 

Far, far below. . . . 

wind swept silence 

High upon the mountain's peak 

You have .shown me 

The majesty of loneliness.... 

They have passed, 

Ernest and Ned and Paul, 

Alone — 

1 have seen the soul » 
Of the mountain. . . . 



EDITORIAL 



As will be gathered from the re- 
view of its work published else- 
where ill this number, the New 
Hampshire Constitutional Conven- 
tion of 1918-20 was not an ambitious 
body. Most of its votes were in the 
negative and most of the affirmative 
action which it did take w r as not of 
great importance. If the. seven 
amendments to the constitution 
which it proposes are all ratified by 
the people they will take two dead 
letters from the Bill of Rights; will 
reduce by one-fourth the size of the 
House of Representatives; will al- 
low civil pensions ; will make the 
Governor's veto power a more con- 
venient instrument for shaping the 
state's financial policy ; and will 
open the whole field of incomes and 
inheritances to state taxation. 
These last two amendments are im- 
portant and necessary, because the 
limit almost has been reached of the 
burden which state taxation can 
place upon the present available 



subjects of its power. The state- 
must have more money and tin- 
easiest and be.st way in which it 
can get it is by these new taxes. 
We have little doubt that two-thirds 
of the voters ( will recognize this 
exigency and vote "yes" on these 
amendments. Our own opinion is 
that the other five amendments also 
should prevail. No crisis will fol- 
low if they are beaten, but there will 
be an improvement in various con- 
ditions if they are adopted. Some. 
with future-piercing vision, feel and 
express regret that the convention 
refused to submit to the people 
amendments allowing the special 
taxation of growing wood and tim- 
ber; providing a less expensive and 
cumbersome mode of amending the 
constitution ; and establishing the 
principle of the referendum. But 
the majority of the delegates evi- 
dently believed that in conservatism 
was safety ; and perhaps they were 
right. 



OUR WORLD AT PEACE 

By Charles Nevers Holmes 

The war-tide ebbs, the peace-tide flows, 
No more death's anvil rings and glows, 
No roaring guns — the mangled dead — 
And sun-kissed field no more is red ; 
The sword is sheathed, the dove returns, 
Again the hearth-fire brightly burns, 
And by that cheerful light and heat 
Some happy household sits — complete. 



A BOOK OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



Rhymes of Vermont Rural Life. 
By Daniel L. Cady. Pp. 279. 
Frontispiece portrait. Rutland, 
Yt. : The Tuttle Company. 

Maine has her Hoi man Day; 
New Hampshire has her Sam Wal- 
ler Foss ; Vermont has her Daniel 
L. Cady. Straight from the soil 
their poetic inspiration ; true to the 
hearts of the people the sentiment 
of their verses. Doctor Cady was 
born just across the Connecticut 
river from New Hampshire in 
Windsor, Vermont, and attended 
school at our famous old Kimball 
Union Academy, Meriden ; so that 
he seems like one of our own folks. 
And \\ hile he insists upon the Ver- 
mont title, not only on his book, 
but in the headlines of his individual 
poems, the rhymes themselves ap- 
ply just as well to the state whose 
mountains are white as to that 



whose mountains arc green. Pick- 
ing apples, boiling sap, making soap, 
planting corn, working up the wood- 
pile, cleaning out the "stiller," 
mending -brush fence, dipping can- 
dles, banking up the house, picking 
stone, butchering in the fall, playing 
checkers, washing sheep, blasting 
stone, burning brush, pitching hay, 
working on the. road ; we do them 
all on New Hampshire farms just 
as they do across the river. And 
with just the change of a word we 
can say with our neighbor poet : 

The native hills of .old Vermont 

Are 'bout as good as hills can be ; 
They kindly met my opening eyes, 

I hope they'll be the last I see. 
When folks get back from 'round the world 

They sorter fill a long-felt want — 
There's nothing neater on the map 

Than these old hills of old Vermont. 



FREE 

By Harold Vina! 



I would not have you bound to me. 

Through all eternity, 
But free and buoyant as a bird, 

That beats above the sea. 

Yet glad to know you thought of me. 

Though far away — 
And that your spirit follows mine 

Both night and day. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



SUMNER WALLACE 

Sunnier Wallace of Rochester, one of 
the not large number of New Hampshire 
millionaires, was born in Rochester, March 
7, 1856, the second son of Ebenezer G. 
and Sarah E. (Greenfield) Wallace, and 
died at his winter home. Lake Wales, 
Florida, January 11. He was educated in 
the schools of Rochester, at South Ber- 
wick, Me., Academy and at Dartmouth 
College, where he graduated in 1877. His 
life work was in the great shoe manu- 
facturing business founded by his father 
and uncle, but his financial connections 
were important and far-reaching, so that 
he was an officer of banks and corporations 
in half a dozen states At home he was 
president of the Rochester Trust Com- 
pany, director of the Concord & Montreal 
and Manchester & Lawrence railroads, etc. 
A Republican in politics, he represented 
his city in the Legislature of 1885 and was 
a member of Governor Frank W. Rollins' 
council, but refused further preferment. 
He was a Mason and Odd Fellow. His 
wife and four sisters survive him. 



JOSEPH W. CHASE 

Joseph Warren Chase, born in Chester, 
Dec. 2, 1830, the son of Captain Joseph 
and Mehitabie (Hall) Chase, died in the 
same town February 9. In youth he was 
employed in Manchester, Chicopee and 
Worcester, Mass., but for the past 63 
years had resided on the same farm in 
Chester. He served in the Civil War in 
Company C of the First New Ffampshire 
Regiment of Fleavy Artillery, and was a 
member of the G. A. R. He married 
Mary P. Edwards of Worcester, who died 
35 years ago. Of their five children, two 
survive, Mrs. Linda McCannon and Ed- 
ward C. Chase. John C. and Charles B. 
Chase of Derry are nephews. Mr. Chase 
was a good citizen of the type that is 
becoming regrettably rare. Especially will 
he be missed because of the great fund of 
local history which he had stored in an 
unusually retentive memory. 



WIN SLOW T. PERKINS 

Winslow T. Perkins, born in Tamworth. 
Jan. 4, 1837, the second son of True Per- 
kins, died at his home in Maiden, Mass., 
Jan. 15. He attended New Hampton 
Institution and in early life was in business 
in Minneapolis. Called home by the ill- 
ness of his mother he remained here to 
engage in railroading, his first position be- 
ing that of agent at Dover. Steady pro- 
motion followed, and in 1S90 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the Eastern Di- 
vision of the Boston & Maine, a position 
which he held for 20 years, retiring in 1910. 
A Republican in politics, he had served in 
the Dover city government and New 
Hampshire Legislature. He was a Mason 
and Odd Fellow. His wife. Caroline 
(Gray) Perkins, and two sons, George 
W. and Edwin C, survive him. 



Rev. WILLIAM W. RANNEY 

Rev. William Watson Ranney, pastor of 
the Church of Christ at Hanover since 
September, 1917, died Feb. 2. He was 
born at North Bennington, Vt, June 30, 
1864, and graduated from Williams Col- 
lege in 1885. For a time he was in Y. M. 
C. A. work, later studying for the min- 
istry at Andover Theological Seminary. 
After graduation there he was a member 
of the Maine .Missionary Band, working 
in the rural sections of that state. For 
13 years he was pastor of the Park Con- 
gregational Church at Hartford, Ct. Af- 
ter spending a year in travel in the mission 
fields of Asia, Mr. Ranney accepted a call 
to the First Congregational Church of Coi- 
orado Springs, Col., where he remained 
until 1916. A year of further study at 
Y'ale and Andover was followed by his 
call to Hanover. Mr. Ranney leaves a 
wife, Helen, the daughter of Rev. George 
E. Street, D.D., of Exeter, and a daughter, 
Mary. 



PUBLISHER'S NOTES 



Men who are widely known in the 
banking and business world comprise the 
officers and directorate of tine New Eng- 
land Guaranty Corporation, which, al- 
though only in business since the first of tht' 
present year, has already earned profits 
that a r e sufficient to pay the 1920 dividends 
on all preferred share- now outstanding. 

Chandler M. Wood, president of the 
Metropolitan Trust Company of Boston 
and a director or other officer in many 
financial and business institutions, is presi- 
dent of the new corporation. Arthur J. 
Skinner, president of the Commercial 
Trust Company of Springfield, is active 
vice-president Richard E. Breed, presi- 
dent of the American Gas & Electric Com- 
pany of New York, and John H. Harring- 
ton, owner and publisher of the Lowell 
Sun, are also vice-presidents. Horace E. 
Hildreth, director of the Waltham Watch 
Company, is treasurer. Arthur G. Hosmer 
is secretary and assistant treasurer. 

Christopher L. Meyerdirks, who, for 
some 18 years managed the credit depart- 
ment of Knauth, Nachod & Kuhne of New 
York without the loss of a dollar, has be- 
come credit manager for the new corpora- 
tion. Mr. Meyerdirks is considered one 
of the country's greatest experts in his 
field of labor, and it is very largely through 
such channels as he has represented that 
commercial banking, so long practised in 
continental Europe with wonderful success, 
has at last been adopted in the United 
States as the best known means of com- 
mercial expansion. 

The other directors all successful and 
substantial men in their lines of business, 
are as follows : Daniel E. Storms, vice- 
president of the Perelstrous & Storms Tool 
Corporation, New York ; H. L. Handy, 
president of the H. L. Handy Company, 
Springfield ; I. T. McGregor, vice-presi- 
dent of the Commercial Trust Company, 
Springfield ; S. W. Jameson, president of 
the United Life & Accident Insurance Com- 
pany, Concord, N. H. ; Charles P. Hol- 
land, president of the Plymouth County 
Trust Company, Brockton ; Frank H. Page, 
president of the National Equipment Com- 
pany, Springfield ; former Congressman 
Eugene E. Reed of Manchester, N. H., 
active vice-president of the Watson-Wil- 
hams Company, Boston; Charles E. Schoff, 
president of the Franklin County Savings 
Bank & Trust Company, St. Albans, Vt. ; 
Charles E, Hatfield, president of the First 
National Bank, West Newton ; Edward H. 



Watson, president of the Watson-Williams 
Company, Boston ; Frank P. Comstock, 
vice-president of the People's Savings ' 
Bank, Providence ; Col. Walter R. Porter, 
treasurer of the Troy blanket mills, Keene, 
N. H. ; Clifton Colburn, president of the 
Manufacturers' National Bank, Lynn; H. 
Douglas Williams, treasurer of the Wat- 
son-Williams Company, Boston ; Alfred D. 
Fisher, shoe manufacturer, Lynn; former 
Gov. Charles M. Floyd, president of the 
Floyd Clothing Company, Manchester, N. 
H. ; Charles A. Littlefield of Littlefield 
& Moulton, box manufacturers, Lynn. 

The home office of the New England 
Guaranty Corporation is in the Sears build- 
ing, corner of Court and Washington 
streets, Boston. As indicated, its business 
is commercial banking which consists, in 
brief, of the purchase of open commercial 
accounts receivable and acceptances, from 
well rated manufacturers and jobbers, pay- 
ing therefor about 80 per cent of their 
face value upon receipt of proof of ship- 
ment The remaining 20 per cent is re- 
tained as a guaranty and paid only as each 
account is collected. The method is ex- 
plained fully in a prospectus which the 
company issues upon request. 

Manufacturers are inclined to give an 
enthusiastic reception to a plan like this 
which enables them to increase their busi- 
ness without resorting to the expedient 
now so common of an increase in capital 
stock, with the resulting perpetual drain 
upon future earnings. 

The phenomenal success of the com- 
panies started in Baltimore some years ago 
to operate along these lines is striking evi- 
dence of the need of such banking service. 
The organization of such an institution 
with an authorized captal of $2,000,000 in 
Boston is also an effort to hold New Eng- 
land -business in its local channels which 
bids fair to bring good results. 

The fiscal agent for the new corporation 
is the Watson-Williams Company, invest- 
ment bankers, through whose efforts and 
instrumentality this splendid system has 
been brought to Boston and New England 
and developed. The Watson-Williams 
Company, in fact, secured the first business 
here. 

The State Street Trust Company is trans- 
fer agent, the American Trust Company 
registrar, and Barker, Wood &_ Williams 
general counsel for the corporation. — Bos- 
ton Herald, Feb. 10. 



NEW ISMk 
Tax Free la New Hampshire ntxJ Vermont. 
Free of Normal Federal Income Taxes. Massachusetts state Income Tax Refunded. 

$1.50,000 PEERLESS INSULATED WIRE AND CABLE COMPANY 
8 Per Cent GiimniatiYe Sinking Fund First Preferred Stock 

PAR VALUE $100. 

Preferred as to Assets and Dividends. 

Dividends payable quarterly on the first days of February, May, 

August and November. 

NO MORTGAGE OR FUNDED DEBT. 
Informing: regarding this issue and the business of the Company as set 
forth in the letter from W. E. Cook, President of the Company, may be 
summarized as follows : 

1. The company manufactures a superior grade of weatherproof wire 
by using in a large measure unspun cotton for insulation in place 
of the manufactured braid universally used by other manufacturers. 
A basic patent as well as numerous patents on special machinery 
employed in the production fully cover the product. 

2. The Company's business has grown rapidly since its inception, 
without active solicitation for orders, and the demand for the 
Company's product is constantly increasing. With additional 
working capital, the Company can accept orders which will tax 
the plant to its fullest capacity. 

3. No bonds, mortgages or other liens can be placed on the property 
without the consent of 75 r c of the outstanding first preferred shares. 

4. The first preferred stock is entitled to 110 and accumulated divi- 
dends in case of liquidation or dissolution of the Company. 

5. The Company pledges itself to create a Sinking Fund of at least 

2% of the outstanding first preferred stock annually, commencing 
November 15th, 1921, and each year thereafter; the fund is to be 
applied each year first, to the purchase of the first preferred stock 
at the market price, not to exceed 110 and accrued dividend, and 
any sum remaining to the redemption of first preferred stock. 

6. The Company pledges itself not to alter or repeal the Certificate 
of Incorporation nor the By-Laws which relate to the first preferred 
stock without the consent of 75% of the outstanding first pre- 
ferred shares. 

7. The proceeds from the sale of the first preferred stock are to be 

used to provide additional working capital. 

8. The advantages of this industry are its stability, steady and per- 
manent growth, high character of accounts receivable, rapid turn- 
over of working capital, and large percentage of capital in liquid 
assets. 

9.' The net earnings are new at the rate of about 2*4 times the dividend 
requirements and after completion of present financing the net 
earnings will be greatly increased. 

PRICES ON APPLICATION. 

ALONZO ELLIOTT & COMPANY 

HERBERT A. MtELWALV, President 

INVESTMENT BANKERS 

KSTABLISlIfcl) 1896 INCOKl'OKATKD 1909 

20 AMHERST STREET MANCHESTER, N. H. 

Telephone 952, 



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THE GRAM' 



Vol. L1I. 



APRIL, 1920 



No. 4 



THE STATE AND ITS ROADS 

By Frederic E. Everett, Commissioner of Highways 



The term "State Road," as com- 
monly used, is more or less of a 
misnomer, when applied to the New- 
Hampshire State Highway system. 
While it is true that there are State 
roads in New Hampshire, most of 
the present system is made up of 
State Aid and Trunk Line Roads. 
State Roads are those sections of 
highway, the right of way of which 
is held by the State, and the State 
is charged with the whole cost of 
construction and maintenance. State 
Aid roads are those sections of high- 
way constructed and maintained 
jointly by the State and Towns. 
Trunk Line or Cross State High- 
ways are those main lines that have 
been designated and laid out by the 
Highway Department, and are con- 
structed and maintained jointly by 
the State and Towns. 

The State .records show that as 
early as the sixties, appropriations 
were made for roads. The amounts 
were for the most part small and 
were confined to towns and unin- 
corporated places that were sparsely 
settled and unable to maintain high- 
ways suitable for traffic. Practi- 
cally all the roads through the 
Notches and in and around the 
White Mountain region were built 
and maintained in this way until 
1905. . 

In 1899 the laying out and build- 
ing of a state road was authorized 
by the Legislature, extending from 
the Massachusetts line at Salisbury 
and along the ocean front to New- 
Castle, N, H., through the towns of 
Seabrook, Hampton, North Hamp- 



ton and Rye. This was the first 
authorized and designated State 
Highway in New Hampshire. 

The special appropriations for 
highways asked for each year stead- 
ily increased. Each representative 
was expected to get a part of the 
State money that was being distri- 
buted. The requests became so 
numerous that in 1903 an act w r as 
passed listing the more important 
of these roads with the idea of es- 
tablishing a system of state roads 
and confining the appropriations to 
this system rather than scattering 
it broadcast throughout the state at 
the will and pleasure of each suc- 
ceeding legislature. The roads that 
had had special appropriations and 
were deemed of sufficient import- 
ance to be included in this system 
were as follows : 

Tunnel Stream Road, in the town of 
Benton. 

Lost River Road, in the towns of Eas- 
ton and Woodstock. 

Profile Road, in the towns of Lincoln 
and Franconia. 

Lafayette Road, in the towns of Fran- 
conia, Bethlehem and Carroll. 

Portland Road, in the town of Car- 
roll. 

Cherry Mountain Road, in the town 
of Carroll to the. Jefferson town 
line. 

Base Road, in the town of Carroll, to 
a point near- the Base Station of 
the Mount Washington Railroad. 
(Formerly known as the Mount 
Washington Turnpike.) 

Jefferson Notch Road, in the town of 
Jefferson. 

Bretton W r oods Road, lying in "Craw- 
ford Purchase" and town of Car- 
roll. 



136 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Crawford Notch Road, lying in the 
towns of Carroll and Hart's Lo- 
cation. 

Hurricane Mountain Road, being be- 
tween Conway and Chatham. 

Pirikharri Notch Road, lying in the un- 
incorporated place known as 
"Pinkhan: Grant,*' and in the 
towns of Gorharri and Randolph. 

Androscoggin River Road, in the towns 
' of Cambridge and Dummer. 

Errol Hill Road, in the town of Errol. 

Dixvillc Road, in Dixville and Mills- 
field. 

Diamond Pond Road, in town of 
Stewarts town. 

Connecticut Lake Road, in town of 

Pittsburg. 
Ocean Road, in towns of Seabrook. 

Hampton Falls. Hampton, North 

Hampton and Rye. 
Country Pond Road, in the town of 

Newton. 
Moultonboro Roads, in town of Moul- 

tonboro. 
New London Road, in towib of New 

London and Springfield. 
Miller Park Road, in the town of 

Temple. 
Forest Lake Road, in the town of 

Whitefield. 

These include a mileaee oi' 133 
miles and are State Roads. They 
are practically what may be termed 
summer roads, and as such are only 
maintained during the summer sea- 
son. They are for the most part 
what we term "dirt" roads, that is, 
they are built and maintained of the 
natural material, although some of 
the Notch roads are good examples 
of gravel construction. The Ocean 
Road is what we term a built road, 
that is, it has been laid out and con- 
structed partly of gravel and partly 
of macadam and the whole been 
treated with oil or tar. 

In 1905 the so-called State Aid law 
was passed which provided for state 
assistance to all towns that made ap- 
plication for the same at their an- 
nual town meetings. It provides 
that each town must set aside a cer- 
tain sum of money for permanent 
improvement, varying from $0.25 on 
each $1,000.00 Devaluation for the 



larger towns to S1.C0 for each $1,000 
of valuation for the smaller towns; 
and if a town desires state aid it 
must raise and set aside an addi- 
tional amount equal to 50% of the 
amount for permanent improvement. 
If this is done the State apportions 
to the town a certain amount of 
State money varying from SO. 20 on 
each ^ 1.00 set aside by a town of 
large valuation, to $3.00 for each 
$1.00 set aside by a town of small 
valuation. 



I 



Hon. F. E. Everett 



It further provided for the ap- 
pointment of a State Engineer and 
an annual appropriation of $125,000 
per year to carry out the provisions 
of this act. Any town accepting 
state aid was obliged to build a 
road satisfactory to the State En- 
gineer. The funds must be used 
for construction and not for repairs 
and upkeep. 

This law was well drawn and fit- 
ted particularly well the needs and 
requirements of New Hampshire. 
It gradually brought the towns to a 
realization of the benefits of a good 
road as compared with a poor one, 
and that there was something need- 
ed in the construction of highways 



'HE STATE AND ITS ROADS 



U7 



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m 



138 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



besides a road machine and a gang 
of men. and boys with rakes to 

smooth out the stones and sods. 

Under this act there was construc- 
ted from 1905 to 1909 around 500 
miles of highway. One particular 
fact became apparent, however, that 
it was going to be impossible to ac- 
complish a continuous system of 
roads; For example, the main road, 
the important road, for one town 
might not be the most important 
road for an adjoining town, and, 
also, by the terms of the State Aid 
law a town was not obliged to con- 
fine its state aid to any one road, 
and as a result some towns had from 
two to four different sections of 
state road with no chance of con- 
necting with improved sections in 
other towns. 

Also, about this time the automo- 
bile traffic began to increase and 
tourists were demanding a connect- 
ed road through .to the White Moun- 
tains. The farmer, from the short 
stretches of state aid road by his 
door, saw the advantage of a hard 
surface road and began to advocate 
a continuous road from one town to 
another to enable hirn to market his 
produce and draw his supplies with- 
out travelling through mud one- 
half the year and through dust and 
over rocks and bumps the remaining 
half. 

All of these things had their in- 
fluence and helped in the passage of 
the trunk line law in 1909 which pro- 
vided for the laying- out and build- 
ing of three continuous trunk lines 
from the Massachusetts line to the 
Northern part of the state and for a 
bond issue of $1,000,000. of which 
$250,000 was to be made available 
each year for four years. (It is in- 
teresting to note that this was the 
only bond issue that has been made 
by the State for highway purposes 
and that only $750,000 of these 
bonds were ever issued. All other 
state monies have been made avail- 



able by direct appropriation.) 

By the terms of this act a trunk 
line town was not eligible for state 
aid on any other road until its sec- 
tion of trunk line was constructed, 
and as an added inducement to the 
towns to raise money for this work. 
the state's allotment was consider- 
ably increased over that on strictly 
state aid roads. All towns were 
given at least one dollar for each 
dollar raised and some of the poorer 
and smaller towns given as high as 
five or six dollars to one dollar. All 
of the towns on these lines promptly 
availed themselves of the opportu- 
nity offered by the State and con- 
struction work has ^one steadily 
ahead each year. 

In 1913, three more trunk lines 
were added to the system. In 1915, 
12 so-called cross state roads con- 
necting up the trunk lines at various 
points were authorized. In 1917, 
four, and in 1919, two. Following 
is the list of these trunk lines and 
cross state roads, giving the name of 
the road and the beginning and end- 
ing of each line : 

The Merrimack Valley Road from the Mas- 
sachusetts line at Nashua to the West 
Side Road in Carroll at Twin Moun- 
tain. 

The West Side Road from the Massachu- 
setts line in Winchester to the East 
Side Road in Colebrook. 

The East Side Road from the Massachu- 
setts line at Seabrook to the West Side 
Road in Colebrook. 

The South Side Road from the Connecticut 
River at Bellows Falls to the East Side 
Road in Portsmouth, via Keene, 
Nashua and Manchester. 

The Whittier Road from the Merrimack 
Valley Road in Meredith to the East 
Side Road in Ossipee. 

The Rockingham Road from the Massachu- 
setts line in Salem to the Merrimack 
Valley Road in Manchester. 

The Central Road from the West Side 
Road in Claremont to the East Side 
Road at Dover and Rochester. 

The Contoocook Valley Road from the 
Massachusetts line in Rindge to the 
Central Road in Hopkinton. 



THE STATE AND ITS ROADS 



139 



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V If. 






140 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



The Franr.cnia Read from the Merrimack 
Galley Road in Francenia to the Wat- 
er ford Bridge uver the Connecticut 
river in Littleton. 

The Gorham Hill Road from the West 
Side Road in Lancaster to the East 
Side Road in Gorham. 

The Monadnock'Road from the Massachu- 
setts line in Fitzwilliam to the South 
Side Road in Watpoie. 

The Moosilanke Road from the Merri- 
mack Valley Road at Plymouth to the 
West Side Road in Haverhill 

The Simapee Lake Road from the Central 
Road in Newport to the Moosilauke 
Road in Plymouth. 

The Suncook Valley R.oad from the Merri- 
mack Valley Road in Allen stown to the 
East Side Road in Ossipee. 

The Winriipe.saukee Road from the Merri- 
mack Valley Road in Laconia to the 
East Side Road in Rochester. 

The Mascoma Valley Road from the Mer- 
rimack Valley Road in Franklin to 
the West Side Road in Lebanon. 

The Hudson-Derry Road from the Merri- 
mack Valley Road at Nashua to the 
Rockingham Road in Derry. 

The Raymond-Plaistow Road from the 
South Side Road in Raymond to the 
Massachusetts line in Plaistow. 

The Baboosic Road from the South Side 
Road in Mil ford to the Merrimack 
Valley Road in Manchester. 

The Hampton Road from the South Side 
Road in Exeter to the Lafayette Road 
in Hampton. 

The New Hampshire College Road from 
the South Side Road in Stratham to 
the East Side Road at Dover. 

The Lafayette Road from the East Side 
Road in Flampton to the South Side 
Road in Portsmouth. 

The Cheshire Road from the Connecticut 
River in Chesterfield to the Contoo- 
cook Valley Road in Hillsboro. 

The laying out and building of 
these trunk lines has done more in 
the last ten years than any other one 
factor toward New Hampshire's de- 
velopment, not only from an agri- 
cultural and commercial standpoint. 
but also in opening up sections of 
the State for summer traffic and 
summer homes that would not have 
been reached in any other manner. 

New Hampshire made the same 
mistake that practically all states 



made that began their road pro- 
gram from fifteen to twenty years 
ago, in providing only for the con- 
struction, leaving the maintenance 
problem wholly m the hands of th( 
town through which the road pass- 
ed. It is true that our original 
state aid law charged the town with 
maintenance, with the penalty that 
if the roads were not maintained 
satisfactorily to the State Engineer, 
the State could make the necessary 
repairs and charge them to the state 
tax of that town. But there were 
no funds available for this purpose 
and it was a difficult matter to carry 
out this provision of the law. 

The first four or five years, 1905 
to 1910, the motor traffic was light. 
Therefore, the wear was not of such 
a nature as to create any great anx- 
iety as to the maintenance. But 
front 1909 to 1912 traffic increased 
tremendously, and it became evi- 
dent to the State that some provi- 
sion for maintenance must be made. 
This led to the passage of the motor 
vehicle law in 1911, making avail- 
able the net income from motor 
vehicle fees, two-thirds of which 
could be spent for maintenance of 
trunk line roads and one-third for 
state aid roads. This money was 
appropriated to the towns in a simi- 
lar manner to the method of ap- 
portioning state aid and trunk line 
monies. This law went into effect 
in 1912 and during that year there 
was expended by the state for main- 
tenance S123.937.CO. The money 
derived from motor vehicles fees in- 
creased year by year until in 1919 
there was expended by the state. 
$543,885.50. In spite of this tre- 
mendous increase in motor vehicle 
fees they have not increased in pro- 
portion to the mileage of new high- 
ways, and the tremendous increase 
in cost of labor and material, and it 
is only a short time before the state 
will be obliged to make a provision 
for maintenance in addition to this 



THE STATE AND ITS ROADS 



141 



i! > 



pq 



142 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



income derived from the motor 
vehicle fees. 

Three years ago the "National 
Government passed a law providing 

for Federal Aid to the States in the 
building of highways and the State 
of Mew Hampshire has been allot- 
ted the following amounts: 



Tune -30, 1917, 

Tune 30, 1918, 

Tune 30, 1919. 

Tune 30, 1920, 

Tune 30. 1921, 



$20,996.62 
41.993.24 
370,420.49 
394,839.71 
434,838.93 



This money is being used in the 
construction or reconstruction of 
any part of our system of trunk 
lines or cross state roads. 

Our highway system today in- 
cludes practically 2,045 miles, made 
up as follows : 

132 miles of state road. 
60® miles of state aid road. 
1313 miles of trunk line and cross 
state roads. 

Of the mileage of trunk line and 
cross state roads, 900 miles have 
been constructed by the State and 
Town, 58 miles are through the 
compact portion of the larger 
towns where the town is charged 
with the whole of the construction 
and maintenance, and 355 miles are 
unimproved. The mileage of im- 
proved roads is mainly of gravel 
construction. It is generally known 
that New Hampshire has large de- 



posits of good gravel suitable for 
road material, and it has been found 
that this type of road gives very 
satisfactory results. The first cos! 
of these roads in comparison with 
the cost of the more expensive 
types of surfacing is very low, 
therefore allowing Xew Hampshire 
to complete a system of roads much 
sooner than could have been done 
in using a higher type of surface. 

Then again, a comparison of in- 
terests and amortization charges of 
a bond issue of such amount as 
would be required for the construc- 
tion of a higher class of pavement 
with that required for a gravel 
pavement would show $800 to $1500 
per mile (dependent on the high 
class of pavement selected,) could 
economically be used for main- 
tenance of the gravel roads. It has 
not been necessary to expend this 
amount for maintenance except in 
a few isolated cases. 

However, there are sections of 
the main trunk lines where the tre- 
mendous increase in traffic has de- 
manded a harder surface than 
gravel and there are on .the main 
trunk lines, more particularly be- 
tween the larger towns, about 75 
miles of hard surfaced road, made 
up of for the most part of bitumi- 
nous macadam and bituminous con- 
crete. This year there is available 
from all sources the following 
amounts : 



State 



Construction F. A. 
Reconstruction F. A. 
Trunk Line construe. 
State Aid construe. 
State Aid Maintenan. 
Trunk Line main ten. 
State Road mainten. 
Town Road maintenan. 

Total 



$95,750.00 

70,917.00 

99,778.00 

111,952.00 

108,495.07 

274,289.89 

60,000.00 

20,275.00 



Town 



Federal 



Total 



$140,999.99 $256,750.00 
68.583.00 139,500.00 
87,382.25 

397.726.50 

104,004.03 

211,2-14.13 

20,275.00 



$513,500.00 
279,000.00 
187,160.25 
483,760.00 
212,499.10 
485,534.02 
60,000.00 
40,550.00 



$841,456.96 $1,030,214.90 $396,250.00 $2,262,003.37 



THE STATE AND ITS ROADS 



143 



o 



144 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



These funds are to be used in the 
construction and reconstruction, of 
the trunk lines and cross state road 
system, for the usual state aid con- 
struction and for maintenance. 

In addition, the Department is 
planning - to take over from the 
towns, and assist in their main- 
tenance, the unimproved sections of 
the iaid-out cross state roads. It 
has been found that the towns will 



not maintain any part of a trunk 
line or cross state road after it has 
been laid out, they claiming in most 
cases. that it is money thrown away 
to maintain any part of a road that 
is to be built by the state and town 
sometime in the future. No great- 
er service could be given the travel- 
ing public than by assuming the 
maintenance of these unimproved 
sections. 



TO THE AMERICAN LEGION 

By Arty T. Dolloff 

You met and you conquered the foe. 
You fought like the heroes you are. 
You came to the homes you had saved 
With many a wound and a scar. 

You have passed through a lifetime of hell. 
Ycu have known the worst furies of hate. 
You have seen — and you try to forget — 
Things too fiendish for tongue to relate. 

And you have met Princes of God, 
Too noble to need our applause, 
True Knights of the Cross and the Crown 
Whose crucified lives won our Cause. 

We hail you and cheer you today! 
We love you for what you have done ! 
Our glad hearts are bursting with praise 
For brave Father, true Brother, dear Son. 

But think not your labor complete 
For still the whole world has her foes 
Who seek with the malice of Huns 
To add to her burden of woes. 

The demon whose name is Foul Greed 
And the demon of Selfish Unrest 
Are stalking abroad day and night 
Without pause in their infamous quest. 

We must meet them and face them today. 

You must still be our bulwark of strength - 
Our trust in this critical hour 
Whose testing will try you at length. 



TURNPIKES, TOLL-GATES AND STAGE-COACH 
■ DAYS IN MEW HAMPSHIRE 



By Mabel Hope Kingsbury 



When the Indian war broke out 
in 1755, two families, who had set- 
tled in a "pathless wilderness'' of 
New Hampshire, were obliged to 
hurry their families to the fort to 
escape the attack of the red men. 
The incident is thus described : 

* "My lather came in great haste 
from his work, saddled his horse and 
told my mother to get ready quickly 
to ride to the fort. They started at 
once — my father in the saddle 
. (doubtless with little Ruth, four years 
old, in his arms) mother on the pillion 
behind, clinging with one hand to her 
husband and with the other grasping 
the meal sack into which the baby 
(Bathsheba. about one year old) had 
been hastily dumped for greater con- 
venience in transportation (carrying 
it dangling beside the horse.) The 
fort was reached in safety, but on 
alighting from the horse, the sack was 
opened and the baby was found with 
her head downwards, having made the 
journey of four perilous miles in that 
abnormal condition.'' 

That happened before the turn- 
pike days! Such instances showed 
our forefathers the desirability and 
necessity of good roads. The early 
records of New Hampshire towns 
have much to say about roads : the 
kind, the width, the survey, etc., and 
usually said roads had some distin- 
guishable name, such as Dart road, 
Dinah's road, Streeter road, and the 
like. 

When, in 1796, a new kind of road 
appeared it also had a name — the 
turnpike road. 

Frederic J. Wood, in his recently 
published work, "The Turnpikes of 
New" England,-" tells us that his ef- 
forts to gather data on the subject 
of turnpike roads in the New Eng- 
land states were at first fruitless. 
One reason, probably not the right 

* Keene History. 



one, why there was so little record- 
ed about the new idea in roads (the 
turnpike) may have been this; the 
townsmen had been talking, discuss- 
ing, and making roads for forty or 
more years, and the)* felt that they 
had said and recorded all there was 
to be said on the subject. 

** In many New England towns will 
be found an old road locally known as 
'"the turnpike." or the "old turnpike," 
over which are hovering romantic tra- 
ditions of the glory of stage-coach 
days, while perhaps a dilapidated old 
building, standing close beside its now 
grass-grown pathway, is reverently 
pointed out as having occasionally 
been the temporary resting place of 
men great in out country's annals. 
But aside from the charm of such old 
stories the inquirer will be able to 
learn but little for, strange to say, 
those old roads have not found their 
place in history, and what little is 
known about them seems to be fast 
departing with an older generation." 

Major Wood found his task most 
interesting when he made search in 
old deeds and dust-covered volumes 
for what records have been made in 
regard to the turnpike roads, and the 
result of his investigations and re- 
search is of inestimable value, and 
makes most entertaining reading. 

To enlighten our hazy under- 
standing of the meaning of "turn- 
pike" he tells us that as distin- 
guished from the ordinary roads of 
the same time, a turnpike road was 
one on which gates barred the pro- 
gress of the traveller, and payment 
was demanded at these gates for the 
privilege of using the road. These 
payments were called "toll" and the 
gates were known as "toll-gates." 
The privilege of building such turn- 
pikes and of collecting toll thereon 

** The Turnpikes of New England by 
Frederic J. Wood. 



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TURNPIKES, TOLL-GATES AND STAGE-COACH DAYS 



147 



was conferred by the legislature of 
the state upon various individuals 
under the form of turnpike corpora- 
tions, and the roads were construct- 
ed by private capital, were privately 
owned, and were operated for the 
revenue derived from the collection 
of the tolls. 

On the fourteenth day of June, 
1796, the "Proprietors of The New 
Hampshire Turnpike Road" were in- 
corporated. Massachusetts had in- 
corporated its first turnpike road 
three days previously, but displayed 
no greater zeal in building its road ; 
the first turnpike in this state was 
promptly completed, covered a dis- 
tance of thirty-six miles and passed 
through the towns of Durham, Lee, 
Barrington, Nottingham, North- 
wood, Epsom, Chichester, Pem- 
broke and Concord. 

* "Its eastern terminus was at the 

Piscataqua Bridge, which connected 

Durham and Newington over a half 

mile of water, and was considered in 

those days a marvel of bridge building. 

The western end was a f the "Federal 

Bridge" over the Merrimaq in Concord, 

and the road there is now known as 

Portsmouth Street." 

The granite marker that locates 

ihe .site of the first ferry, and the 

Tucker ferry., and later the Federal 

Bridge might well have added to 

its notes the fact that it also marks 

the westerly terminus about 1798, 

of The New Hampshire Turnpike. 

TheThird New Hampshire Turn- 
pike was chartered in December. 
1799, to run from Bellows Falls 
through Walpole, Surry, . Keene, 
Marlboro, Jaffrey and New Ipswich, 
on the route to Boston. • Building 
of the road began in 1800, and this 
'pike" came over the hills by what: 
is now known as the "old Walpole 
road." 

It i.s related of Daniel Webster 
that, when going up the Walpole 
hills on this old Walpole road, he 
requested the driver of the stage- 
coach to halt at the top of one of 
* Frederic J. Wood. 



the hills in order that he might 
alight and view the magnificent 
scenery. 

This Walpole road got itself 
"talked about" not only enthusias- 
tically because of its magnificent 
view and beautiful scenery, but also 
vigorous and conclusive sentiments 
were expressed in regard to the 
steepness of the hills and the diffi- 
culty of keeping the turnpike in re- 
pair. 

Efforts were made to change the 
turnpike's course, by building a new- 
road through the gap where the rail- 
road now runs, and so avoid the 
steep hills. The towns, however, 
opposed the project because of the 
expense, and the small benefit they 
thought they would receive. After 
twenty years of opposition this road 
— Summit road it is called — was 
completed, but before that time the 
Third New Hampshire had ceased 
to exist as a turnpike. It was suc- 
ceeded by the Cheshire branch of the 
B. & M. R.R., excepting that the 
railroad does not cross the foot of 
Monadnock mountain as the old 
turnpike did. 

As hrst laid out, the turnpike did 
not enter the center of. Keene at 
Central Square, but curved to the 
west, and passed around it. i In 
120S a revision of the line was made 
and the present straight lines of 
Court Street became the new. turn- 
pike limits. .. ■ ;* '■"'; '" • 

A turnpike from Keene through 
'Troy to Fitzwilliam was completed 
about 1806. ..In 1805 appeared the 
Cheshire Turnpike, which extended 
north from Keene (by the old road, 
east side of the river) through Sur- 
ry, passing the Holbrook tavern, and 
over the hills of Alstead to Drews- 
ville and Charlestown. These two 
corporations made connection at 
Keene, crossing the Third New 
Hampshire turnpike, and created a 
lively competition for the travel to 
and from Boston. 



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Court Street, Keene, N H. Third New Hampshire Turnpike 
Lottery' Bridge, Claremont, X. H. Second New Hampshire Turnpike 

Plate LVII 



TURNPIKES, TOLL-GATES AND STAGE-COACH DAYS 



49 



One of the noted tavern stands 
in Cheshire County was situated in 
the north part of Surry on the line 
<>{ the Cheshire Turnpike. Captain 
Francis Holbrook owned it for many 
years; he enlarged the tavern, re- 
built and enlarged the barns, built 
a slaughterhouse where a beef, 
sheep or hogs were killed weekly 
during the winter season. It was 
not uncommon for his stables to 
accommodate twenty-live or thirty 
horses upon a single night. 

This being on the main line from 
Boston to Montr* a! during stage- 
coach days, in the fall of each year, 
soon after the rirst snow storm, the 
farmers of eastern Vermont and 
western New Hampshire made a 
trip to Boston with butter, cheese, 
pork, beef, etc., to exchange for gro- 
ceries, dry goods, molasses, codnsh 
and other goods. At times the 
road, as far as the eye could see, 
would be black with teams, going 
or coming. 

It is said of Captain Holbrook that 
he usually kept an extra yoke of 
oxen in his barn to help the heavy 
teams up the Alstead hills. 

This Cheshire turnpike had the 
misfortune to have several accidents 
and other troubles occurred on its 
road; perhaps that explains the im- 
pression noted by Mr. Wood that 
the road was unpopular. 

In the spring of 1839, when the 
ice broke up in the river, it took 
away the old Cheshire bridge above 
Charlestown. One of the bents of 
it came down the river whole, and 
it was feared that the Tucker toll- 
bridge would be taken by the bent 
striking it. It is related of Mr. 
Tucker, at this time, that he stood at 
the end of the bridge gesticulating 
wildly with his cane as if trying to 
convince the ruined bridge that it 
hetter. go under his bridge by the 
west channel, as it would take away 
his structure if it went by the east 
ehannel. 

* "As the floating bridge reached 



the place where the two channels di- 
vide, it suddenly all went to pieces, 
flattening out so it passed under with- 
out damaging the bridge above, and 
the most of it went by the cast pass- 
age. As it floated past the upper end 
of the village, and into the upper end 
oi the rapids, end foremost, the sign 
was still in its place warning 'Passen- 
gers not to pass faster than a walk.' " 
The great freshet of January 13, 
1841, carried away the turnpike 
bridge in Surry, and also the turn- 
pike bridge in Drewsville. The 
next year, on Town-meeting day, 
three stages with mail and passen- 
gers found the bridge at Cold river 
almost afloat. One of the drivers 
attempted to cross, and was nearly 
over when the bridge floated away, 
taking the coach and all on board 
with it, and at the same time drag- 
ging the horses from the bank into 
the water. Three women were 
drowned, and a man (a messenger 
conveying money to the bank at Bel- 
lows Falls) was pulled ashore in an 
insensible condition. Other troubles 
of a different nature also occurred 
on this Cheshire turnpike. At one 
time a large freight team was com- 
ing down the Alstead hills; the load 
tipped over, and many large tubs 
of butter rolled down the hill into 
the gulch below. The breaking of 
some part of the harness caused the 
load to slip forward on the horses, 
and the leg of one was broken. In 
184S occurred the stag-e-coach wreck 
which was thus chronicled in the 
Keene Sentinel of October 19th. 

* "The Drewsville and Charlestown 
stage while coming down the long hill 
above Captain Holbrook's tavern on 
Monday, October 16, was upset by the 
pole breaking, and a lady was consid- 
erably injured, having her head badly 
cut. Other passengers and the driver 
received slight hurts. The stage had 
only nineteen passengers with the bag- 
gage on board, and six horses attach- 
ed. The horses cleared themselves 

• from the wreck, which fortunately, by 
the intervention of a stone wall, was 
stayed from rolling down a steep hill 
and probably killing some of the 
passengers." 

* History of Rockingham, Vt. 



150 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



The stage-coach of the above ac- 
cident was said to have been one 
of the Montreal and Boston coaches, 
all painted in gold and panelled 
glass. 

Although the Cheshire turnpike 
was rocky and steep after leaving 
Holbrook's tavern for the north, 
south of the tavern it ran through 
the beautiful valley of Surry, and 
made a delightful thoroughfare. The 
turnpike became free in 1841, and 
the present road takes the same 
route over those same Alstead hills. 





* .' .-' -^ . '■'■■■ 




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1 . • .. 4 



Junction, but took a more direct 
course. Between Andover and Pot- 
ter Place the old turnpike can still 
be seen close beside the railroad 
track, and also in Lebanon; in other 
[daces the two are far apart. 

In connection with the Coos Turn- 
pike, Mr. Wood tells us about a 
"turkey drive." A boy in St. Johns- 
bury, Yt., was a helper in driving 
a (lock of five hundred turkeys from 
that town to Lowell, Mass.- 

* "A line of freight wagons was run 
by Balch, each team composed of eight 






Surry Valley, Chesh 

It is said of the Fourth New 
Hampshire Turnpike that the road 
was located by a committee selected 
entirely from men outside of this * 
state. They estimated the cost at 
six hundred dollars a mile, but it 
proved to be over $1,200 a mile. 
Annual fall trips similar to those al- 
ready mentioned, were made over 
this road. 

This Fourth New Hampshire 
turnpike was the predecessor of the 
Southern Division of the B. & M. 
R.R. from Concord to White River 



ire Turnpike. 

well-groomed white horses, one seat 
being occupied by a stalwart negro, a 
striking figure and unusual in those 
days." ' 
Frederic J. Wood. 

* "The drive became a notable pro- 
cession, and word of its coming was 
carried in advance by the more rapid 
travellers who had passed it, so that 
whole -villages would be on the watch 
for its arrival. As the birds became 
accustomed to the manner of pro- 
gressing, more ceremony developed, 
and soon our youthful custodian found 
that he could' lead the way with the 
flock following him. A gobbler of es- 
pecial dignity soon assumed a position 



TURNPIKES, TOLL-GATES AND STAGE-COACH DAYS 



151 



beside the leader, and thus the pro- 
cession advanced at the rate of about 
twenty-three mites a day until its des- 
tination was reached without the" ioss 
of a single bird." 

This incident reminds me of "rem- 
niscences'" I have heard relating to 



m 

droves of sheep; hogs, and turkeys, 
and occasionally a string of horses, 
that used to come down the old 
Cheshire turnpike before 1840. 

Large droves of cattle went 
through Surry, which was one of 
the stopping-places at night. George 
Pierce of Royalston, Mass:* (said to 
have been a nephew of President 
Franklin Pierce) and others, in Sep- 
tember and October of each fall for 
over thirty-five years, bought from 
400 to 700 head" of Durham cattle 
in Duxbury, Fayston and other 
towns of Vermont and Xew Hamp- 
shire. N. Joslin's farm in. Waits- 
field, Vt., was the starting point af- 
ter the drove was collected. The 
route was down through Warren, 
Greenville, Hancock, Rochester, 
Stockbridge, Barnard, Woodstock, 
South Woodstock, West Windsor, 
Weathersfield, then over Cheshire 
Bridge (a toll-bridge) into New 
Hampshire, and down the old 
Cheshire turnpike to Surry and 
Keene, Swanzey and Richmond, and 
on to the home of Mr. Pierce in 
Royalston. The trip took about 
two weeks, and was often a "whole 
circus" for the watchers of the pass- 
ing drove. 

In 1819, a century ago, a path by 
which the summit of Mount Wash- 
ington could be reached was cut by 
Ethan Crawford. In 1821 he opened 
another path along the line after- 
wards utilized by persons climbing 
the mountain. Other foot and bri- 
dle paths appeared, but it was not 
till '1853 that a turnpike "arrived" 
here. That year the Mount Wash- 
ington Road Company was incor- 
porated with turnpike privileges. 
Ihe route was surveyed, construc- 

* Frederic J. Wood. 



tion begun, and the road half com- 
pleted, when financial difficulties 
drove the company out of existence. 
In 1859 the Mount Washington 
Summit road came into existence, 
bought up the old road, completed 
it. and access by carriage to Mt. 
Washington's summit was given in 
1861. This carriage road i.s still in 
operation, and tolls are collected 
from persons travelling over it. 

•The Willey house, in the heart of 
the Notch between the stupendous 
mountain sides, stood beside the 
Tenth New Hampshire Turnpike. 
After the landslide which crushed 
out the lives of the Willey family 
who had fled in terror from the 
building, left the house uninjured, 
"Various household articles were 
scattered around as they had been 
dropped in the moment of flight, and 
the family Bible lay open on the 
table." 

The Tenth New Hampshire turn- 
pike was planned to connect Port- 
land with Lake Champlain, but did 
not wholly succeed. In 1S26 many 
miles of its road were washed away, 
and later reconstructed. 

Even a brief description of other 
turnpikes — and they were not few 
in number — in the mountain region 
of our state might well by them- 
selves provide material for a lengthy 
article. Mr. Wood's account of 
them, and his graphic description of 
the wonderful scenery which they 
have opened up to all nature-loving 
people, is exceedingly interesting. 

The last turnpike charter granted 
in New England by virtue of which 
a turnpike was built or operated vvas 
The Liberty Road. This was for 
access to the top of Mount Cho- 
corua, and it was granted in the year 
1887 to James Liberty and some of 
his neighbors to maintain a "bridle 
path and carriage road from near 
the dwelling house of Charles Du- 
rell in said Tarn worth (where said 
road is now located and construct- 



152 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



ed) to the line between the towns of 
said Tarn worth and Albany, thence 
to the top of Chocorua Mountain in 
said town oi Albany." 

This road is one of seven by 
which Chocorua may be ascended. 
It leaves the highway in the north- 
central part of Tarn worth, at the 
Durell farm, and near the "Nat Ber- 
ry Bridge." The first part of the 
way is a carriage road, at the ter- 
mination of which is the Hal! Way 
House where toll is collected. It 
is a foot or bridle path from there 
to the Peak House, which is some 
little distance below the actual sum- 
mit of the mountain. The Peak 
House was swept down the moun- 
tain side by a fierce storm in Sep- 
tember, 1915, and a new building 
has since been built. Mr. Liberty 
secured his charter in 1889; the next 
year, with some school-girl friends, 
my brothers and several other boys, 
I went over this turnpike to Cho- 
corua's summit. We were almost 
the first persons to pay toll, and Mr. 
Liberty and his accordion accom- 
panied us part way up the mountain- 
side. There was no Peak House 
that year ; merely a six-foot stone 
wall on three sides enclosing <a 
space just large enough to include 
two tents, side by side. We reached 
this location lattr in the afternoon, 
made our bonfire, ate our supper, 
sat on the rocks, and listened to 
Mr. Liberty's tale of the building 
of the road, etc.; and he also enter- 
tained us with selections on the ac- 
cordion, much to our amusement 
and chagrin — its music was "all-per- 
vading." and we couldn't hear our- 
selves even think. 

At midnight the boys must need 
get out the only lantern, and make 
for the top of the mountain, "just 
for the fun of it." 

We girls sat on the stone wall 
and watched the glimmer of the 
lantern as it wound in and out 
among the rocks and listened to 



Mr. Liberty's description of the 
steep rocks and perilous places they 
would find and his oft repeated as- 
sertion that they would be lost if 
the lantern got broken. 

The boys, of course, returned in 
safety, and then we stowed our- 
selves as best we could in the two 
tents ; nine in the boys tent, and 
eight in ours ! 

just a board floor, and no pillow 
nor head rest, and no covering ex- 
cept the extra wraps we had brought 
with us. 

We were too excited and uncom- 
fortable to sleep, but, finally, the 
occupants of the other tent having 
exhausted their stock of college, 
camp songs and the like, we were 
being gradually lulled to sleep by 
the pleasantest of whistling almost 
under their breath by those boys. 
They were whistling in perfect uni- 
son the tune of America, when sud- 
denly Liberty burst in, and roared 
out that they were not doing it 
right, and he would show them how. 
The accordion came into play once 
more, and we had some music. There 
was no further thought of sleep. 
Before sunrise we were eating lunch 
and hurrying for the summit to ar- 
rive in time to see the sun rise. It 
was glorious, and the beginning of 
a "red letter" day for us. In the 
memory of one of the girls it is also 
scheduled as a "blue" day, for she 
was the unfortunate one of the par- 
ty to carry down the mountain turn- 
pike, slung across her shoulder, a 
bag filled with blueberries. At the 
end of the trip the berries were a 
pulp, and her clothes a "sight!" 

There is much more that could be 
written about the turnpikes of this 
state, and I have not even men- 
tioned those of the other New Eng- 
land states, and must refer the rea- 
der to "The Turnpikes of New Eng- 
land" for a most interesting account 
of all these turnpikes; for me there 
must be a halt somewhere, and the 



TURNPIKES, TOLL-GATES AND STAGE-COACH DAYS 



153 



Liberty road is a good stopping 
place. It lias memories, red, white, 
and blue ! 

It is not easy to locate the toll- 
gate buildings of the turnpike roads 
in New .Hampshire; many are 
wholly unknown, and others will 
soon be forgotten. I have recently 
had the good fortune to see the old 
sign which swung in the breeze on 
the old Cheshire turnpike at the 
building in northern Surry. 



of the sign still in existence is three 
feet four inches long and one foot two 
and one-half inches wide, and is a 
good pine hoard about one inch thick. 
The wood has been eaten away by the 
weather, leaving the letters plainly 
standing up and are easily read. The 
horizontal lines mark the middle of the 
board. 

It is a matter of regret that the 
remainder of the sign-board has been 
lost ; not many of the toll-gate signs 
of this state are now in existence. 











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Toll-Gate Building, Cheshire Turnpike. 



Two wheels drawn by one horse 




.20 


like su 


Every additional horse 




.13 


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Each chariot, coach, stage waggon, 


phae 




of hors 


ton or chaise, with four wheels 






Each cart 


drawn by two horses. 




.32 


of burd 


Every additional horse, 




.13 


Every 


Every ten cattle, horses, mules, &c. 




.13 


Every ten 



* "The famous old toll-gate of the 
Cheshire turnpike (in Surry) is now 
marked by a few rocks and a sag in 
the ground — nearly obliterated and fast 
passing into oblivion. Here toll was 
exacted from both the rich and poor 
for nearly forty years. In those days 
the gate was hung in a building which 
extended over the highway. The 
keeper's house and barn were on the 
west side of the road, and a store, 
shoe-shop and wheelwright shop were 
opposite, on the east side. The part 



The original box, made of birch 
bark, in which were kept the earliest 
tolls of the first toll-bridge across 
the Connecticut river at Bellow r s 
Falls, built by Colonel Enoch Elate 
of Walpole, N. H., is still in the pos- 
session of one of Colonel Hale's de- 
scendants. In a recent number of 
the Granite Monthly, Hon. George 

* Surry Town History — in preparation. 



154 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



B. Up ha in states that when the reg- 
ular stage routes were first estab- 
lished, the stages did not make a 
practice of crossing this toll-bridge 
on account of the expense of toll, 
but went direct!}- up the river from 
Boston and Keene to Charlestown.- 
When passing the end of the toll- 
bridge, the driver blew his horn and 
any prospective passengers from 
Bellows Falls must cross the bridge 
on foot, taking their baggage over 
in a wheelbarrow. 

On the Lincoln Turnpike it is a 
delightful ride from the Profile 
House down the P'emigewasset val- 
ley, passing Profile Lake, The Old 
Man of the Mountain, The Basin, 
The Pool, and at the end of a five- 
mile ride one comes to a picturesque 
opening in the stone wall, which is 
the gateway, and place of collecting 
toll for tills turnpike. 

The tollhouse at the foot of Mount 
Washington on The Mount Wash- 
ington Summit Road gives access 
to a road which 

** "for the first four miles winds 
among a dense growth of forest trees, 
and then passes through a ravine, and 
over the eastern side of the mountain. 
The grade is easy and the roadbed 
excellent. Each turn discloses some 
new prospect— a wide valley faintly 
green, with a brook or a river flashing 
through it ; a deep dell, with a swaying 
sea of foliage ; an overhanging cliff 
that seems to render impossible any 
further ascent, or a wonderful array 
of peaks." 

A road that gives one of the most 
beautiful rides of the many noted 
White Mountain rides is a "may- 
have-been" turnpike. This road 
near the Glen House gives an un- 
surpassed view of the Great Gulf 
and the Presidential Range, and 
further south Huntington and Tuck- 
erman's ravines and the Alpine Gar- 
den. 

* "The sharp slopes and the moun- 
tain outlines rising in startling profile. 
About a mile west from the tower end 
of the turnpike franchise a less known 
feature is found. Poised in apparent 
insecurity on a steep slope an enormous 



boulder seems about to roll down the 
hillside at the slightest touch. And 
for miles the Ellis and Pe'abody rivers 
show their charms at every turn." 

The "Dollycops Road" was in this 
section of the state, and the cellar 
of the house where the Dolly cops 
family lived can still be seen near 
the bridge over the Peabody river. 
Tradition has it that the Dollycops 
couple, husband and wife, lived to- 
gether, but did not speak to each 
other for twenty years. 

Rates of toll seemed high to many 
people, and there were various ex- 
pedients adopted to avoid paying 
them. I have read somewhere of 
one winter that was severe enough 
to freeze the ice on a river so that 
it was safe for teams to cross, and 
this was the custom, instead of us- 
ing the toll bridge over the river. 
"The owner of the toll-gate was 
"righteously" indignant, and built a 
wall, blocking the road across the 
ice, but this was torn down, and, 
presumably, there were words said 
by both parties. 

Now, let us go back, in imagina- 
tion, to the travellers over these 
turnpike roads. We fancy that in 
the early days of the turnpike they 
must have been stern and sober men 
intent upon the hard problem of 
wrestling a living from the soil. Or 
perhaps our fancy pictures men 
young in years but old in the ex- 
perience of teaming the necessary 
freight over miles and miles of dus- 
ty roads. We do not see much en- 
joyment about it all nor hear the 
sounds of laughter or merriment. 

But when I mention stage-coach 
days, a different scene presents it- 
self before our eyes. A romantic 
interest centers about the stage- 
coaches, and we seem to see the 
prancing horses and shining coach. 
It was not till 1828 that a really 
comfortable coach arrived, but long 
before that the women and children, 
** Harper's Monthly. August, 1877. 

* Frederic J, Wood. 



TURNPIKES, TOLL-GATES AND STAGE-COACH DAYS 



155 






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156 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



as well as the other sex had become 
accustomed to some kind of a ve- 
hicle, and a journey was an affair 

not only of importance but of 
pleasure.. 

When Thomas Twining" made a 
journey from Baltimore to Phila- 
delphia in 1795 the vehicle was a 
long car with four benches, 

* "three of these in the interior held 
nine passengers, and a tenth passenger 
•was seated by the side of the driver 

on the front bench The entrance 

was in front, over the driver's bench. 
Of cor.rse the three passengers on the 
back seat were obliged to crawl across 
all the other benches to get to their 
places, there were no backs to the 
benches — there was no space for lug- 
gage, each person being expected to 
stow his things as he could under his 
seat or legs." 

When the Concord coach was in- 
troduced about 1828, success in the 
design of a coach was nearly at- 
tained; little improvement has since 
been made. These are the coaches 
that have made riding comfortable, 
and to the lover of horses, a journey 
pleasurable and full of excitement. 
In the hazy memories of childhood 
I can remember having seen one of 
these old Concord coaches which 
an uncle of mine used to drive, and 
which he kept for many years after 
his stage-coach days were over. 

Tie was not yet of age when he be- 
gan taking contracts from the Gov- 
ernment to carry the mails ; dur- 
ing the thirty years which followed 
he had over 60 contracts for a longer 
or shorter period. Many of the 
stage lines he owned were in the 
vicinity of Keene, and he became 
one of the best known stage drivers 
in this state. The route from Hills- 
boro and Keene was Hillsboro 
through North Branch Antrim, on 
to South Stoddard (then Stoddard 
Box) on to Munsonville and East 
Sullivan to Keene. The stage went 
up one day and back the next. He 
also had the route between Hills- 
boro through Antrim to Benning- 

* Frederic J. Wood. 



ton. He owned the route between 
Hillsboro through Washington to 
Lenip'Ster; a younger brother, my 
uncle Enoch, was often the driver 
on this route. He would leave 
Hillsboro on the arrival of the train 
from Concord about 4.30 P.M., and 
return the next morning in time to 
reach Hillsboro about 8 A. M. 

During the Civil War days he 
had on the road two stages at a 
time, conveying those about to en- 
list and the veterans between Hills- 
boro and Keene ; few of those men 
are now living. 

Within the past week I have 
heard from a man, eighty years old 
on last Christmas Day. who remem- 
bers the stage-coach days and my 
uncle Noah Jackson very welt. This 
man w r orked in the stables in the 
rear of the Eagle Hotel in Keene 
where the stage put up. He told 
of meeting Mr. Jackson one time af- 
ter a big snow storm similar to the 
one we have had this winter, and 
the stage was not able to get 
through for two or three days. 

Uncle Noah was a finely propor- 
tioned man, tall and erect ; his white 
hair and white beard which lie had 
as a young man, seemed in my child- 
ish fancy to be accounted for only 
by the wonderful and exciting ex- 
periences he must have had as a 
stage-coach driver. 

The horseless carriage has taken 
the place of the old time stage- 
coach, but good roads are still nec- 
essary. Will this generation see 
both forgotten, and air-coaches the. 
usual mode of transportation? Per- 
haps. May I be there to see — and 
write about it ! 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The full 
page plates of the New Hampshire Turn- 
pikes, illustrating this article, are from 
Major Wood's book and are used by the 
courtesy of his publishers, The Marshall 
Jones Company, Boston. The picture of 
the famous Deadwood Coach is loaned the 
Granite Monthly by the Abbott Downing 
Company, Concord, who made the Con- 
cord coaches and now manufacture the 
Concord motor trucks.— Editor. 



/Sr 



THE DARTMOUTH LITERARY OR 
DEBATING SOCIETIES * (i) 



Bv Asa Currier Tilton 



*(i) The principal authorities used are 
i5 follows : Baird. William R., Manual of 
American College Fraternities. lid. 8. 
New York, 1915. Barnard, Henry, Educa- 
tional Biography. Ed. 2. New York, 1861. 
Belknap, Jeremy, History of New Hamp- 
shire. Ed. 1. " Philadelphia & Boston. 
1784-1792. 3v. Life by his grand- 
daughter. New York, 1847. Bond, Sam- 
uel R., "A Dartmouth Reminiscence of 
1855" in Dartmouth Alwmni Magazine . 
Jan., 1915, v. 7, p. 92-94. Brown, Samuel 
G., Historical Discourse [Centen- 
nial Celebration of Dartmouth College, 
1869] Hanover. 1870. Same. Life of 
Rufus Choate. Ed. 2. Boston, 1870. [Repr. 
of "Memoir" in Choate' s Works with ad- 
ditions.] Burroughs, Stephen, Memoirs. 
Hanover, 1798. [Various later eds.] 
Chamberlain, Mellcn, Address at the Dedi- 
cation of Wilson Hall [the College Lib- 
rary, June, 1S85.] [Boston? Priv. Pr. 
1885?] Chase. Frederick, Historical Ad- 
dress before the Phi Beta Kappa 

Society of Dartmouth College at its Cen- 
tennial Anniversary, June 29, 1887. Cam- 
bridge, 1887. Chase. Frederick & John K. 

Lord, History of Dartmouth College 

Cambridge *& Concord, 1891-1913. 2v. 
[V. 1 by Chase, ed by Lord. V. 2 by 
Lord. Titles of volumes vary.] Clapp, 
Clifford B., Speeches of Daniel Webster. 
A Bibliographical Review. (Bibliographic- 
al Society of America. Papers, v. 13, pt. 
1.) Chicago, 1919. Colby, James F., 
Legal and Political Studies in Dartmouth 
College, 1796-1S96. Hanover, 1896. Cros- 
by, Nathan. First Half -Century of Dart- 
mouth College, being his Historical Col- 
lections and Personal Reminiscences. Han- 
over, 1876. Cross, David, "Dartmouth 
and the Class of 1841" in Dartmouth 
Alumni Magazine, Nov. 1908, v. 1; p. 44-52. 
Currier, Amos N., "Dartmouth College 
Fifty Years Ago" in Dartmouth Bi-Moniiu 
ly., June, 1906, v. 1, p. 244-254. Curtis, 
George T., Life of Daniel Webster. Ed. 
3. New York, 1870. Dana. Judah, "The 
School and College Life of Judah Dana, 
(ed.] by James A. Spalding" in Dartmouth 
Alumni Magazine, Feb., 1917, v. 9, p. 155- 
166. [Part of a Ms Autobiography.] 
"Daniel Webster as a Student" in The 
Dartmouth, March, 1867, v. 1, p. 81-88. 
Dartmouth College. General Catalogue 

..... 1769-1910 Hanover, 1910-1911. 

[There are various earlier eds.] Same. 



Proceedings of the Webster Centennial 
Ed. bv Ernest M. Hopkins [Han- 
over, 1902.} ["Mr. Webster's College 
Life" bv Charles F. Richardson, is p. 21- 
54.] The Dartmouth Index. Oct., 1853; 
Oct., 1854. Dexter, Edwin G., History of 
Education in- the United States. New 
York, 1906. Gerould, James T., 'Biblio- 
graphy of Dartmouth College" in N. 

H. State Librarian Report 1892-1894. p. 
149-216. [Also pub. separately.] Hall, 
Benjamin H., Collections of College Words 
and Customs. Cambridge, 1851. [Sev- 
eral later eds.] Harvey, Peter, Reminis- 
cences and Anecdotes of Daniel Webster. 
Boston, 1877. Hill. William C. Dartmouth 
Traditions. Flanover, 1901. Kendall, 

Amos., Autobiography ed. by William 

Stickney. Boston & New York, 1872. 
Kendrick, Ariel. Sketches of the Life and 
Times of Written by himself. Lud- 
low, Vt.j 1847. Quint, Wilder D., Story 
of Dartmouth. Boston, 1914. Smith, 
Baxter P., History of Dartmouth College. 
Boston, 1878. Society of Social Friends & 
Society of United Fraternity. Catalogues. 
[These sometimes contain text as well as 
lists of members and books.] Sparks, 
Jared. Life of John I^cdxard in his 
American Biography, n. s., v. 14. [Also 
pub. separately.] Stauffer, Vernon, New 
England ana the Bazxirian Illuminati. 
(Columbia Studies in History &c., v. 82, 
no. 1.) New York, 1918. Webster, 
Daniel, Writings and Speeches. . .National 
Edition, [Ed^ by J. W. Mclntyre.] Bos- 
ton. 1903, 18 v. [Repr. of earlier eds. 
with additions. His "Private Corres- 
pondence," most important for his college 
life, comprise v. 17, 18. His college and 
other early orations are in v. 15.] Wor- 
cester, John F. & Alpheus Crosby, Mem- 
orial of the College Life of the Class of 
1827. Hanover. 1853. Ed. 2. 1869. 
[Material collected by Worcester, ed. and 
pub. by Crosby.] 

Dartmouth — which is celebrating, 
as these columns are being written, 
one hundred and fifty years of na- 
tional usefulness — began with a 
past. Eleazer Wheelock was a man 
who looked into the future and be- 
yond the western frontier, then not 
clear of the short rivers which 



158 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



empty into the Atlantic. In locat- 
ing his new college on the upper 
Connecticut he placed it in the 
midst of those New England 
pioneers, who have done so much 
to push our frontier westward to 
the Pacific and have so profoundly 
influenced., decade after decade, the 
new communities which have been 
founded hack of its advancing front. 
While his plan of educating the In- 
dians, those stout defenders of the 
forest, failed of success, the history 
of the college and the biographies 
of her sons are the story of the 
realization of his purpose to bring 
the continent under the dominion 
of Christian religion, government, 
and intellectual ideals. 

His Indian school, at Lebanon, 
Connecticut, took definite form as 
Moor's Indian Charity School, in 
1755. His relations with the New 
Hampshire provincial government, 
which ultimately led to the moving 
of the School and the establishment 
of the College at Hanover, began in 
1761. His ability and untiring ef- 
forts made him and his project 
famous, in Creat Britain as well as 
America, before the College was 
chartered (1769) and began its 
work. 

All colleges — if not all schools — 
in this period provided some train- 
ing in the argumentative presenta- 
tion of assigned subjects, or ques- 
tions. It is not strange, then, that 
the Indian youth should have re- 
ceived such training — certain!}' not 
strange under so progressive a 
teacher as Wheelock, who knew, 
not only the methods of the col- 
leges and schools, but also the 
great native ability of the Indian as 
an orator. A contemporary letter 
informs us that the Indian pupils 
appeared in disputations in English 
on questions chosen for them, or by 
themselves, from subjects in the 
arts and sciences. But the number 
of Indian boys at Hanover, small at 



best, dwindled; and by 1785 none 
were left. So we lack — what 
would, doubtless, have come into 
being, had they continued in suf- 
ricent numbers — an Indian literary 
and debating society. 

The College was chartered in the 
period when the basis was laid for 
our War of Independence in the 
establishment, or, at least the defi- 
nition, of our political ideals. It 
was a time of thinking, of writing, 
of conversing, of preaching, and of 
debating on public affairs and politi- 
cal questions. The time when col- 
lege men, true to their task of fit- 
ting themselves for leadership form- 
ed debating societies — as we find 
them doing in the colleges then in 
existence. The most famous col- 
lege societies date from those years. 

The constructive political and 
social problems of the Thirteen 
Colonies were inherited by the 
pioneers, as they pressed westward 
and organized new communities 
and states; and, everywhere, they 
have exhibited the same genius for 
political thought and discussion 
that their Revolutionary forefathers 
possessed. In their new colleges 
literary societies were established, 
which flourished and were a vital 
element in student life after their 
older prototypes had lost their 
dominant influence, or had wholly 
disappeared. Debate was by no 
means the sole object of the 
societies, nor the sole sphere of 
their activity ; but it was the life- 
giving element which made them 
the all-embracing organization of 
student life. The interchangeable 
adjectives, used to describe them, 
"debating-" and "literary," are both 
accurate — the latter is comprehen- 
sive, the former emphatic. 

Dartmouth was too new, too 
weak in numbers, in the period of 
national preparation to join her 
older sisters in this movement; 
though there were, doubtless, in 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



159 



Hanover those informal -'discussions 
arid conversations in which students 
of all lands and all times, have de- 
lighted and from which they have 
profited so greatly. Her progress 
too — while-she did not suffer so sev- 
erely as did Harvard, Yale, and the 
other colleges ' on the seaboard- 
was retarded by the war. Yet she 
gained ground and established her- 
self firmly. Subject, as her stu- 
dents were, to the full influence of 
the Revolution and the frontier and 
the local political excitement of the 
Vermont controversy, they inevi- 
tably followed the example of the 
older institutions, at the earli- 
est practicable moment, in es- 
tablishing societies. The first 
literary society iwas organized in 
the year when the treaty of peace 
was signed. 

This was the Society of Social 
Friends (''Socials"). It at once be- 
gan the accumulation of a library — 
the solid foundation and the pride 
of every literary society. Ten 
years later, in the first of a series 
of attacks which were made with 
the purpose of destroying the socie- 
ties, its records were lost ; and its 
earl) history survives only in tra- 
dition. In- 1786 a secession from 
the Social Friends led to the forma- 
tion of the second society, the 
Society of United Fraternity 
("Fraters"), which started with 
nineteen members. These two 
great societies continued so long as 
there were literary societies at 
Dartmouth. It is the typical, in 
fact, the almost universal phenome- 
non. In spite of. attacks and of the 
formation of select, and more or 
less specialized societies, of ephe- 
meral existence only, they went on 
from year to year, dividing the 
college — so long as the students 
were interested in their objects — 
into two rival, and sometimes bit- 
terly hostile, camps. The reasons 
given for the formation of the 



smaller societies, which existed 
from time to time, show that the 
size of the great societies and the 
conditions which often prevailed in 
them were detrimental to the best 
results and laid them open to criti- 
cism. Nevertheless, they continu- 
ed as the organized student body, 
supplementing the very restricted 
college curriculum and meagre lib- 
rary and funishing the chief pleas- 
ures of student life from their be- 
ginning to the middle of the last 
century. For us of today the 
clearest vision of those days may 
be obtained by recalling the athletic 
contests of our school and college 
days and the intense feelings which 
were ours "in fall and spring. The 
spirit of youth demands the op- 
portunity of matching its strength 
with that of a rival— created, if 
necessary, for that purpose. Now, 
when athletics play so important a 
part in student life and when im- 
proved means of communication 
have brought our cities and towns 
so near together, this spirit turns 
to athletic contests with other in- 
stitutions; then, when colleges 
were isolated and when public 
speaking and the giving of plays 
were foremost in student interest, 
the rivalry was between literary 
societies in the same college. The 
academies were, in those decades, 
too small to support two with suc- 
cess. 

There was keen rivalry at Dart- 
mouth in securing the larger and 
the better membership, in size of 
libraries, and in superiority in de- 
bates, plays, and exhibitions. At 
first members were elected from 
any class, and even persons not con- 
nected with the College were some- 
times chosen ; but this was chang- 
ed before long. In Dana's time the 
societies elected members from the 
freshman class — each might elect 
up to half the class — at the close of 
the college year. The students as- 



160 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



sembled on the Campus on the day 
and hour of the election, and the 
members of each society invited 
those whom they had elected to 
join their respective societies. The 
best Freshmen were usually chosen 
b} r both societies, and each sent its 
most popular and influential mem- 
bers to invite and urge them to 
join its ranks. Some accepted at 
once, as did Dana, who joined the 
United Fraternity ; while others 
withheld their decision for days, or 
even for weeks. This ceremony 
was called "fishing" and was cer- 
tainly calculated to foment trouble 
and disorder. (*2) 

The struggle became so heated 
that in 1790, they agreed on regula- 
tions for campaigning for members 
and united in administering their 
libraries as a Federal Library. 
Their interest in the great problem 
of the nation, the co-ordination of 
state and national government, may 
have inspired the attempt. Three 
years later, and again in 1796, the 
agreement was revised ; but the 
rivalry was too intense to be suc- 
cessfully controlled by the students, 
— even with the occasional interven- 
tion of the faculty — and in 1799 the 
pact was abrogated and the library 
divided. The keenness of the con- 
test is seen in the fact that within 
a year each library was as large as 
the Federal Library had been. The 
rivalry over the Commencement 
Anniversaries became so extreme 
that in 1796 they were discontinued 
for two years under the safeguard 
of a provision for nine months 
notice of intention to resume, and 
in 1800 were unconditionally sus- 
pended and not revived until 1811. 

The original constitution of the 
Social Friends, according to tradi- 
tion, was written in code, as the 
early society constitutions — and 
sometimes the records — often were ; 
and was very imperfect. There was 
no provision for a secretary and 



treasurer, no fixed time for meeting, 
and the members presided in alpha- 
betical order. Its 1803 constitution 
is systematic and comprehensive ; 
as is thai, also, of the United Fra- 
ternity, which is more detailed. 
Both contained provisions which 
enjoined friendship and morality, 
and forbade anything which con- 
flicted with good behavior or moral 
conduct. The societies had badges 
on which were engraved their secret 
symbols, grips, and complicated 
cipher codes for correspondence. 
They gave diplomas to honorably 
dismissed members. The badges 
and diplomas were in use for over 
fifty years. The motto of the 
Socials was : Sol Sapientiae Nunquam 
Occidet; of the Fraternity: Amicltia 
Sit Scmpitcniid. The constitutions 
and orders of exercises were essen- 
tially the same in the societies of 
all the colleges, though there were 
variations in minor provisions and 
in nomenclature. 

The ungoverned rivalry of the 
societies was not the only disturb- 
ing element which they brought in- 
to college life. Repeatedly, during 
the first decades of their existence, 
they were threatened with over- 
throw by rebellions which have 
been characterized as "rowdyism 
due to hostility to the societies." 
This characterization is unjust 
when isolated by application to one 
college and unqualified. Literary 
societies, the country over, through 
the whole period of their active 
existence, were subject to such out- 
breaks. Sometimes they were due 
to hostility between students of 
different social, or economic stand- 
ing. Notably so, when social divi- 
sions have coincided with geo- 
graphical in the regions from which 
a college has drawn its students. 
The great line of cleavage has been 

(*2) Judah Dana was Class of 1795, 
and became a wejl known and highly 
respected lawyer in Maine. 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



161 



between the older, more settled and 
orderly, wealthier, better educated, 
and more aristocratic coast regions 
and the less settled and orderly, 
poorer, less educated, and more 
democratic frontier regions, where 
the American principle that one man 
is as good as another has been 
strong, has been of inestimable 
value in our national life, but has. 
on the other hand, often gone to 
extremes in its hatred of any pre- 
tence to superiority in education or 
other commendable attainments. 
Sometimes they have been due to 
the dislike of the serious, hard 
working students by those who 
cared only for pleasures, whether 
good or bad. Sometimes to over- 
zealous championing of the great 
national parties by their student ad- 
herents — this is marked on the 
slavery question in colleges which 
drew students from both the North 
and the South. The play of these 
general forces has, naturally, been 
modified by local, college conditions 
--sometimes accentuated by rivalry 
and contests, sometimes softened 
by unanimity of college feeling. 
Youth takes its beliefs and loyal- 
ties, and even its frivolities, very 
seriously. Student bodies are al- 
ways vehement; and, if we find ex- 
tremes among the radical assailants, 
we also find lack of restraint among 
the conservative defenders of the 
societies. 

We must, moreover, take account 
of the presence in the colleges and 
college societies of our early days 
of 'the over-developed, or abnormal, 
individuality — a type produced most 
frecmently by the conditions of a 
frontier, or of tough, isolated, and 
thinly populated regions. This 
type of man is often lovable, ad- 
mirable in many respects, energetic, 
strong, fearless, sometimes of in- 
tellectual and literary power; yet 
commonly eccentric, economically 
useless, and independent to the point 



of lawlessness or even criminality. 
These traits are seen in some of 
our explorers, pioneer leaders, and 
public men: they will live in liter- 
ature in the writings of Henry 
Thoreau. 

Dartmouth, in her earlier days, 
drew her students in large measure 
from regions which tend to pro- 
duce this type. Two marked cases 
stand out in the books — John Led- 
yafd and Stephen Burroughs. Led- 
yard, a native of Connecticut, en- 
tered Dartmouth in 1772, at the aere 
of twenty-one, to fit himself for the 
Indian mission field. His standing 
as a scholar was passable ; but the 
college routine and discipline were 
distasteful to him. He fitted up a 
stage with properties which he had 
brought up the valley from Hart- 
ford, and produced plays in which 
he acted the leading parts. One 
of these plays was Addison's Cato — 
long a favorite with our amateur 
literary society actors. Much time 
was devoted to his theatre and to 
reading plays which he might better 
have devoted to his college duties. 
After four months at Hanover he 
suddenly left and travelled on the 
frontier and among the Indians. 
On his return he gave up his plans 
for becoming a missionary. An ad- 
monition to give more attention to 
his college work had only the result 
of inspiring him to make a large 
dug-out with the help of some 
friends and sail away down river 
and home. He studied theology ; 
but soon gave that up also, and 
went to sea. He was with Captain 
Cook in his last voyage around the 
World. After he returned he con- 
tinued in the British navy, was sent 
to the American coast in the course 
of the Revolutionary War, and es- 
caped to Long Island. In 1786- 
1787 he made a remarkable journey 
in Russia and Siberia which was 
summarily terminated by the Rus- 
sian government, before he had com- 



162 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



pleted his intended travels, through 
expulsion from the country. He 
was starting on a long African ex- 
pedition, when lie died in Egypt in 
1789. 

Stephen Burroughs (born in 1765) 
was no less erratic and far more un- 
restained than Ledyard. As a boy 
he constantly, indulged in wild es- 
capades. At fourteen he enlisted 
in the American army, but deserted 
and entered Dartmouth in 1781. 
He soon left, however, and went to 
sea on a privateer. Later he was 
a ship's physician, and then a school 
teacher. At one time he passed 
himself off as a minister, and oc- 
cupied the pulpit of a Massachu- 
setts Congregational church — using 
sermons which he had stolen — until 
he was detected and forced to flee. 
Soon afier this escapade he was ar- 
rested for counterfeiting, convicted, 
and imprisoned. He enlivened his 
confinement by repeated attempts to 
escape and by setting hre to the 
jail. When he had served his term 
he went to Canada and was the 
leader of a band of counterfeiters 
for many years. Ultimately he 
settled down to an orderly life, be- 
came a Roman Catholic, accumulat- 
ed a library, and kept a successful 
school. Throughout his life he was 
given to deeds of kindness and 
charity; and in the quiet evening 
of his life he was liked by his pupils 
and respected by the community in 
which he lived. His Memoirs are a 
classic in rogue literature, and have 
been published in at least nine edi- 
tions between 1798 and 1858. Led- 
yard and Burroughs were extremes 
in their type ; but this makes them 
more valuable specimens, for the 
sharp lines, the heavy lights and 
shadows, make clear a picture — 
otherwise blurred — of by-gone times 
and social conditions. 

Furthermore, in considering the 
early attacks on the literary societies 
we must remember that the period 



from the Revolution to the year 
1800, or after, was characterized by 

a wide-spread fall from the high 
moral and religious ideals of the 
Puritans. In the colleges — as well 
as outside — free-thought, infidelity, 
low standards of conduct, prevail- 
ed to a degree which saddened and 
alarmed those who held fast to the 
ideals of the fathers and who com- 
batted the tendencies of the day 
with all their strength. In the Class 
of 1799 but one man acknowledged 
himself a "professing Christian;" 
and Dartmouth was not different 
from other colleges in prevalence of 
unbelief. It was the time of 
Thomas Paine and Shay's Rebellion. 
In 17SS a Dartmouth debate was 
on the question, whether the study 
of French was more profitable than 
that of Greek except the Testa- 
ment — evidence of the early influ- 
ence of French thought and, pro- 
bably, of dissatisfaction with the 
college curriculum, though this was 
being broadened under the influence 
of new ideas. Dartmouth was one 
of the first colleges to teach law and 
government, then classed under 
moral philosophy. In 1782 John 
Whelock was appointed Professor 
of History ; and among the college 
text-books in 1792 were works by 
Montesquieu and Burlemarqui — 
both jurists and publicists, the 
former French, the latter Swiss. 

The conditions just referred to 
are well known to readers of the 
leading histories on the period ; and 
are graphically described in a re- 
cently published monograph on : 
New England and the Bavarian lllumi- 
nati. This Order was founded in 
Bavaria, in 1776, to better the educa- 
tional system — which was wholly 
dominated by the church — and to 
foster the progress of liberal 
thought. It was secret, and allied 
itself with the Free-Masons. 
Though its spread was rapid, its 
life was short. But Europe was 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIE 



16; 



seething with conflict between new- 
ideas and established systems ; and 
its extent and influence were gross- 
ly exaggerated by the fear of the 
conservatives, some of whom at- 
tributed the French Revolution in 
its worst features to the activities 
of the Il'luminati. The famous 
Massachusetts minister, Jedediah 
Morse, believed in the truth of these 
charges — they came to his attention 
from reading European books on 
the Order — and, also, that its ac- 
tivities had been extended to Ameri- 
ca. In a sermon, preached in 1798, 
he warned the country of the danger 
which, he believed, was threatening 
it. His fear was groundless and 
the agitation which his sermon 
caused was needless; but—as in 
Europe — both were due to existing 
social, political, and religious con- 
ditions which had already aroused 
apprehension. The truth was soon 
known, and the excitement subsid- 
ed. The episode does not concern 
us : but the conditions which made 
it possible do ; for — as we have 
seen — they were one of the elements 
which lay at the bottom of the dis- 
turbances in the literary societies, 
while these outbreaks, in turn, 
illustrate the general conditions. 

The people of America had lived 
in the midst of wars almost con- 
tinuously from the outbreak of the 
French and Indian War to the close 
of the Revolution— nearly three 
decades. We can appreciate and 
understand the disintegrating effects 
of -such an experience better today 
than we could have six years ago. 
Intemperance — which had always 
prevailed — increased ; gambling and 
other vices appeared. But these 
evils were neither deep-seated nor 
general in their growth ; and it is 
a tribute to Puritanism that New 
England passed through the wars 
and the profound changes which 
attended and followed them with 
the self-restraint and self-control 



that she did. The struggle for 
religious toleration, which was in 
progress, was making inroads on the 
authority of the established religious 
system. More liberal theological 
dogmas were finding favor in the 
minds of some ministers. The con- 
servative ministers resisted these, 
and all other tendencies which 
promised to weaken the position of 
the legally established church, sin- 
cerely and with all their power. 
Political questions took a prominent 
place in public attention and inter- 
est in the years which prepared the 
way for the Revolution. This was 
at the expense of interest in church 
and religious matters. It was in 
those years that the first literary so- 
cieties were founded in the colleges. 
Public affairs were even more in 
men's minds at the close of the war. 
The problems to be solved were 
many and difficult; and the con- 
fusion and changes which the Revo- 
lution brought in its train, in some 
ways intensified the severity of the 
task. -Many men of foremost posi- 
tion, especially in business, were 
loyalists and had gone. Great lead- 
ers of the new order had appeared ; 
but the system of leadership down 
into the towns was undeveloped 
and untried except under abnormal 
war conditions. There was no in- 
herent feeling of compulsion to 
obey — a force which is powerful, 
even when hated. The ideals of the 
Revolution — liberty and equality — 
of themselves made many (especial- 
ly men of the type of Eedyard and 
Burroughs) more disinclined than 
ever to submit to any leadership or 
authority. Under the old 'regime 
the stem church discipline had sup- 
pressed the few pleasures that were 
possible in a country where popula- 
tion was scattered and wealth was 
the blessing of but a few in the 
larger seaports. Under their new- 
found liberty the people demanded 
and sought them. Some found 



164 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



them in low and coarse forms. 
Others bravely struggled for the 
higher forms which economic con- 
ditions made difficult of attainment. 
The theatre, rose in public favor, 
though it was vigorously opposed. 
Part of the opposition was directed 
against evils connected with the 
professional stage and was justifi- 
able. This accounts for the differ- 
ence in attitude toward the profes- 
sional and the amateur stage. The 
popularity of plays in the literary 
societies was, in part, cIul 1 to this 
demand for relaxation. The idea of 
equality was inimical to the Masonic 
Order and it had difficulty in main- 
taining its position — the parallel 
with the debating societies is signifi- 
cant. 

Into this confused and struggling 
social and intellectual mass burst 
the influence of the French Revolu- 
tion. At first, it awakened general 
enthusiasm from its likeness to, and 
connection with, our own Revolu- 
tion ; later, its bloody excesses and 
its atheism caused a revulsion of 
feeling in the minds of many. It 
became involved in politics, and 
this added to the confusion. The 
conservatives became more deter- 
mined and the radicals in politics 
and religion took fresh heart. 
French thought, in the end, had a 
deep influence, especially among 
the students in the colleges, where 
new ideas found readiest access and 
welcome ; but it was vigorously 
combatted and its harmful elements 
finally eliminated. 

With these general considerations 
in mind we may view in more cor- 
rect perspective the dissentions and 
attacks which form so conspicuous 
a feature of the history of the 
societies down to 1803 and— as has 
been noted — illustrate the condi- 
tions in the country at. large. Not 
that there were not other features 
in their life during these years- — 
sane pleasures, quiet, useful work, 
and hence progress. 



The first serious disturbance did 
not occur in the literary societies, 
but in Phi Beta Kappa in 1789 (the 
year when the French Revolution 
began), two years after the chapter 
was organized. In 1793, 1799, and 
1803, it was again assailed. In these 
early years its purposes and activi- 
ties were similar to those of the 
literary societies; but it was small 
and select, and its meetings were 
more dignified and serious. This 
made it more deeply disliked, but 
less open to rebellions. 

In 1793 the discord, which had 
shown itself in the literary societies 
from their foundation, developed in- 
to a serious attack. This "Com- 
bination" was composed of Juniors 
and Seniors who were incensed be- 
cause they had not been elected to 
Phi Beta Kappa and such students 
as sympathized with their views. 
Their attempt was made soon after 
the Phi Beta Kappa election. This 
society was the immediate cause of 
the insurrection; but it could be 
reached only indirectly, through an 
attack on the great societies, which 
were also disliked, though not so 
intensely, and whose destruction 
would make its position untenable. 
More than half the students joined 
the insurgents— a fact which proves 
that the movement was due to 
causes more deep-seated than mere 
pique among a few disappointed as- 
pirants for Phi Beta Kappa. Many 
members of the literary societies, 
including some of their foremost 
men, were either openly or secret- 
ly connected with the conspiracy. 
When the old and aristocratic so- 
cieties — for such they were consid- 
ered to be- — were out of the way, 
"one Grand Liberal Society" was to 
be established : ,and every student 
was to be eligible to membership in 
it. The title of the new society, 
which is given by Dana and seems 
to have been the popular college 
name, and the pronouncement 
against qualifications and restric- 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



165 



tions for admission to membership 
are facts whose significance is point- 
ed out elsewhere in this paper. 
The upper-classmen, according to 
Dana, were preponderantly insur- 
gent, while the under-classmen bore 
the brunt of the defence. Perhaps 
the former had been influenced by 
the radical tendencies of the period 
during their college years, and, as 
leaders, wished to reform college in- 
stitutions to conform to their ideals; 
while the latter had, as yet, not been 
so influenced, and also had more 
veneration for the existing system. 
But Dana certainly does not mini- 
mize the part which his class, the 
sophomore, played in the preserva- 
tion of the societies. 

The insurgents invaded the rooms 
of the secretaries of the societies in 
search of the books and papers in 
their custody. Their plan was to 
destroy all records and thus make it 
difficult, if not impossible, for the 
societies to preserve their organiza- 
tion. They discovered only those 
of the Social Friends. These they 
destroyed. But the rebellion was 
less powerful in this society than in 
the United Fraternity, to which 
Dana belonged ; and the conserva- 
tives had less difficulty in preserv- 
ing its existence. In the Fraternity 
all of the Sophomores and most of 
the Freshmen remained faithful and 
fought long and hard and with ulti- 
mate success. There were many 
meetings, some of which Avere 
turbulent. At one of them the in- 
surgents put through measures 
which would have made it possible 
for them to carry out their designs. 
But the defenders brought in 
enough graduate members of the 
vicinage to elect sufficient new 
members of known sentiments to 
give them a majority and enable 
them to repeal the obnoxious legis- 
lation. The insurgents then with- 
drew from the society and joined 
'the Independent Society, as they 



styled themselves, or Pot-Meal 
Society, as we styled them." This 
"Omnium Gatherum Society" sur- 
vived some years. Phi Beta Kappa 
had no internal dissentions ; and the 
repulse of the violent attack left it 
and the great societies more firmly 
established and more powerful than 
ever — a warning to "Disappointed, 
Disaffected, and unprincipled as- 
pirants." 

An investigation of the affair by 
a committee of the Social Friends, 
in 1795, attributed the trouble — 
quite correctly — to the general 
spirit of revolution and innovation 
which prevailed in the College. It 
was abroad in the land. In 1799 
the attack was renewed ; and again 
in 1803, when the records of the 
Social Friends were once more lost. 
Evidently the attacks were well-or- 
ganized ; for, in the revised consti-. 
tution of the Social Friends, the 
pledge, or oath, was made more 
stringent by the addition of a 
promise not to join any organiza- 
tion which was hostile to the Socie- 
ty, nor to aid any attempt to abolish 
it. 

An account of the uprising of 
1803 — the more interesting and 
valuable because contemporary — is 
given in a letter by Ezekiel Web- 
ster, then a student, to his brother, 
Daniel, who had graduated in 1801.' 
The conspiracy to destroy the 
society (he writes) was very secret- 
ly and carefully organized. In the 
United Fraternity (to which the 
Websters belonged) only one Fresh- 
man, one Sophomore, and three 
juniors remained true to the society. 
These succeeded in preventing the 
passage of an amendment to the 
constitution, for which a three- 
fourths vote was required; and also 
prevented the revolters from ex- 
pelling enough of the defenders to 
give them the majority necessary to 
carry out their purposes. They 
would, he adds, be able to carry the 



166 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



coming election. He says that the 
conspiracy was managed "with the 
secrecy of Jesuits;'' and '"Tin's con- 
spiracy, I believe, is unparallelled . . 
If it has its parallel, it is in the con- 



spiracy of the Pazzi against the 
celebrated Lorenzo the Magnificent. 
It is not like Catiline's, for Catiline 
himself was a saint compared with 
some of the fellows who plotted 
this scheme." (*3) 

This victory assured the existence 
of the societies, and the}- had before 
them a half-century of success and 
influence. Dissatisfaction showed 
itself from time to time ; but it 
never threatened their life. The 

(*3) It is difficult to decide whether 
the conflicts were more violent in one 
society than in the other. On the whole — - 
making allowance for the fact that both 
Dana and Webster, who have left the 
fullest accounts, were members of the 
Fraternity — the Social Friends seem to 
have had more serious trouble. Did the 
Fraternity draws its membership from the 
more conservative, orderly, Federalist ele- 
ment ; while the Socials drew from the 
more democratic, turbulent, Republican- 
Democratic element? Such a difference 
may have been the cause of the. secession 
which resulted in the organization of the 
Fraternity. This differentiation is often 
found between the societies in the col- 
leges. The Websters were members of 
the Fraternity; Arnos -Kendall, who grad- 
uated in 1811, was a Social; but he was 
far from belonging with the turbulent 
element. He says, moreover, that, in 1810, 
.three-fourths of the students were Fed- 
eralist, and that the Socials numbered 
two-thirds of the student body. The 
relatively small membership of the Fra- 
ternity, on the other hand, may indicate 
that it was more select. It may have re- 
mained small and conservative from 
choice after losing its radical element in 
1793 ; but its connection with the Inde- 
pendent Confederacy in 1799 shoud be 
noted in this connection. Or the differ- 
ence in numbers may date from 1803. 
Ezekiel Webster, in his letter, says that 
he was the only student from Salisbury 
who did not join the rebels. Salisbury 
was opposed to the adoption of the Fed- 
eral Constitution; but the father of the 
Websters favored it. (Walker, A". H. 
Federal Convention.) Daniel Webster 
was a member of a Federalist Club in 
College; and in his day most of the 
faculty and students were Federalists. 



turbulent period in college, as in 
national, life was closing. We 
shall see another phase of its spirit 
in society theatricals. The fight of 
the societies for existence and. main- 
tenance of their principles played no 
small part in the establishment of 
a more orderly, restrained, and rev- 
erent code of thought and conduct. 

But the tumult did not prevent 
the societies from doing thoroughly 
successful work in supplementing 
the college course in their very im- 
portant held. No period of Dart- 
mouth's history has been more 
glorious than that of the decades 
which closed the eighteenth century 
and beg'an the nineteenth. From 
1790 to 1800 she gave diplomas to 
363 students, while Harvard gave 
them to 394 and Yale to 295. And 
her rank was commensurate with 
her numbers. The societies were 
worthy partners of the College and 
shared its prosperity as well as the 
difficulties with which both faculty 
and society authority had to con- 
tend. Their activities in these years 
are best illustrated by the college 
and society life of Webster. (*4) 

He became a member of the 
Fraternity, 7 November, 1797. The 
society was weak when he entered 
it ; and his ability and activity dur- 
ing his four years membership help- 
ed greatly to strengthen it. After 
holding various minor offices he 
was elected Commencement Orator, 
19 May, 1800, and President, 25 
November of the same year. A 
classmate says that, whenever the 
class or society, had a difficult task 
to perform, it was given to him. 
His contributions went beyond 
this, for he often volunteered to take 
parts ; and usually wrote his own 
declamations, though this was not 

(*4) The entries in the United Fra- 
ternity records which relate to him are 
printed in : "Daniel Webster as a Stu- 
dent." Those for his senior year, includ- 
ing the copy of his Commencement Ora- 
tion, are missing. 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



167 



required. He was regarded as their 
best man ; and "received almost un- 
bounded flatter}- from his fellow 
members." (*5) 

In 1799 he and Joseph W. Brack- 
ett were the authors of the drama 
which was given at the Commence- 
ment Anniversary, of the Society. 
He also wrote poems, and contribut- 
ed to The Dartmouth Gacette under 
the pseudonym, "Icarus." Among 
the debates in which he par- 
ticipated was one on the question : 
"Would it be good policy to treat 
an individual of the French nation 
with that respect we should one of 
another?" and one on the question: 
"Would it be just- for the United 
States to grant letters of mark & 
Reprisal against the* French Repub- 
lic?" Here we see the prominence 
of France in student thought from 
a new angle ; it was the time of the 
troubles following the XYZ episode. 

It is on his formal orations, how- 
ever, that his college and society 
fame rests. In his freshman year 
he delivered a eulogy on a deceas- 
ed classmate. An oration in his 
senior year was on "Ambition." 
Better known is his eulogy on his 
classmate, Simonds, which was 
printed under the title : A Funeral 
Oration, Occasioned by the Death of 
Jiphra'un Simonds. . . .a member of the 
Senior doss. . . .who died . , . .the \&th 

of June, 1801 By Daniel Webster, 

a Classmate of the Deceased. . . .Han- 
over, M. Davis, 1801. He also de- 
livered an Oration on Opinion at the 
Anniversary of the Fraternity in 
the same year. (*6) 

(*5) The recollections of his con- 
temporaries must be taken with the 
reservations which always apply to state- 
ments made long after the events tran- 
spired — especially as Webster's later fame 
would cast its glow backward to his 
student days. 

(*6) Pointed in New York Herald. 16 
August, 1853; thence repr. in The Dart- 
mouth Phoenix, March, 1857. Also 
printed in his Writings & Speeches from a 
copy in his own handwriting which varies 
from the Herald edition. 



In later years Webster wrote in 
a deprecative tone of his college 
orations : but he bears self-witness 
to the zeal with which he used his 
college opportunities. To quote 
from his brief Autobiographical 
Sketch.: "I was graduated in course, 
August, 1801. Owing to some diffi- 
culties, hacc non meminisse jurat, I 
took no part in the commencement 
exercises. I spoke an oration to 
the Society of the United Fraterni- 
ty which I suspect was a sufficient- 
ly boyish performance. My college 
life was not an idle one. Besides 
the regular attendance on pre- 
scribed duties and studies I read 
something of English history and 
English literature. Perhaps my 
reading was too miscellaneous. I 
even paid my board for a year by 
superintending a little weekly news- 
paper, and making selections for it 
from books of literature and from 
the contemporary publications. I 
suppose I sometimes wrote a fool- 
ish paragraph myself. While in, 
college, I delivered two or three 
occasional addresses, which were 
published. I trust they are forgot- 
ten ; they were in very bad taste. 
I had not then learned that all true 
power in writing is in the idea, not 
in the style, an error into which 
the Ars rhetorica, as it is usually 
taught, may easily lead stronger 
heads than mine. "(*7) 

Nevertheless, with all due allow- 
ance for the sunset glow of later 
recollection, the testimony is con- 
clusive that his efforts made a deep 
impression on his fellow students 
and society brothers. One of them 

(*7) The "difficulties which he dis- 
likes to remember" arose from the failure 
of the faculty to appoint him valedic- 
torian. He was the foremost man and 
the best orator in the class ; but was 
neither first nor second in scholarship — 
the usual basis of assigning commence- 
ment parts. There was much excitement 
over the matter, since the class desired 
that he receive the appointment. He de- 
clined to take a minor appointment. 



168 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



has said that he "was remarkable 
for his steady habits, his intense ap- 
plication to study, and his punctual 
attendance upon the prescribed ex- 
ercises." Henry Hubbard. Con- 
gressman, United States Senator. 
and Governor of New Hampshire 
testifies that , Webster's college 
mates were impressed by his ability 
as a speaker and by his other en- 
dowments — his breadth of view and 
his forceful manner. He was, also, 
regarded as a man who selected 
books with great • care and read 
them with concentrated attention 
and thought. 

The opinion of that close student 
of history and public affairs, Ex- 
Governor McCall, is essentially that 
of Webster himself: "The debating 
society was an institution to which 
Webster was devoted and from 
which he derived great benefit. It- 
enabled him- to overcome his timidi- 
ty which had been so great at Exe- 
ter that it was impossible for him 
to recite his declamations before 
the school, and he became in college 
a ready and self-possessed debater. 
I do not find it easy, however, to 
detect undei the flowers of his early 
rhetoric the promise of that weighty 
and concentrated style which after- 
wards distinguished him. But his 
college efforts were a necessary* 
part of his intellectual develop- 
ment." (*8j 

His really famous college oration 
was that given before the citizens 
of Hanover on the Fourth of July, 
1800, his junior year. The selec- 
tion of orator was made by the 
faculty and townsmen — proof that 
he was regarded as the best speaker 
among the students, or, at least, 
among the Federalist students. 
This oration was printed under the 
title: An Oration, Pronounced at 
Hanover, New Hajnpshire, the 4th Day 
of July, 1800; being the twenty- fourth 
Anniversary of American Independence. 
By Daniel Webster, Member of the 



Junior Class, Dartmouth Univcrsitx. 
Hanover : Printed by Moses Davis. 
1800. (*9) This oration marks the 
beginning of his mission as the great 
ex p o u n d e r o f t h e Co nsti tut ion an d 
the apostle of the immanence of 
the Union in our government and 
national life. The orations of his 
early years to which he gave deep- 
est thought were all on this theme — 
that at Hanover in 1800, at F rye- 
burg. Maine, in 1802 (while teach- 
ing at the Academy), at Salisbury 
in 1805, and at Concord in 1806. 
His thoughts were, doubtless, early 
turned to the subject by his father's 
relations of the , discussions on the 
adoption of the Constitution. 
Ebenezer Webster was a strong 
supporter of the Constitution, after 
its adoption : and it is probable that 
his record in the Convention was 
due to the anti-adoption sentiment 
of his town committee; but the 
evidence is not conclusive. 

The Fourth of July oration was 
the outstanding and prophetic event 
of Webster's college years. It 
shows, in crude form, his political 
creed and some of his later char- 
acteristics as an orator. It outlined 

(*9) A Dartmouth Fourth of July 
oration by Samuel Worcester, Class of 
1795, is printed in his Life, by S. M. Wor- 
cester. Worcester was the founder of the 
American Board of Foreign Missions. A 
copy of the original edition of Webster's 
oration recently sold in New York for 
$305. 

(*8) The story of Webster's timidity 
at Exeter is commonly given undue weight. 
He was there but a few months, at the 
end of a school year, when only fourteen 
years old. Timidity on the platform un- 
der such circumstances is neither unusual, 
nor strange. In Webster's case it was in- 
creased by the fun that was made of his 
rustic ways and poor clothes. (His Auto- 
biography. Curtis. Webster.) The teach- 
er who encouraged him to persevere was 
a fellow-pupil, the precocious Joseph Ste- 
vens Buckminster — two years younger 
than Webster, but advanced enough to 
teach him elementary Latin — who became 
one 'of the most brilliant leaders of the 
Unitarian movement. 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 169 

the Revolution, introduced some vated ; and its doctrine is sound — 

Federalist doctrine, and extolled the such is the judgement of a friendly 

system of government which the critic. Senator Lodge. 
Constitution 'established. Its senti- ,_ , 

ments are honest, manly, and ele- ( Fo be con tmued) 



APRIL - QUEST 

By Ha, old Final 

My heart went seeking April, 

Down all her smiling ways 

Of nights and days. 

With arms of flowers, vaguely sweet, 

She led me captive down the street — 

And in the glory of her eyes, 

I saw the skies. 

Through meadow ways, we roamed 

for days 
And hand in hand, across the land — 
We made of earth a wonderland. 

Oh, there were blossoms in her hair, 
Blossoms on her gown, 
Scattered blossoms everywhere, 
Up and down the town — 
Laughter, like a surging sea, 
Blew sprays of blossoms over me. 

My heart went seeking April, 
Upon a bluebird's wing ; 
Mad with the joy of living, 
Mad with the joy of Spring — 
And I, who only knew of pain, 
Have turned to Life and faith again. 



MAINE'S CENTURY OF STATEHOOD 

By William A. Robinson 



On March 15, one hundred years 
ago, Maine was admitted into the 
Union as the twenty-second state. 
Politically the youngest of the New 
England group, she is, historically, 
probably the oldest. Her begin- 
nings touch the far off, romantic 
days of Champlain and De Monts, 
the Elizabethan seamen sailed 
along her coasts, in 1613 Samuel 
Argall fought in Somes' Sound the 
first engagement in the long strug- 
gle which culminated in the surren- 
der of New France a century and a 
half later. Maine has been at once 
old and young. With places of his- 
toric interest antedating Plymouth 
Rock, she is still the resort of the 
lover of the wilderness, of the deer 
hunter, and the fisherman. 

The early settlements had a check- 
ered history and in 1652 they were 
brought under the authority of Mas- 
sachusetts, an authority not leg-ally 
established until twenty-five years 
later. The subsequent story was 
the familiar process of frontier de- 
velopment. A slowly lengthening 
fringe of settlements pushed north 
and east, up the river valleys into 
the wilderness. The coast settle- 
ments established ship building and 
a profitable fishing industry, engag- 
ed in illicit trade with the French, 
or turned an honest dollar at priva- 
teering in time of war. Indian raids 
and border warfare were picturesque 
incidents in the somewhat prosaic 
story of clearing the forest, pulling 
stumps, cutting brush in the swamps 
and picking stones from the uplands. 
Nation building is apt to be prosaic 
or even sordid in detail, but inspiring 
in the aggregate. Massachusetts 
looked on the Maine settlements 
with a certain disdain. Missionar- 
ies enlarged on the shiftlessness of 
the settlers, the drunkenness and im- 



morality of the lumbermen and sail- 
ors. But all the while the founda- 
tions of a commonwealth were being- 
laid. 

With the close of the Revolution, 
population grew rapidly. Land was 
cheap and settlers poured in from 
the older and more crowded commu- 
nities. Trouble with Massachusetts 
developed. Kentucky, Tennessee, 
and Vermont had shown that fron- 
tier communities could not be long 
kept subordinate to the older. Maine 
was not contiguous to the parent 
State, causes of friction were num- 
erous, demand for self-government 
became insistent. Maine like most 
newly settled areas followed Jef- 
ferson and the new Democracy. 
Massachusetts was Federalist. The 
breach steadily widened and the sep- 
aration agreement was finally con- 
cluded in 1819. The admission of 
the new state was delayed by the 
bitter controversy which finally pro- 
duced the Missouri Compromise. 
Maine and Missouri are associated 
in this way although the latter state 
was not admitted until 1821. 

Statehood made little change in 
the life of the community. Maine 
lumbering was famous and her sons 
carried its methods to the forests 
of the West. Ship building flourish- 
ed, and Maine clippers were world 
renowned until supplanted by the 
British built steamship. The abund- 
ance of water power in the streams 
pouring down from the lakes of the 
interior plateau, led to the establish- 
ment of prosperous manufactures. 
The Aroostock valley became the 
greatest potato producing district 
in America, an invaluable source of 
food supply for the growing indus- 
trial centers of southern New Eng- 
land and New York. Accessibility 
to these same centers of population 



MAINE'S CENTURY OF STATEHOOD 



171 



has made Maine one of the great 
play grounds of the nation. Her 
wilderness charm has never de- 
parted. 

Statehood, however, did mean po- 
litical maturity and from the begin- 
ning, Maine was a power in national 
affairs. Partisanship was intense 
and the victors in state politics mov- 
ed on into the larger area at Wash- 
ington. Fcssenden, Hamlin, Blaine, 
Reed and Frye were only the lead- 
ers in a large and distinguished 
group. In other localities Maine 
men were prominent in public af- 
fairs. Sargent Prentiss was a power 
in early Mississippi politics. John A. 
Andrew became the great war gov- 
ernor of Massachusetts. Melville 
W. Fuller reached the chief justice- 
ship of the United States after a 
successful career at the Illinois bar. 
Hugh McCulloch became the lead- 
ing financier of Indiana, Comptroller 
of the Currency and eventually 



Secretary of the Treasury, a notable 
figure in the long contest for sound 
money. 

Achievement was not confined to 
politics. From Maine came Hong- 
fellow and Hawthorne into litera- 
ture, Fordyce Barker into medicine, 
Charles Carroll Everett and Samuel 
Flarris into theology, Oliver O. 
Howard, Seth Williams, and Rufus 
Ingalls into the Regular Army, 
Madame Nordica into music. Gov- 
ernor Chamberlain at the semi-cen- 
tennial of 1870 pointed out the 
steady drain from the state by em- 
igration. All the rest of the coun- 
try was "the West" for Maine. 
There are few localities where her 
children have not been an influence. 
After all, that rather than Prohibi- 
tion has been her chief contribution 
to the nation, the best memorial to 
the sturdy lumbermen, fishermen 
and farmers who founded the com- 
monwealth. 



SPRING RAIN 



By Marion F. Sawyer 

It is the sobbing month of April; tears 

Are falling gently to the earth which draws 

Them in with eagerness, so quietly 

You scarce can hear it. Fragrance fills the air 

From odors sweet of smelling buds, moist 

Earth, and the bark of blackened trees. A note 

Trills lyrically from branches of an elm — 

A robin sings in ecstasy, "Cheer up! 

Cheer up !" The rain falls ceaselessly and soft. 



HON. JEREMIAH A. CLOUGH 



By Henry 11. Mcicalf 



•Jeremiah Abner Clough, born in 
Loudon, N. H., November 22, 1846, 
died in Concord, January 3, 1920. 

The Clough family, one of the 
most numerous and prominent in 
central New Hampshire, with con- 
nections all over New England and 



allotment of land in that year. He 
was a house carpenter by occupa- 
tion, was twice married, had seven 
children, and died July 26, 1691. 

Many of his descendants settled in 
Canterbury and Loudon, among 
whom was Capt. Jeremiah dough. 




Hon. Jeremij 

the country at large, descended 
from John Clough, who came to 
America from London, England in 
1635, locating first in Charlestown, 
Mass., but soon removing to Water- 
town, and a little later to Salisbury 
in the same state, where he settled 
before 1640, and received a second 



h A. Clough 

who was a leading citizen of Can- 
terbury during the Revolutionary 
period, serving as Chairman of the 
Committee of Safety and as a dele- 
gate in the Provincial Convention at 
Exeter in May, 1775, along with the 
Rev. Abiei Foster. He was a de- 
scendant in the fourth generation 



HON. JEREMIAH A. CLOUGH 



173 



from John dough of Salisbury, and 
the great great-grandfather of the 
subject of this sketch whose father, 
Abner Clough, was a suceessful 
fanner of Loudon.. 

Aimer Clough, whose father and 
grandfather were also named Ab- 
ner r married Sarah Hazelton of 
Canterbury. They had three chil- 
dren; Lucv M., who died in youth; 
Abial H., who died in. 1891, and 
Jeremiah A. Their home was oh 
a hue farm on Clough Hill, 
in Loudon, about a mile from 



;t Pittshcld Academy, Mr. Clough 



remained with his father 



th« 



home farm, to whose management 
and. cultivation he devoted his time 
and energy with abundant success, 
soon coming to be regarded as one 
of the most prosperous and enter- 
prising farmers in Merrimack Coun- 
ty. Mixed farming was pursued 
for many years, but for some time 
later milk production was made a 
specialty. The production of maple 
sugar was also carried on to a con- 
siderable extent. 




Clough Homestead in Loudon 



the center of the town. Here Jere- 
miah A. Clough was reared to a life 
of industry and thrift, such as has 
always characterized the successful 
New England farmer, in whose 
class many of the name have been 
found, a notable example being the 
late Col. David M. Clough of Can- 
terbury, long known as the "Corn 
King of New Hampshire/' although 
some have gained distinction in 
professional life, like the late Judge 
Lucien B. Clough of Manchester, 
one of whose daughters is the wife 
of Sherman L. Whipple, the emi- 
nent Boston lawyer. 

Having secured a good English 
education,. in the district school and 



Upon the death of his father in 
1900, Mr. Clough came . into full 
possession of the property including 
the home farm, with adjoining and 
outlying lands amounting in all 
to over SCO acres. He continued 
the management of the same until 
his death, but established his home 
in Concord in 1901, having pur- 
chased the substantial residence on 
South State Street, formerly owned 
by George H. Emery, placing a 
foreman in direct charge of the 
farm. 

Politically Mr. Clough was a 
steadfast and reliable Democrat, 
and was prominent in the affairs of 
the party in his town and county. 



174 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



He served the town of Loudon 
three years as a member of the 
board of selectmen, two years as 
town treasurer, also as town clerk 
two years, and was its representa- 
tive in the Legislature of 1897, 
when he served on the Committee 
on Agricultural College, and was a 
member of the Merrimack Count} 
Board of Commissioners for four 
years. He was chosen representa- 
tive again for 1907, when he was a 
member of the Committee on Ways 
and Means, and also on Labor, In 
November, 1908, he was elected to 
the State Senate from the 11th Dis- 
trict, stronglv Republican, though 
it was, by a majority of 95 votes, 
a fine demonstration of his great 
personal popularity. In the Senate 
of 1909, he was a member of the 
important committees on Banks, 
Finance, Public Improvements, 
State Hospital, and the Joint Stand- 
ing Committee on State House and 
State House Yard. He also repre- 
sented his town in the Constitution- 
al Convention of 1902. While in 
Loudon he attended the Free Will 
Baptist church, of which his mother 
was a member. In Concord he at- 
tended the South Congregational 
Church. While in Loudon he was 
For some years a member of Sur- 
prise Grange, P. of H. He was 
also a member of the Wonolancet 
Club of Concord. 

Mr. Clough made many friends 
through his genial manner and kind- 
ly .'courtesy, to all of whom his 
death came as a distinct personal 



loss. He was an honest, upright, 
public-spirited citizen, interested in 
all matters pertaining to the public 
good, and although he had passed 
the allotted age of three score 
years and ten, his departure will be 
long and widely mourned. 

He was united in marriage June 
20. 1877 with Nellie M., daughter 
of George and Almira (Sanborn) 
Peverly of Canterbury. They had 
no children but took into their 
family and started on the way of 
life, several young men. A niece 
of Mrs. Clough, Miss Florence C. 
James, has also made her home with 
them since their residence in Con- 
cord. One young man — Wilson E. 
Hunt — who came to them when 
fourteen years of age, in 1891, was 
educated and cared for like an own 
son. He was graduated from Kim- 
ball Union Academy, studied two 
years at Dartmouth Medical Col- 
lege, and graduated from the Medi- 
cal Department of Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1901, locating after a 
period of hospital work, in practice 
in Maiden, Mass., where he has 
since been successfully engaged, 
except for a period of overseas hos- 
pital service for the U. S. govern- 
ment in the great war. Lie cherish- 
es a deep regard for the benefactor, 
to whose kindly aid he owes his 
position and success in professional 
life, while Mr. Clough in his last 
days, took no little pride in the 
good work which his beneficiary 
was acomplishing in his chosen 
field. 



/751 



TRIBUTES TO TWO TEACHERS 



The late Mrs. Hattie Collins Parker. 
By Rev. S. H. McCollester 

Mrs. Hattie C. Parker of Marl- 
boro crossed the River to the other 
Shore, December the 17th, 1919, 
aged 53 years. Thus another rich- 
ly laden soul has passed from the 
mortal to immortal, freed from the 
illness of the flesh to the blissful- 
ness of heaven. 

She was born in Herkimer, N. Y., 
among the hills and valleys of that 
picturesque country. She was gift- 
ed and naturally brilliant, loving 
the flowers, picking them when a 
mere child with delight to adorn 
the home, the schoolroom, and the 
church. She admired nice things 
t,nd was pleased to share them with 
friends. As she went to school she 
displayed precosity of mind and 
soul. With all her might she 
strove "to seek and know." She 
ranked high in conduct and studies. 
She was loved by her teachers and 
schoolmates. 

When she was fourteen years old 
her family moved to Keene, N. H., 
where she revelled in new things, 
making most possible out of schooj 
advantages. Here she stood well 
in her classes, soon becoming noted 
for high rank in spelling, reading, 
writing, geography, arithmetic and 
grammar. As she advanced into 
higher branches she rapidly grew in 
love of knowledge and wisdom. 
Noble thoughts bubbled right out 
of her mind and heart. Her san- 
guine, nervous temperament push- 
ed her right on in the pursuit of 
learning the why and wherefore of 
matters. She early came to pa- 
tronize the public library, reading 
the best of books, being fondest of 
the Bible and the dictionary. She 
loved poetry, art and science and 



rapidly grew in general informa- 
tion. When institutes were start- 
ed in Cheshire County she took a 
deep interest in them. She loved 
children and took early to teaching, 
feeling it must be her life vocation 
and furthermore was pleased to 
help her good father and mother in 
supporting and educating three 
promising brothers and herself, all 
anxious to learn and out-prow 

o 

themselves, making the world wiser 
and better for their living in it. 

Mrs. Parker taught for nearly 
thirty years, some twenty of them 
in Troy. She had a wonder- 
ful power to stimulate her pupils 
with good thoughts and high aspir- 
ations. She wished to have her 
pupils ponder and cherish good 
things, like the bravery of Abraham 
or the great heartedness of Moses, 
or the determination of Joan of 
Arc, or the faithfulness of Mary, or 
the practice of Dorcas in doing 
good. She didn't do this to appear 
religious but it came of itself, just 
as water runs down hill. Her 
tones, gestures and movements ex- 
pressed in a pleasing way her de- 
pendence upon God. She was con- 
scious all the while of this, for she 
well understood her entire de- 
pendence upon God for every 
thought or deed done ; that she 
couldn't breath once without his 
help. All this went on without any 
pretention to piety ; so it was beau- 
tiful in expression and influence. 
Every teacher should be conscious 
of the presence of God and feel de- 
pendent upon his helpfulness. If 
she feels dependent on herself, she 
will be pretentious and quite certain 
to be desirous to show off. At 
least she will not feel the responsi- 
bility resting upon her for the cor- 
rect education of those under her 



176 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



charge; she is likely to do as little 
work as possible and get as much 
pay for it as she can. It was far 



otherwise with Mrs 



ker, reall 



right the opposite ; she was liable 
to overdo in school and out of it. 

While, in Troy she was happily 
united in marriage to Mr. Wilfred 
Parker and went to live in a most 
sightly place, a mile from Troy vil- 
lage, which presents some of the 
most fascinating landscape pic- 
tures. After this event, she kept 
right on teaching. At length, as a 
son and daughter came into her 
home she rejoiced and praised God ! 
Now how she thought and planned 
for the future, adding zest to her 
teaching. She desired that both of 
the promising children should have 
a college education. 

After long and successful service 
in Troy she came to Marlboro to 
teach. Apparently she was most 
vigorous in body and mind and 
taught for more than a year with 
eminent success ; but an internal 
disease was at work, cutting - off the 
threads of her physical body ; in 
spite of all physician, nurse and 
husband and son could Jo, in a few 
months she passed into the lustral 
light, causing friends to lament, 
saying, "She hath done what she 
could" on earth and has gone with 
great riches into the blessed Be- 
yond to live and aid all dear ones 
gone on before, and the dear ones 
left behind. Such living is verily 
worth living,, beautiful in the radi- 
ance of earth and glorified in the 
effulgence of the Most High ! Her 
last words and acts were full of 
hope, peace, encouragement and 
resignation. Her Christian faith 
was triumphant, placing a seal of 
Glory upon her life that had been 
made perfect through suffering and 
self-denial. 

She was always anxious to keep 
up with the times or somewhat 
ahead of them ; accordingly, her 



reading was extensive and reliable, 

and she wrote many an essay and 
prepared lectures on timely sub- 
jects, § reading them before insti- 
tutes, home circles, temperance so- 
cieties, on decoration days and 
gatherings. She had a good voice 
for public speaking, using chest 
tones, backed by carrying force, so 
she could be distinctly heard in 
large auditoriums, or speaking out- 
doors. 

Mrs. Parker was deeply interest- 
ed in the last session of our legis- 
lature, so far, especially, as making 
changes in our laws as to improve 
our schools. She highly approved 
of having laws made so that all the 
children in the state would be under 
the supervision of superintendents 
and that the larger towns and cities 
should give financial aid to the 
smaller towns to lengthen out their 
schools that all the schools might be 
in session about the same number 
of weeks during the year. This 
she felt was putting in practice the 
virtue of the stronger helping the 
weaker. This she felt must be 
done to have our schools truly 
democratic and Christian. 

She felt too that the teachers are 
responsible to a large extent to 
have their children properly classi- 
fied and graded. This must be 
done to have the children spend 
their time profitably while in 
school. So the teachers must do a 
deal of thinking and working out of 
school hours. The difference be- 
tween a true artist and a spectator 
is, the first knows beforehand what 
he is to do, the second works with- 
out any plan. The one has studied 
beauty and pondered over it till he 
can see the painting on the canvass 
before he has touched the brush, or 
if he be sculptor, he can see in the 
rough block of marble the statue 
before his hammer has struck the 
chisel. So the teacher beforehand 
should know what she is to do. 



MEMORIAL OF TEACHERS 



177 



Mrs. Parker sought to know the 
best educated men and women by 
conversing" with them, hearing them 
lecture, or reading about them, so 
she was familiar with Horace Mann, 
I). P. Page, Hon. G. P. Marsh, 
Mary Lyons, Winship and throngs 
of others, for she was self-educated, 
as all true teachers are, and as she 
went before her classes she could 
draw from a fund of knowledge to 
illustrate and make plain the sub- 
ject taught. She was strictly 
honest in her dealings with others 
and particularly in the schoolroom. 
She was never given to race partial- 
itv. She regarded all as children 
of God and should be treated as 
such ; accordingly, her Catholic chil- 
dren were treated just as fairly as 
the Protestant, the Italian as the 
Finn, and the poor as the rich. 

She took special pain^ to know 
the parents of her pupil.- that both 
parties might labor together for the 
good of the taught. Her motto 
seined to be "Nothing but the best." 
It was her joy to teach and see her 
pupils outgrow themselves. She 
was quick and ready to impart 
knowledge and she wanted her 
pupiis to do likewise. She was al- 
ways a student herself, even up to 
the very last; she was bound, "To 
seek and know." She was a good 
disciplinarian. She seldom failed 
to reform and redeem the wayward. 
Therefore, she not only sought to 
make her children wiser, but better. 
She always linked the present with 
the future, time with eternity. 
Many have been guided and made 
better by her teaching. 

'"Ever and ever she shall stand 
In the true history of the land, 
A noble type of good, 
Heroic womanhood. " 

Her funeral was on a bitter cold 
December day in the Congregation- 
aiist chapel of Marlboro, of whose 
church she was a faithful member, 



attended by Rev. Dr. S. H. McCol- 
lester assisted by Miss Mildred 
Holtham, music teacher of Troy, 
who beautifully sang. "Crossing the 
Bar." A goodly number of rela- 
tives and friends were present, 
deeply lamenting the departure of 
the Christian woman. The body 
was borne to Troy and the relatives 
rode in automobiles to the place 
where they tenderly laid the re- 
mains in the Parker family lot of 
the new cemeterv. 



Sarah Fuller (Bickford) Hafey. 
By Rev. Harry LeRoy Brickett. 

Among the many notable person- 
ages that New Hampshire has 
given to the world, whose lives 
have contributed in no small meas- 
ure to the good of humanity, and 
whose personal touch set in motion 
springs of influence that yet are 
giving forth mental and moral re- 
freshment and power, was Sarah 
Fuller (Bickford) Hafey. She was 
born amid historic surroundings, 
not far from the McNeils of revolu- 
tionary fame, and the historic man- 
sion with the bronze tablet in 
front that marks the birthplace of 
Franklin Pierce, the fourteenth 
President of the United States. 
Her parents, James D. and Eliza- 
beth (Conn) Bickford, were of 
sturdy New England stock, whose 
home at the Upper Village, Hills- 
boro. was known far and wide for 
the hospitality and good cheer, the 
friendship and welcome, extended 
to all so fortunate as to be guests 
beneath its roof. Three children, 
one daughter and two sons, were 
welcomed into this household. One 
son, while a student at Harvard 
University was drowned in the 
Charles river; the other son, Frank 
J., carries on the home farm wdiich 
his father bought and to which he 
moved his family many years ago. 
The daughter, the subject of this 



178 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



memorial, early gave promise of a 
useful and brilliant future. The 
little red school house of earlier 
days, where -pupils were taught 
(not crammed.) where the reason- 
ing powers were developed, and 
where those, who afterward became 
great and eloquent in debate, re- 
ceived first impressions that were 
lasting, was where the daughter, 
Sarah began her public education. 
Then followed instruction in Wash- 
ington and Francestown Acade- 
mies, which, like others in those 
days were popular and ranked high 
in scholarship, but now are replac- 
ed largely by the modern High 
School ; and, in addition, as a prac- 
tical part of her education came a 
course of study at a Business Col- 
lege w r here mathematics and 
penmanship systematically were 
taught. At the age of sixteen she 
herself taught with marked success 
her first school. She was a natural 
teacher, having the gift of impart- 
ing to others that which she her- 
self so well knew. Her services 
were sought by such institutions as 
Perkins Institution for the Blind, 
Lasell Seminary, and in public 
schools and private classes. It is 
pleasant to hear from some of Bos- 
ton's leading citizens who were un- 
der her instruction, the testimony 
borne to her ability and worth as a 
teacher. She married Charles M. 
Hafey, a lawyer in New York, and 
the one child, a son, born to them, 
died in infancy. 

It was, perhaps, as a writer of 
verse and as a writer of prose, that 
she was best known. Her writings 
were published in papers, periodi- 
cals and magazines, and were wide- 



ly read by a large circle of interest- 
ed subscribers. For two terms she 
was Engrossing Clerk at the State 
House, Boston, for which position 
she was well fitted ; her handwrit- 
ing being as clear and regular as 
print, and resembling in smoothness 
and beauty steel engraving. She 
was a frequent contributor to this 
magazine, and any article from her 
pen was a welcome contribution 
that was read and enjoyed by its 
large constituency of readers. It 
was some years ago that Mrs. Hafey 
returned to Flillsboro, and to the 
home of her earlier years to enjoy 
with her loved ones a well earned 
and long needed rest. Her life 
filled to the full with useful service 
to the individual and the communi- 
ty, had grown and mellowed, 
responsive to every cry of human 
need, and ready to lend a hand; she 
was the same helpful personage all 
through her more than eighty years 
of life. With the going of the 
month of January, 1920, she, too, 
obedient to the divine mandate, 
went to that other and better home, 
even an Heavenly. On Tues- 
day, February 3, at 2 o'clock p. m., 
relatives and friends gathered at the 
old home to pay the last tribute of 
respect and love to her memory. 
At her request, Rev. Harry L. 
Brickett, pastor of the Elm Street 
Congregational Church, South- 
bridge, Mass., was the officiating 
clergyman. She was laid to rest in 
the beautiful cemetery between the 
two villages, where sleep the honor- 
ed and patriotic dead, in the family 
lot, by the side of her loved ones 
gone before, with the setting of the 
sun. 



'/? 



NEW HAMPSHIRE'S MOST FRIENDLY TREES 



By Rev, Roland D. Sawyer 



The Oak 

"A glorious tree is the brave old oak. 
That has stood fur a thousand years 

Has stood and frowned 

On the trees around 
Like a king among his peers." 

The oak has well been called the 
king of the forest. It stands for 
rugged Strength — the "Mighty 
Oak" men .call it. An oak tree is 
the embodiment of strength and 
grandeur. Its limbs are strong 
with the life long wrestle with the 
winds. The spirit of strength, en- 
durance, long-life that attaches to 
the oak has been observed for 
thousands of years; the Romans 
crowned their heroes with chaplets 
of oak leaves, and the Druid priests 
offered their sacrifices to the oak. 
In Germany of the middle ages it 
was said the oak was the special 
tree of Trior, the God of thunder 
and power. As we might expect in 
a tree of such strength, the oak 
shows individuality, and there is 
more variety among the oak trees 
than is found among other of the 
tree families. Each tree has in- 
dividuality, and looking at a hun- 
dred oaks you will find all different 
where the pines and other families 
are so much alike. 

It is said there are over 300 species 
of oak tree — the white, red and 
vellow oaks are the ones best known 
in New Hampshire ; as is also the 
little scarlet or scrub oak, which 
while having little beauty in a 
single tree, yet they unite in giving 
us the first blows of the golden foli- 
age ;n the fall and retain their leaves 
throughout the winter in spite of 
storms and winds. 

Probably of the trees known in 
History more are oaks than of any 



other — this is largely because of the 
great length of life of the oak. Most 
famous of these is the famous 
"Charter Oak" of Hartford, where 
Capt. Wadsworth hid the charter 
of the colony of Connecticut when 
Major Andros demanded its sur- 
render in 1686. Boston's "Liberty 
Oak" planted when the colony was 
four years old and destroyed in the 
siege of Boston, was mourned for 
years. Dedham has an oak which 
was sought to be bought to make 
timber for the frigate Constitution. 
Billerica has its oak under which 
Washington rested as he toured 
New England, and Bedford has its 
gigantic Winthrop Oak, w T hich stood 
on one corner of the farm of John 
Winthrop in 1637. 

When I was a lad yearly I saw 
the great trunks of 70 to 90 feet 
in length being drawn to Newbury- 
port for ship timber; and one load 
once broke thru Chain-Bridge, kill- 
ing cattle but the drivers saved 
themselves by jumping. For the 
first 250 years in New England 
man's chief business was the des- 
truction of the virgin forests ; with 
axe and torch he cut down the 
rnonarchs of years and left the land 
but a piece of "slashing," and how 
many an oak withstood for 500 
years the winds of New Hampshire 
storms to fall by the axe of a New 
Llampshire settler. 

Down in Athens, Ga., once lived 
a man who became so attached to 
an oak that sheltered him that 
when he died he made a will and 
"in consideration of the love he bore 
the oak, he conveyed to it, posses- 
sion of itself, and of all land on 8 
feet each side of the tree." And 
there the proud old oak stands, no 
longer owned by man. Would that 



180 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



some of the fathers in New Hamp- 
shire had held similar regard for 
some of the grand old oaks that 
have fallen. 

"Sing for the oak-tree, the monarch 
of the wood. 



Sing for the oak-tree, that growcth 

green and good ; 
That g-roweth broad and branching 

within the forest shade, 
That groweth now, and still shall 

grow, when we are lowly laid." 



EDITORIAL 



New Hampshire towns, at their 
annual March meetings, were libe- 
ral, but not unwisely so, in the mat- 
ter of appropriations. Memorials 
for our brave representatives in the 
World War continue to engage the 
public interest, and at least one of 
permanent artistic value is assured 
by the decision of the town of Ex- 
eter to spend $20,000 in executing 
the design of her famous sculptor 
son, Daniel C. French. The wel- 
fare and wishes of the survivors of 
the great conflict were given heed in 
numerous instances by providing 
quarters for the posts of their order, 
the American Legion ; and where 
this action was combined with the 
establishment or support of a Com- 
munity House the public benefit 
was especially well served. 
A gratifying degree of co-operation 
between towns and state was in evi- 
dence in action concerning the public 
schools, the public health, highways, 
forestry, libraries, etc. The usual 
number of towns provided for Old 
Home Day observances, and Harris- 
ville, Stewartstown, Wolfeboro ; 
Chester, and possibly other places, 
took action towards celebrating var- 
ious anniversaries of their incorpo- 
ration. The town of Dublin had its 
new town history ready for inspec- 
tion on town meeting day and in 
other towns provision was made for 
continuing or beginning such work. 



Readers of articles contributed to 
this number on New Hampshire 
highways, past and present, will be 
impressed with the important part 
which roads have played, and con- 
tinue to play in the history, develop- 
ment, progress and political econ- 
omy of this state. From the stage 
coach and the turnpike to the auto- 
mobile and the boulevard, the course 
of events can be clearly traced. 
There 'was a half century interreg- 
num, during which attention center- 
ed upon roads of steel for the iron 
horse ; but now the public highway 
is again first in importance and its 
problems of construction and main- 
tenance, complicated by the tre- 
mendous increase in motor traffic. 
come home to every citizen and tax 
payer. A great deal of money has 
been wasted upon New Hampshire 
roads in the past. Even now we are 
far from getting 100 cents in value 
for every dollar expended. But con- 
dition's are improving. Federal, 
state and local plans are being link- 
ed-up harmoniously and advantag- 
eously. Our state highway depart- 
ment, ably directed and tactfully 
administered, is struggling valiantly 
to master its difficult situation, and 
in its work it has, to a constantly 
increasing degree, the intelligent and 
sympathetic support of local authori- 
ties and the people in general 
throughout New Hampshire, 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



The Turnpikes of New England: 

And Evolution of The Same 
Through England, Virginia and 
Maryland. By Frederic J. Wood. 
Illustrated. Pp. 461. Cloth. $10. 
Boston ; Marshall Jones Company. 

Tradition is not fact. Nor should 
it be accepted as a substitute. 
When it comes to discovering 
actual facts regarding early Mew 
England days and ways, it is nec- 
essary to search old records, and, 
like Mr. Wood, "blow the dust from 
each volume top as it is taken from 
its long undisturbed resting place." 

Everyone has read about the 
pathless forests which our ancestors 
had to open up, and there is a halo 
of splendor about the' old stage- 
coach days, but an accurate knowl- 
edge of what came between is lack- 
ing. We have accepted tradition 
hearsay without investigation ; the 
actual facts as presented by Major 
Wood are much more interesting. 
He not' only shows how all roads 
lead to the Turnpike, but so thor- 
oughly, and in a manner easily un- 



derstood, describes the "ways and 
means" of the turnpikes in the dif- 
ferent New England States that we, 
much to our surprise, find the ac- 
count extremely interesting and not 
as dry as the dust on those same 
roads, which was quite what we ex- 
pected. 

An article in this number of the 
Granite Monthly takes us over 
some of the New Hampshire turn- 
pikes. Naturally we feel that our 
own turnpikes are a little more in- 
teresting than those, of other states ; 
our roads in the mountain region 
prepare the way for magnificent 
views and wonderful scenery. 
However the ancestors of most New 
Hampshire families came from some 
town in Massachusetts or Connecti- 
cut, and we are just as interested 
in the roads they travelled. 

We most heartily congratulate 
Mr. Wood on having done one of 
those things that can't be done, and 
we encore our congratulations for 
the entertaining and satisfactory 
way in which he has taken us over 
the turnpikes of New England. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



HENRY W. BLAIR 

Henry W. Blair, former United States 
Senator from New Hampshire, died in 
Washington, D. C, March 14. He was 
born in Campton. December 6, 1834, the 
son of William Henry and Lois (Baker) 
Blair, both of whom died in his early 
youth, so that his boyhood was. one of 
hard work and his education limited to 
the town Schools and two terms at the 
Plymouth Academy. By persevering ap- 
plication he secured admittance to the 
New Hampshire bar, and in 1859 was 
elected solicitor of Grafton .County. He 
served in the Civil War as lieutenant 
colonel of the 15th N. H. Vols., and was 
twice wounded in the assault upon Port 
Hudson. He was a member of the New 
Hampshire House of Representatives in 
1866 and of the state senate in 1867-8. 
He served in the 44th and 45th Congresses 
and then two terms, 1879-1891, in the 
United States Senate. He was appointed 
and confirmed as United States minister 
to China, but was persona non grata to 
the Chinese government because of his 
attitude on Chinese immigration, and re- 
signed the appointment. In 1892 he re- 
turned to Congress for one term. For 
the past quarter of a century he has 
practiced law in Washington, giving much 
time, also to literature and to activity as 
a publicist. Senator Blair married Eliza 
Ann Nelson of Plymouth, a woman of 
great intellectual gifts, who died Januarv 
2, 1907. Their son, Henry P. Blair, is a 
prominent attorney of Washington, D. C. 

Senator Blair received the "honorary de- 
gree of Master of Arts from Dartmouth 
College in 1873. He introduced into Con- 
gress Dec. 2/, 1876, the first legislation 
seeking to prohibit the manufacture and 
sale of alcoholic beverages. He was an 
ardent champion of woman suffrage; was 
the author of the bill establishing the 
United States department of labor; sought 
to secure federal aid to the states in 
education ; and introduced and favored in 
Congress many other pieces of important 
and progressive legislation. He was the 
author of many books, pamphlets and 
magazine articles, of which the most im- 
portant was a comprehensive volume or 
"The Temperance Movement." 



Concord, who died February 29. The 
issue of this magazine for February. 1920, 
contained one of his valuable historical 
articles. 

Mr. Pillsbury was born in Concord, 
June 3, 1844, educated in the city schools, 
and engaged in business pursuits there 
throughout his life. In 1911 he represent- 
ed his ward in the New Hampshire legis- 
lature. For many years he was the 
treasurer and one of the most active mem- 
bers of the First Baptist Church, whose 
history he had written for the Granite 
Monthly. He was a member of the New 
Hampshire Historical and Genealogical so- 
cieties and greatly interested in the sub- 
jects of their work. Mr. Pillsbury was 
prominent in fraternal orders, having been 
grand master of the exchequer of the 
Knights of Pythias of the state; a past 
patriarch of the local L O. O. F. encamp- 
ment, and a member of the Patrons of 
Flusbandry and Red Men. 

Mr. Pillsbury is survived by a daughter. 
Dorothy of Concord; two sons, Thomas of 
Wilmington, Del., and Benjamin of Water- 
town, Mass. ; and a sister, Mrs. Orrin T. 
Carter of Concord. 



ANDREW KILLOREN 
Andrew 7 Killoren, who introduced in the 
New Hampshire legislature of 1889 the 
bill making Labor Day a legal holiday, 
was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, August 17, 
1853, but had lived for 64 years in Dover, 
where he died February 19, having been 
engaged in retail business there during 
most of his life. 

He was educated in the city schools and 
for 18 years showed his interest in them 
as a member of the board of education. 
An ardent Democrat in politics, he was a 
prominent member of the House of Rep- 
resentatives of 1887, 1889 and 1891, and of 
the State Senate of 1893. At each of 
these sessions his name was connected 
with important legislation on labor and 
other lines. Mr. Killoren had served on 
the water and health boards, as well as 
the school board of Dover. He had been 
state treasurer of the A. O. H. and at- 
tended three national conventions of that 
order. 



FRANK J. PILLSBURY 

A valued contributor to the Granite 
Monthly who recently has passed 
away, was Deacon Frank J. Pillsbury of 



GEORGE S. MORRILL 

George S. Morrill, distinguished civil 
engineer, was born in Penacook, March 
28, 1843. the son of Asa Hall and Naomi 
(Chad wick) Morrill, and died there Feb- 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



183 



ruary 9. He attended public arid private 
schools and at the age of 21 went to Cali- 
fornia where he was engaged in survey- 
ing and building'. Returning to New Eng- 
land, Mr. Morrill took up the work of 
railway surveying, and in 1870 began a 
connection with the Old Colony Railroad 
which continued throughout his active life. 
From 1^2 until 1895. when the road was 
absorbed by the New Haven system, Mr. 
Morrill was the Old Colony's chief en- 



W ALTER D. H. HILL 

Walter David Hammons Hill, who died 
at North Conway. March 12, was born in 
Sandwich." Feb. 26, 1870, the son of David 
Hammons and Mary (Moulton) Hill. He 
was educated in the schools of his native 
town and at Brewster Free Academy, 
Wolfeboro, and studied law with the firm 
of Miles & Carr, Lynn, Mass., and with 
the Sprague Correspondence School. He 



\ 



George S. Morrill 



gineer and in that capacity had charge of 
a large amount of important construction 
work. He was a member of the Ameri- 
can and Boston Societies of Civil En- 
gineers. During his vacations and after 
his retirement from active service, Mr. 
Morrill travelled widely on this continent 
and abroad. In November, 1867, he mar- 
ried Miss Clara Moody, who died m 
August, 1918. Their two sons survive: 
Asa H. Morrill of Portland, Me., con- 
struction engineer of the Maine Central 
Railroad, and Harley W. Morrill, agent 
°f the Ludlow, Mass., Associates. 



was register of probate of Carroll county 
from 1893 until 1901, and later for eight 
years was county solicitor, prosecuting 
several important cases. He was a Re- 
publican in politics and had served his 
town as moderator. He was a director 
of the North Conway Loan and Banking 
Company and a trustee of the Memorial 
Hospital there. February 26, 1908, he 
married Miss Lena Pitman, daughter of 
the late Lycurgus Pitman. She survives 
him, as does one sister, Mrs. Bertha 
Drew of Freedom. 



18-1 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



MRS. OCT A VIA C QUINSY 

Octavia, daughter of Benjamin j. and 
M. Abort: ( Batchelder) Cole, was born 
at Lake Village and died in New York 
City, March 9. She married Henry 
Brewer Quinby of Lakeport, governor of 
New Hampshire 1911-1912, by whom she 
is survived, and by one 'son. Henry Cole 
Quinby, and one daughter, Mrs. Hugh N. 
Camp, Jr., both of New York City. Mrs. 
Quinby was a member of the Park Street 
Church at Lakeport. of the New York 
City Chapter of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, and cf the New 
York City Chapter of the National Society 
of American Women. Mrs. Quinby was 
a woman of great ability and strength of 
character, devoted to good works and an 
ardent advocate of important reforms 
she rejoiced to see largely realized during 
her lifetime. 



JOHN C. PATTEE 

John Converse Pattee. born in Brown- 
ington, Vt, November 30. 1848. the son 
of Rev. Moses and Clarissa (Robinson) 
Pattee. died at his home in North Strat- 
ford, February 9. He came to New 
Hampshire 50 years ago, but previously 
had represented the town of Bloomheld 
in the Vermont legislature of 1870, of 
which he was the youngest member. "He 
had also served in the New Hampshire 



Legislature; had been treasurer of Coo* 
county; and had held all the offices in his 
town. The Legislature of 1913 elected 
hirn commissary general of the state, but 
he declined to qualify for the office. Mr. 
Pattee had been highly successful in the 
mercantile business to which he had de- 
voted his life. He was a 32nd degree 
Mason, an Odd Fellow and' Knight" of 
Pythias. He is survived by two children ; 
Ethel vn M. and Neal D. Pattee. 



BELA CHAPIN 

Bela Chapin, oldest of Granite Monthly 
contributors, died at his home in Clare- 
mont, February 24. He was born in New- 
port, February 19, 1829, the son of 
Phineas arid Lydia (Osgood) Chapin, and 
graduated from Kimball Union Academy, 
Meriden, in the class of 1853. He learned 
the trade of a printer and for a time was 
the owner of the Dartmouth Press at 
Hanover. For 50 years, however, he had 
lived upon the farm where he died. In 
1883 he compiled and edited a compre- 
hensive volume, "The Poets of New 
Hampshire," which had a large sale. He- 
had contributed verse to the Granite 
Monthly almost from its beginning, and in 
the March, 1919, issue, appeared a poem 
written by him on his 90th birthday. He 
is survived by his widow, who was Miss 
Sarah C. Melendy, his classmate at K. 
U. A. 






■ 






. 



I ' '.IN THIS D SBER; 

THE I 



HABLAK & PEARSON 1 



C< - oi-d, '■■■ B 






■ - ■-- -. . .-..».,.■ . ... ..... _. — r . 



Herbert C. Hooves 
The Best Man for President of the United States. See Page 215. 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Vol. LIT. MAY, 1920 



No. 5 



THE FARM BUREAU 

By George M. Putnam, 
President of the New Hampshire State Farm Bureau Federation. 



Agriculture has long been recog- 
nized as the basic industry of our 
Country. Without a prosperous 
agriculture other industries cannot 
enjoy continued prosperity. 

It is this fact that has led our 
government, both state and nation- 
al, for a long period of years, to ap- 
propriate funds to assist in various 
ways in agricultural development. 

It was in 1904 that County 
Agent work had its origin, in an 
effort to pre cent the threatened de- 
struction of the cotton industry in 
the south by the cotton boll weevil. 
It was during this year that the 
first federal demonstration agents 
were appointed in the state of 
Texas. AYhile their efforts were 
devoted primarily to assisting plant- 
ers to destroy or hold in check this 
pest they also inaugurated a 
movement to promote the growing 
of substitute crops to take the place 
of cotton on the devastated areas. 

At first Federal agents were ap- 
pointed to cover several counties, 
but the demand for intensive work 
led to the appointment of County 
Agents in 1907 ; and in 1908 County 
Agents became an integral part of 
the demonstration plan of the De- 
partment of Agriculture. In 1911, 
four County Agents were appoint- 
ed experimentally in the northern 
states, the first being in Broome 
County, New York. The office of 
Farm Management at Washington, 
the Binghampton Chamber of Com- 
merce and the Delaware, Lacka- 



ear 
.ppoint- 



wanna and Western Railroad joint- 
ly financed the work. The follow- 
ing year a small appropriation was 
secured from Congress for intro- 
ducing the work into the northern 
states, and during the fiscal y< 
1912-1913, 115 agents were appoi 
ed. 

The passage of the Smith-Lever, 
or Co-operative Extension Act, by 
Congress in 1914, made available an 
appropriation for promoting exten- 
sion work in Agriculture and Home 
Economics through co-operation 
between the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the several 

thu: 



state agricultural colleges, 
placing County Agent work on a 
basis of permanent Federal and 
State support. In New Hampshire 
at the present time all counties of 
the state are financially co-operat- 
ing in support of the work. 

This briefly is the origin of 
County Agent work in the United 
States. It is a new departure in 
agricultural development and to be 
of the greatest service to all the 
people will require the best thought 
of not only the representatives of 
the extension service, but of the 
farmers as well. 

In the few years of County Agent 
work here in the east, experience 
has seemed to demonstrate the need 
of an efficient organization of farm 
people in every county who are 
thoroughly in sympathy with the 
work, who, with the County Agent 
and the state extension service, 



188 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



should study the agricultural con- 
ditions of the count v and adapt a 
program of work adapted to its 
needs. It is this organization of 
farm people, and those interested 
in the prohlems of the rural com- 
munity, organized primarily to 
serve as a medium through which 
agricultural extension work of the 
Department of Agriculture can be 
made available to the farmer on 
his farm, that we have come to 
know as the Farm Bureau. The 
first Farm Bureau organized in 
New Hampshire was in Sullivan 
County in 1913, and other counties 
organized as follows : Cheshire in 
1914 ; Belknap, Coos and Merrimack 
in 1915; Grafton, Rockingham and 
Hillsboro in 1916. and Strafford 
and Carroll in 1917. The present 
Farm Bureau membership of the 
state is nearly seven thousand. 
Some of the most important sub- 
jects considered by the Farm Bu- 
reaus in New Hampshire are soil 
problems, including demonstrations 
to determine the value of lime to 
correct the acidity in the soil, mak- 
ing possible the growing of more 
clover and other legumes. This 
work alone has resulted in the use 
of more than 3,000 tons of ground 
limestone in a singe year. The 
economical use of fertilizers includ- 
ing home mixing of chemicals and 
the use of acid phosphate as a 
supplement to stable manure in 
furnishing the needed phosphoric 
acid has been shown. The growing 
of better crops is another subject 
that has been given careful atten- 
tion, including variety tests of dif- 
ferent kinds of seed and methods 
for the control of insects and crop 
diseases. 

The fruit industry has been pro- 
moted through better methods of 
cultivation and pruning and the 
protection of orchards against in- 
sect pests. 

The live stock kept on the farm 



is. in most cases, the market through 
which the farmer disposes of a 
large part of the crops grown on 
his farm. The price he receives 
for his crop depends largely on the 
quality of the live stock kept. The 
Farm Bureau is trying to improve 
this market by encouraging the 
establishment of cow testing and 
breeding associations. 

Farmers have been encouraged to 
assume a larger responsibility in the 
distribution and marketing of the 
products of their farm that thev 




George M. Putnam 

may receive a reasonable compen- 
sation for their labors and the con- 
sumer may be relieved as far as 
possible of unnecessary service 
charges. 

Farming as a business differs 
from other lines of business, in that 
the home is an essential part of the 
enterprise, and in many counties 
the Farm Bureau is co-operating 
in the employment of a Home Dem- 
onstration Agent whose duty it is 
to assist the rural home makers in 
solving the problems of the home. 
The activities of this department 



THE FARM BUREAU 



189 



include demonstrations in the use 
of labor-saving devices, advice as to 
the arrangement of the home with 
a view to economy in labor, bring- 
ing to the county "specialists to ad- 
vise in the making and remodeling 
of clothing, first aid, and home care 
of the sick, and especially the latest 
scientific knowledge on food and 
food values with a view to improv- 
ing the health and future efficiency 
of all our people, and many other 
subjects of interest to the home. 

The boys and girls of today will 
be the men and women of tomor- 
row. Realizing this, the Farm 
Bureau, where its finances will per- 
mit, is co-operating in the employ- 
ment of a Boys' and Girls' Club 
leader and the establishment of 
definite projects of work, including 
Garden Clubs, Corn and Potato 
Clubs, Pig Clubs, Poultry Clubs, 
Canning and Sewing Clubs, etc., 
for the purpose of interesting and 
instructing the young people of the 
rural communities in the problems 
of the farm and home, that they 
may be better prepared to assume 
the duties and responsibilities of the 
future. 

New Hampshire has taken a 
front rank in Farm Bureau work, 
being one of the first states in the 
union to complete the organization 
of all its counties. 

During the late war the Farm 
Bureau, through its County .Agent 
service and Boys' and Girls' De- 
partment, rendered valuable assist- 
ance to the state emergency food 
production committee < and may 
justly claim with others, a share 
of credit for the wounderful record 
accomplished, as may also the Home 
Demonstration department for its 
work in food conservation and the 
use of substitutes. 

Briefly these are some of the ac- 
tivities of the County Farm Bureau. 
Many other problems of a more 
general nature may receive consid- 



eration. Inasmuch as the County 
Farm Bureau is partly supported 
by public taxation, its program of 
work should be broad enough to 
include the problems of the com- 
munity. In the words of a County 
Agent in another state, the ideal 
Farm Bureau should be "an or- 
ganization of people interested in 
rural affairs which has for its pur- 
pose the development of a more 
economic agriculture, the adoption 
of better farm and home practices, 
the establishment of community 
ideals and the furtherance of all 
efforts of the people, the state, and 
the government, for the well being, 
prosperity and happiness of the 
rural people." With a better un- 
derstanding of the Farm Bureau as 
thus truly expressed, the criticism 
sometimes heard that giving finan- 
cial support to the work through 
legislative appropriation is class 
legislation must entirely disappear. 
With the steady growth and in- 
terest in Farm Bureau work it be- 
came apparent to those who had 
made a study of its possibilities, as 
a medium for assisting in the de- 
velopment of the agriculture of the 
state, that inasmuch as many of the 
problems of the several counties are 
similar, a federation of interests 
would be of value to consider with 
the extension department of the 
State College, matters of co-opera- 
tive agreement between the College 
and the County Farm Bureaus, in- 
cluding the adoption of a state pro- 
gram of work and other subjects in 
which the several county organiza- 
tions had a common interest. Ac- 
cordingly, a meeting was called at 
Concord in December, 1916, and the 
New Hampshire State Farm Bu- 
reau Federation was formed. Its 
value to the Farm Bureau work has 
been demonstrated and its field of 
usefulness broadened until to quote 
from its declaration of purposes, its 
object is "not to displace or run 



190 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



counter to any organization now 
existing, but rather to develop, 
strengthen and correlate the work 
of the County P-ann Bureaus of the 
state, to encourage and promote co- 
operation of all representative agri- 
cultural organizations in every ef- 
fort to improve facilities and condi- 
tions for the economic and efficient 
production, conservation, marketing, 
transportation and distribution of 
farm products, to further the study 
and enactment of constructive agri- 
cultural legislation, to advise with 
representatives of the public agri- 
cultural institutions co-operating 
with Farm Bureaus in the determi- 
nation of state wide policies and to 
inform Farm Bureau members re- 
garding all movements that affect 
their interests.'' 

This program covers a broad 
held providing unlimited opportuni- 
ty for service, to which the New 
Hampshire Farm Bureau Federa- 
tion pledges its best effort with due 
regard for the welfare of all our 
people. 

Trie development of Farm Bureau 
work in ail parts of the country and 
the formation of State Federations 
of Farm Bureaus in many states, 
have demonstrated the economic 
value of organization, and its appli- 
cation in a broader way seemed to 
man}' to be desirable. Accordingly 
a meeting of the representatives of 
several state Federations was held 
at Syracuse. N. Y., in February, 
1919, to discuss the advisability of 
forming a National Farm Bureau 
Federation. At this meeting it was 
decided to delay organization until 
the following November, at Chicago. 

The Chicago meeting proved to 
be one of the most representative- 
gatherings of bona fide farmers ever 
held in this country. At this meet- 
ing a constitution and platform were 
adopted and a temporary organiza- 
tion effected and adjournment made 
to March 3rd, 1920, at which time 



the temporary organization was 

made permanent. 

No movement in agricultural 

circles has attracted so much atten- 
tion and favorable comment from 
the press and public, as has the or- 
ganization of the American Farm 
Bureau Federation. It is distinctly 
a farmers' organization. None but 
actual bona tide farmers are eligible 
to membership in it. Twenty-eight 
states representing a membership 
of more than a million farmers 
were represented at the organiza- 
tion. The objects as provided in 
the constitution are "to correlate 
and strengthen the state Farm Bu- 
reaus and similar state organiza- 
tions and to promote, protect, and 
represent the business, economic, 
social and educational interests of 
the farmers of the nation and to de- 
velop agriculture." The resolutions 
adopted received wide and favor- 
able comment from press and pub- 
lic and ring of true Americanism. 
Among other things they favor 
higher individual efficiency, com- 
pensation to be based on accom- 
plishments of the day's work, rather 
than the hours of labor, declare 
strikes no longer justifiable, declare 
the waste and extravagance of the 
present days demand return to the 
more humble and prudent practices 
of the past, and pledge the farmers 
of America to the largest possible 
production consistent with good 
husbandry, with a view of relieving 
the world's dire necessities, and in- 
vite the workers of all other in- 
dustries to join in a spirit of service. 
The program of work for this 
year includes the establishment at 
once, under the direction of trained 
experts, of bureaus to take up the 
following subjects: Transportation, 
trade relations, distribution, statis- 
tics, a legislative bureau and a 
bureau of co-operation. With the 
organization of these several bu- 
reaus the work of the American 



THE FARM BUREAU 191 

farm Bureau Federation will be While the organized fanners are 
fairly under way. The Farm powerful, they are not selfish. 
Bureau Federation is national in Every word and act of the recent 
scope and is unquestionably one of Chicago meeting", as expressed by 
the most powerful, single organiza- voice and resolution, show a strong 
tiotis in the world. Acting with the national spirit and a desire to be 
Grange, the Farmers 5 Union and the just and fair to all. In times of un- 
other national and sectional farm rest and discontent, the farmer has 
organizations, the Federation and always been the main stay and 
its sympathetic allies form a group reliance of the government to bring 
that far out-shadow in membership the country back to normal condi- 
and authority, any other federated tions ag'ain. At this time organized 
group in the nation, or in the world. agriculture has a duty to perform. 
The Federation is expected at once not to the industry alone but to all 
to exert a dominant influence in our people. The Farm Bureau Fed- 
national affairs and in a reasonable eration will not be found wanting, 
course of time to aid in the correc- 
tion of many abuses from which 
agriculture has suffered. 



A REVERY 

By Alice D. O. Greenwood. 

Low hang the clouds above the purple hills. 

The setting sun, in glory streaming thru, 
With gorgeous tints the past'ral landscape gilds. 

And all its imperfection hides from view. 
See, like a mother's tender hand it falls 

WTth soft caressing touch on ruins gray. 
Pressing with fervid lips the crumbling walls, 

It glorifies mutation, and decay. 

Lo, as 1 gaze, a change is wrought meanwhile, 

Where, but a moment since, brown cornstalks stood, 

There soldiers grim, in gorgeous rank and hie, 

Have sprung to arms this side the darksome wood, 

That marks the sinuous river's onward flow, 
Thru spreading fields of rich alluvial land. 

There, close beside its confine, long ago, 

We have been wont to see a homestead stand. 

Its hearth-stone now has fallen to decay, 

And where yon slender ash tree proudly towers, 

There once the blazing yule-log lay 

And in its light we whiled away the hours. 
Oh, happy hours! Oh, joyous youth! 

When Hope her gold flecked pinions wore, 
When life was love, and love was truth, 

I sigh that ye return no more. 



192 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

And sighing wonder if with mortal breath, 

All sensuousness is o'er and done. 
And must within the silent halls of death 

Sleep on while centuries their cycles run. 
Must friendship, hope, ambition, love, and faith, 

With all their kindred blessings pass away? 
Then is existence but a fleeing wraith, 

The evanescent tenant of a day? 

Ah, then, is man the plaything of an hour, 

Hapless creation of a passing thought, 
The gibe, the jest of omnipresent power, 

A thing discarded that henceforth is naught? 
Oh death, thou mystery of which we know no more 

Than doth the worm on which we tread, 
We come, we bide a moment and we go, 

Go hence, and are called dead. 

Oh thou inscrutable estate, 

Occult, and dark, and weird and deep. 

Luring alike the humble and the great, 
Within thy cold dim silent halls of sleep. 

What art thou? Wherefore didst thou come? 

And hence with all thy trophies, whither dost thou go? 
Beneath thy potent spell the mother's lips are dumb, 

And unresponsive to her offspring's woe. 

The great obey the mandate of thy will, 

The humble lay their burdens down for aye, 

Thou, thou alone the miser's greed can still, 
And thou alone the Shylock's hand can stay. 

The clamoring herd grows weary, falls asleep, 

Within thy grasp the fairest flesh is clod, 
All sentient nature doth thy mandate keep, 

Oh thou inscrutable, art thou not GOD? 

I gaze on all the myriad worlds that shine 
Thru all the vast infinitude of space, 
I note the seasons' advent and decline, 

And Nature's wondrous loveliness and grace ; 
And, gazing, wonder if the power that wrought 

Such marvelous beauty as with passing breath, 
Would bring His glorious handiwork to naught, 

And echo on the query, What is death? 



THE "GREAT RIVER NAUMKEEK" 

ONCE THE SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF NEW HAMPSHIRE 



By George B. Upham. 



In an article entitled ''New 
Hampshire Town Boundaries De- 
termined by Mason's Curve," pub- 
lished in the January Granite 
Monthly, the description of the 
territory granted by the Mason 
Patent of 1629, was quoted as ex- 
tending "threescore miles" inland 
from the mouths of the Merrimack 
and Piscataqua Rivers. It . was 
there explained that a curve line 
drawn at such distance from the 
sea was to form the western bound- 
ary of the Patent. It was further 
stated that in 1751 Joseph Blan- 
chard Jr.', began his survey of this 
curve on the Massachusetts bound- 
ary line at the southwest corner of 
Fitzwilliam which is, by scale, al- 
most exactly sixty nautical miles 
of 6,080 feet each from the mouth 
of the Merrimack. 

Plow was the starting point at 
the southwest corner of Fitzwilliam 
determined? F.rom what point on 
the sea was the sixty miles inland 
measured, and was there intention- 
al use of some mile longer than the 
statute mile? In the consideration 
of these questions it should be 
borne in mind that at the time 
Blanchard surveyed the curve no 
such township as Fitzwilliam, or 
Monadnock No. 4, as it was first 
called, existed. The tract had 
probably been surveyed as a pre- 
liminary to a charter, but was still 
ungranted land. It should also be 
remembered that Monadnock No. 1, 
frequently called South Monadnock 
and now Rindge, had been charter- 



ed by the Mason Proprietors a 
year or two previous to the survey 
of the curve. 

In determining the western limit 
of the sixty miles Blanchard did not 
measure from the sea, but as stated 
in his deposition, "I began to 
measure Westwardly on the Prov- 
ince Line, at the South-West corn- 
er of Rindge, the distance from the 
Sea to that place being then ascertained. 
I measured from thence about Ay 2 
miles ; then went Northwardly ac- 
cording to the directions given me." 
(N. 11. State Papers, Vol. XXIX, 
p. 381.) How had the distance 
from the sea to the southwest corn- 
er of Rindge been ascertained?* 
In fact when one thinks of it, "the 
sea" was a somewhat indefinite 
place to measure from. 

In an endeavor to ascertain 
whence this measurement was made 
the writer was led to inquire into 
the location of the "Great River 
Naumkeek," and in so doing to 
learn that such river and a line 
drawn from its "head sixty miles 
west" was once the southern 
boundary of a "part of ye Maine 

land of New England" 

"henceforth to be called by the 
Name of Newhampshire." 

In the Archives of England, 
Colonial Entry Book, Vol. 59, p. 93, 
appears "A Grant of Cape Anne in 

New England to John Mason 

Esqr." This grant was made by 
the Council for New England (In 
England commonly called the 
Council of Plymouth), dated March 



• The survey of the recently established 
iKichnr-i Hazen, in the spring- of 1741 did n 



Province Line made by George Mitchell and 
>t determine thir*. for Mitchells part of the 



survey, from the sea to the celebratf-d Pine Tree on the north boundary of Draeut. '.vas along 
a many angled line approximately three miles north of the winding course of the Merrimack. 




iJs 



m 












>+ 



•J. "v ■: 






"'A 






\/ 






ay- 



% 






/'>% 







u\^'^ 



v\ 







This map though dated l'jl-i, the year that Smith obtained the data for its preparation 
was not engraved until two years later. It exists in ten states of the plate, each described 
in the ^Memorial History of Boston, Vol. I, pp. 52-56. That above is from the second state. 
Only three names given by Prince Charles remain in their original place; viz Cape Ann, The 
River Charles and Plimouth. The name Cape Elizabeth, here piaced at Cape Small Point, has 
been transferred from the easterly to the westerly entrance of Casco Bay. The name Boston 
on the site of York. Me., had no influence in naming the real Boston by men who came from 
the vicinity of that mediaeval town on the east coast of England. 

Cape James is, of course, Cape Cod; Chevyot hills are the Blue Bills; Cary lis., the islands 
in Boston, harbor; Taibott's Bay is Salem Bay; Bastable, Gloucester; Smith's lies, the Islea of 
Shoals. The name Hull is placed near the present site of Portsmouth. It is of course to be 
understood that the names of towns represented nothing except the Prince's fancy. Point 
Davi.es is Cape Ned dick.; Snadown hill. Mount Agramenticus; Harington Bay, Casco Bav; The 
River forth, the Kennebec; Party lis. Monhegan and .Mariana, where Smith's ships anchored 
for the greater part of their stay; Pembrocks Bay is Penobscot Bay; Lomonds are the hlila 
of Mount Desert. 



Ti-li: GREAT RIVER NAUMKEEK 



195 



9. 1621-2,* and described the 
granted territory as beginning" "at 
the head of Next Great River to 
the Southwards of said Cape 
[Anne] which runns upwards into 
the Country of the Main Land 
westward and Supposed to be call- 
ed Naumkeck." . The Grant was 
bounded on the north by "the Next 

Great River Supposed to be 

called Meriraack." The territory 
was to be named '"Mariana." (N. 
H, State- Papers. Vol. XXI X. pp. 
19. 20.) Nothing seems ever to 
have come from this grant of 
"Mariana" unless it be the discov- 
ery (?) and mention of the "Great 
River Naumkeek" as its southern 
boundary, which same river formed 
in part the southern boundary of a 
later grant made by the Council 
for New England to Mason on 
April .22, 1635. In that grant this 
boundary is described as "being 
from ye middle part of Naumkeck 
river & from thence to proceed 
Eastwards along ye sea Coast to 
Cape Anne & round about ye same 

to passcattaway harbour" "& 

alsoe from Naumkeck through ye 
river thereof up into ye land west 
Sixty miles;" otherwise than the 
extension south to the Naumkeck 
this grant of territory, "henceforth 
to be called by the Name of New- 
hampshire." was substantially the 
same as that described in the pre- 
vious grant to Mason made in Nov- 
ember 1629, and shown within the 
curve line on the maps published in 
the January number of this maga- 
zine. (N. H. State Papers. Vol. 
XXIX, pp. 63, 65.) 

It now becomes of interest to in- 
quire where the "Great River 



X a urn keek" was. Nearly all that 
was known of New England, with 
any approach to accuracy when the 
grant of Mariana was drafted in 
1622, had been discovered by Cap- 
tain John Smith of Pocahontas 
fame, who gave it the name New 
England. Reaving his two ships to 
trade and fish, with their temporary 
home port in the little harbor of 
Monhegan Island, lie sailed with 
eight men in an open boat along 
the shore from the Penobscot to 
the elbow of Cape Cod. This was 
in the early summer of 1614. The 
only fairly accurate map or chart 
of the New England Coast exist- 
ing in 1622 was the one drawn by 
Smith himself and dated 1614. The 
name Naumkeek does not appear 
on this map, nor do any other In- 
dian names, for Captain Smith had 
allowed "the high and mighty 
Prince Charles," then a boy of four- 
teen years and afterwards Charles 
I, to play with his map and to 
plaster it over with English names, 
few of which have been retained. 
The names Charles River and Cape 
Ann are among these. Smith for- 
tunately had the good sense to 
leave us, in his book, a list of the 
original Indian names placed op- 
posite those bestowed by the heir 
to the throne. 

It had pleased the Prince's fancy 
to place on the present site of Glou- 
cester the name Bastable. Smith 
tells us the Indian name was Naern- 
keck.** 

In his "Description of New Eng- 
land," written while a prisoner on 
a Erench frigate and published 
in 1616, Smith calls Salem Bay 
"A Great Bay by Cape Anne." 



* Prior to 17.12. when the calendar was reformed, we spe many double dates, such as 
1621-2. This was because the civil year did not then begin until March IMth, while the his- 
torical year b<=-gan January 1st. .Aside from the eleven days which we had fallen behind in 
the old and then abandoned calendar, the difference in dates was only in the early part of 
the year, between January 1st and March 25th. For present consideration of these double 
dates the first year-date given should be disregarded and the second date taken as the real 
date, for such in fact it wa.s. 

•* Smith in his various writings gives five different spellings of this name, using "Naem- 
keck" most commonly. Tiu first settlers spelled it " Nehumkeek, also Nairnkeeke, which later 
was changed to Naumkeag, but in no form is it now attached to any topographical feature 
near Salem. 



196 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



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The whole of the cut off printed matter in the upper left hand corner of the original 
map reads as follows: "All the Land Northwards of the Massachusetts Northern Boundary, 
and lying on the Back of the Province of New Hampshire, and on the Back of the Province 
of Main so fare as the British Dominion extends, belong to the Crown of Great Britian, and are 
not yet grranted away by the British Crown, and the French Settlements approach very near 
on the back of the Province of Main." 

All the land to the northeastward of New Hampshire, including all the southern parts of 
Maine and New Brunswick, is marked as granted to the "inhabitants of the Province of 
Massachusetts' Bay October 7, 1761"; all east of the Kennebec River is with .the following pro- 
viso, "but net to be p, -anted away by them without the Crowns Approbation." 



THE GREAT RIVER NAUMKEEK 



197 



He gives a fairly recognizable des- 
cription of it to anyone familiar 
with its waters, but despite the 
somewhat pyramidal appearance 
and great apparent size of Halfway 
Rock. Marblehead Rock. Gray's 
and other Rocks when seen loom- 
ing through a fog, it must be ad- 
mitted that the description of them 
as appearing "at a great height 
above the water like the Pyramides 
of Egypt" is somewhat exaggerat- 
ed. Three centuries of the action 
of frost and the great drive of the 
breakers must, however, have re- 
duced their size materially. 

Smith does not appear to have 
examined closely the mainland in 
the vicinity of Salem. In fact the 
omission on his chart of the definite 
coast line there, and the statement 
"A Country not discovered" print- 
ed, instead of an Indian name in 
the list opposite the name "Bris- 
tow," which latter had been placed 
on the map a little north of the 
present site of Salem, indicate 
pretty clearly that Smith had not 
been close ashore in the inner part 
of the bay. 

In a somewhat vague and in- 
definite way he mentions as some- 
where in this vicinity two rivers 
either of which might have been 
taken as flowing into this "Great 
Bay by Cape Anne." one reported to 
him as "a faire River and at least 
30 habitations," the other as "a 
River that doth pierce many daies 
journey the entrailes of that Coun- 
try." The latter was probably the 
Charles. 

Since prior to 1622 we know of 
no other mention than by Smith of 
Naumkeck or a river in its vicinity, 
we are led to believe that the geo- 
grapher who then advised in the 



drafting of the grant of "Mariana" 
had in mind, or imagination, some 
river named "Naumkeek" flowing 
into the "Great Bay by Cape 
Anne." This grant distinctly says 
it was "the Next Great River to 
the Southzvards of the said Cape," 
so it could not have been the 
Merrimack which is therein stated 
to be to the Northwards of the Cape, 
nor could it have been the "River 
Charles" for that is plainly shown 
and named on Smith's map. 

In Chapter XI of his "Advertise- 
ments For the unexperienced Plant- 
ers of New England" published in 
1631, Smith tells of the settlement 
made by the English in 1629, in 
"about 42 degrees and 38 minutes, 
* at a place called by the natives 
Naemkecke, by our Royall King 
Charles, Bastable ; but now by the 
planters, Salem." Thus we see 
that the name Naemkecke was by 
Smith himself shifted from Bas- 
table, (Gloucester) to Salem, if he 
really knew where the Salem settle- 
ment was made. The name Naum- 
keek or Naumkeag has ever since 
been associated with Salem, and if 
we are to have a river of that name 
Salem is a better place for it than 
Gloucester, for no river, not even a 
brook, flows into Gloucester harbor, 
while just north of Salem is a tidal 
estuary which reaches about three 
miles inland to Danversport, and is 
navigable, when the tide favors, for 
vessels of light draft up to that 
place. Above Danversport it is 
a mere fresh-water brook. Seen 
from Salem Bay this estuary has 
the appearance of the mouth of a 
large river. Smith apparently had 
never seen it but others may have, 
for in the seven or eight years in- 
tervening between Smith's voyage 



* This is within a mile of the correct latitude of Gloucester which is about five miles, 
or minutes, further north than the latitude of Salem. This might indicate that Smith thought 
U was there that the Salem settlement was made, but with the crude cross-staff then in use 
for taking the sun's altitude an error of five miles or more in latitude was not uncommon. 
Snath, however, was not far out in the latitudes given on this chart. He very wisely did not 
undertake to give the longitudes for without a chronometer he had no means of ascertaining 
them. The relative distances east arid west, obtained by his dead-reckoning, came suprislng- 
ly near to being correct. 



%Jl-J 




^ 



k> 





A 




• 
^ 




< 



ppcJO 





f* / )A 




This map is Nos. S and 9 of Vol. V. of the "Crown Collection" consisting of photographic re- 
productions of unpublished maps and drawings found mostly in the British Museum. Only fifty 
prints of those photographs were taken, only twenty-five sold. Otherwise than in this cpllee*. 
tion of photographs it is believed that this map has never heretofore been published. The 
librarian of the renowned Essex Institute of Saiem knows of no other publication. This is the 
only known map showing New Hampshire as extending south of the Merrimack. Note the 
word New south of that river. It is also the only known map on which the name Naumkeek 
River appears in any of the various ways of spelling. The original map '? drawn on parch- 
ment. Itg size is 3 ft. & in. x 2 ft. 3 in. Its date is about 1680. 



THE GREAT RIVER NAUMKEEK 



199 



and the dale of the Mariana Chart- 
er, 1622, numerous voyages, of dis- 
covery, for fishing and the purchase 
of furs, had been made along the 
New England Coast.* 

The only known map with the 
name "Naumkeek" or "Naumkeek 
River" or any similar spelling 
thereon, is shown in Vol. V, Nos. 8 
and 9, of the "Crown Collection/' 
containing photographic reproduc- 
tions of old and unpublished manu- 
script maps' and drawings found 
mostly in the British Museum. It 
is the only known map showing- 
New Hampshire as extending 
south of the Merrimack River. 
This map, of date about 16S0, is 
printed herewith. 

Except as quoted above the only 
reference to the Naumkeek as form- 
ing the southern boundary of New 
Hampshire, which the writer has 
been able to find, is in a letter dated 
October 10th, 1726. from Jeremiah 
Dummer, then in London, to Josiah 
Willard, Secretary of the Province 
of Massachusetts Bay. This letter 
relates a conversation with Mr. 
Henry Newman, Barrister of the 
Middle Temple, who for a consider- 
able period of the boundary con- 
troversy was the Agent for the 
Province of New Hampshire. 
Dummer writes, "I ask't him what 
the pretenc'ons of New Hampshire 

are, he said their Boundary 

on the side of the late Colony of 
the Massachset was the middle of 
Merrymack River, which tho very 
Extraordinary doctrine, was not soe 
surprizeing, as to hear him say 
soon after that the true antient 



Boundary was Nahumkeag the In- 
dian name for Salem, and this Se- 
cret it seems he was let into by Mr. 
Usher when he was in England 
last." (N. H. State Papers, Vol. 
XIX, pp. 203-4.) 

Having ascertained with more or 
less uncertainty where the "Great 
River Naumkeek" was, it may now 
be asked what had that to do with 
the location of the Mason Curve? 

After four'or five generations of 
Mason heirs had been born into and 
died out of this great land contro- 
versy which was such an important 
factor in New Hampshire history, 
John Tufton Mason in 1746, then 
sole heir, sold his New Hampshire 
domain to twelve Proprietors, all 
living in or near Portsmouth, for 
£1500. (N. H. State Papers, Vol. 
XXIX, p. 213.) Meantime, in 1740, 
after more than a century of politi- 
cal conflict, the southern boundary 
of New Hampshire had been fixed 
by the King and Council substan- 
tially as we know it today. The 
limits of the Mason Patent had 
never been definitely determined. 
The owners were naturally anxious 
to have their newly acquired prop- 
erty surveyed, and extended as far 
as possible.** 

The Proprietors were more or 
less familiar with the various 
Mason Grants. They were all men 
of experience, well informed in 
political and business affairs where- 
ever the wide reaching commerce 
of New England extended, and not 
likely to let anything to which they 
were fairly entitled escape them. 
They were doubtess aware of their 



• We have records of at least nineteen different visits of Europeans to the shores 
of New England before the coming of the Pilgrims in lf>20, and it is well known that many 
other visits were made to our shores by fishermen, fur-traders and adventurers of which we 
have no definite record. Further northeast, as early as 1527 when John Rut sailed into the 

harbor of St. John's Newfoundland, he saw th^re, to his surprise, twelve French and two 
Portugese fishing vessels. 

•* The Proprietors had heard of some "fine Land" over in the Connecticut valley, and 
wrote John Tomlinson; Age-nt in London, for advice- about petitioning the Crown for an ex- 
tension westward and northward to a further "Curve Line Parallel to our Former of Twenty 
miles deep or of Thirty or fourty Miles so as to meet Connecticut [River]." Tomlinson, a man 

of great good sense, replied, "I think it would be the wrongest Step that Could be taken 

fi rst Make good & Establish Your right bevond Contriversy." i.e. against the holders of the 
Allen title. (X. H. State Papers, Vol. XXIX. pp. 2is0-282.) 



200 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



right to have the ''threescore miles" 
inland measured as miles were un- 
derstood in 1629 when their Patent 
was granted. .They must have 
known the length of the old road 
mile in England for some of them 
had travelled there. We may readi- 
ly understand that they may have 
been in some doubt about the place 
on the sea from which -the sixty 
miles inland were to be measured, 
but they needed no advice to appre- 
ciate that t'Tie longer the mile the 
larger their domain. 

They discussed it and the survey 
of the curve at their usual weekly 
meeting place, Ann Slayton's 
Tavern in Portsmouth, perhaps 
over mugs of flip and long church- 
warden pipes filled with Virginia 
tobacco brought up the coast in one 
of their .own brigs, Daniel Pierce 
was one of their number, and pro- 
bably knew a little more about geo- 
graphy and surveying than any of 
the others, so they informally 
agreed to leave it to Daniel. He 
doubtless knew of the survey that 
had been lately made, in March 1750, 
by Johnson and Bridges, employed 
by the Massachusetts grantees of 
Rowley-Canada, now Rindge, in an 
effort to protect their claims from 
seizure by the Mason Proprietors. 
This survey was not at all to the 
Proprietors' liking, for the survey- 
ors had reported that they had "run 
a line from three miles North of 
Black Rocks in Salisbury Sixty 
miles Due West,* and find 

that sixty Miles extends one mile 
and a quarter into Canada Town- 



ship/' (Rindge) a much shorter dis- 
tance from the sea than was pleas-. 
ing to the Proprietors. It therefore 
behooved Daniel to find some more 
satisfactory measurement. He 

looked up the old grants, brushed 
up his knowledge of geography, and 
so came to know, or suspect, that 
sixty miles from the "head of the 
Naumkeek" would bring the curve 
further west than would sixty miles 
from the mouth of the Merrimack, 
thus giving the Proprietors a larger 
domain. He therefore prepared a 
map for Blanchard, which has been 
lost, and in his instructions about 
surveying the curve told him to "be- 
gin on tiie Province line at the 
Southwest Corner of the Township 
called South Manadnach (Rindge) 
& to measure upon the Province 
line till it intersects a curve line 
drawn from a point Sixty Miles west 
from the head of Naumkeek"** 
We can imagine Daniel with solemn 
countenance, without even the wink 
of an eye, giving these in- 
structions to Blanchard, and he was 
reasonably safe in doing so for it 
is very doubtlful whether anyone 
knew where "the head of Naum- 
keek" was. 

Blanchard reported that he meas- 
ured from the southwest corner of 
Rindge about 4j/^ miles Westward- 
iy on the Province Line, then went 
Northwardlv as directed. (N. H. 
State Papers, Vol. XXIX, p. 381.) 
As a matter of fact he measured 
westwardly six statute miles and 
there began to survey northwardly 
on the curve. We know this be- 



• Had they really measured due west for the same distance from 
tioned they would have found themselves in the southwest corner of what is 



the place men- 
now Peterboro. 



•• (See X. H. State Papers, Vol. XXIX, p. 43S. ) The deed from John Tufton Mason to the 
Proprietors made in 1746 conveyed only the tract comprised in the grant of 16*29, in which 
there was no mention of the Naumkeek. By the terms of that grant it seems reasonably clear 
that the meisurement of the sixty miles to the west should have been from the mouth of 
the Merrimack Xot long before it was arranged to have Blanchard svirvey the Curve the 
Proprietors acquired for the moderate price of twenty shillings all the right, title and interest 
of John Tufton Mason to the land north of the .Vsumk°tk and the line sixty miles west there- 
from. t'N. H. State Papers, Vol. XXIX. p. 271.) The small consideration paid and the fact 
that the grant of this tract made by the Council for New England on April 22, 163-5, had 
never been confirmed by the King, (See Narrative and Critical History of America, Vol. III. 
p. 3101. lead.-; us to think that the Proprietors were buving not land but merely an excuse 
to do their measuring from the "head of the Naumkeek" instead of from the mouth of the 
Merrimack. 



THE GREAT RIVER NAUMKEEK 



201 



cause the charter of Monadnock No. 
4, now Fitzwilliam, granted only a 
few months later, states the south- 
era boundary as "Beginning at the 
West Line of Mason's Patent So 
Called Where that Crosses the 
Dividing Line Between the Prov- 
ince of the Massa Bay & the 
Province of New Hamps 6c runs 

from thence East by Said Line 

six miles to the Southwest Corner 
of South Monadnock."* 

How are we to reconcile this with 
Blanchard's statement that his 
measure between the same points 
was "about 4yi miles?" Not by al- 
lowance for "swag" (sag of the 
chain.) A mile and a half in four 
and a half would be altogether too 
much "swag," and then it is highly 
probable that Blanchard himself 



made both measurements. We can 
account for it only by believing that 
the 4j/j were the "old miles," in 
use in England when and long after 
the Mason Patent was granted, 
which would be very nearly equal 
to six statute miles. 

Thus strange and far fetched as 
it may seem the present position of 
a large number of town boundaries 
and farm property lines in New 
Hampshire appear to have been af- 
fected by the visit of Capt. John 
Smith to the New England coast in 
1614, with the consequent laying off 
of the Mason Curve from the head 
of an insignificant tidal estuary near 
Salem. These same town and farm 
boundaries- appear to have been still 
further affected by the length of the 
old English mile. 



• (X. H. State Papers. Vol. XX VII, p. 2C0.) Stearns in the History of Rindge, much 

superior to t lie average town history, s«ys, •'The Mason Proprietors conveniently ' fixed upon 

the southwest corner of Fitzwilliam as the termination of the sixty miles- from the. sea, by 

which, v. ith an accomodating- elasticity of the curved line, they successfully embraced the 

eight Monadnock townships and others to the north of them," hut the careful author makes no 

attempt to trace how they managed it to fix upon that place as the termination of the 
sixty miles. 

Respecting the location of the Mason Curve the following seems to some extent material. 
For a year or two prior to the? survey of the curve the Bianchards, fathers and son, had 
been very familiar with land in the vicinity of Rindge, Fitzwilliam and Richmond. They 
had in all probability made the surveys preliminary to granting the charters for each of these 
townships, all before the survey of the Curve in October. 1751. The charter for Fitzwilliam, 
originally Monadnock No. 4, was granted in January 1752, that for Richmond in February 
1752, but the surveys were doubtless made some months previously, probably in the summer 
or fall of 1751. Colonel Blanchard as agent for the Proprietors had issued and sigrfed the 
charters for Monadfiock Xo. 4 (Fitzwilliam) and South Monadnock (Rindge). Both he and 
his son were grantees of Richmond. They owned numerous lots of land in each of these 
three townships. Colonel Blanchard owned the lot at the southwest corner of South Monad- 
nock, so when his son be^an there, as directed by Daniel Pierce, to measure west on the 
Province Line, he began at the corner of his father's lot as well as at the southwest corner 
of that town. The Bianchards lived in Dunstable, now Nashua, only twenty-five or thirty miles 
distant from these towns. 

Richmond is the tosvn immediately west of Fitzwilliam and has its eastern boundary on 
the curve. It had been granted as Sylvester-Canada, to Capt. Joseph Sylvester and his men 
by Massachusetts in 1735 and surveyed by Josiah Wiilard in 1736. He had marked a hemlock 
tree at the southeast corner with the letters J. S. and it seems probable that Blanchard, Jr. 
began the survey of the curve from this same tree. (X. H. State Papers, Vol. XXIV, pp. 272- 
2Su; Vol XXV, "p. 460. Vol. XXVII, p. 260; Vol. XVIII, pp. PJ8-204.) . ' ; , > 



:?<?; 



THE DARTMOUTH LITERARY OR 
DEBATING SOCIETIES 



By Asa Currier Tilton. 
PART II. 



Societies other than literary had 
now begun to appear in the College. 
The church was the earliest or- 
ganization in the college communi- 



'cular organization- 



ty. The first 
closely connected with the Church, 
however — was musical. There are 
indications of its existence at the 
first Commencement in 1771 ; but it 
is not definitely mentioned until 
1792, when it is called "TJie Musical 
Society/' or "The Choir." It had 
its Anniversaries until 1S02. A 
movement spread over New Eng- 
land, soon after 1800, for the im- 
provement of church music and took 
form in musical societies in the 
towns and colleges. One of the 
foremost of these, "The Handel 
Society of Dartmouth College." was 
established in 1807, superseding the 
Musical Society, was active for 
half a„ century, and finally ended in 
1888.* It owned a library and a 
collection of musical instruments: 
and celebrated its Anniversaries at 
Commencement. It joined with 
similar societies in giving exhibi- 
tions for the purpose of aiding the 
reform— one was given at Concord 
in 1810 and one at Amherst in 1811. 
It did not escape the later attacks- 
on societies. These, after 1803, 
were directed less against the two 
great societies than against the 
small and select literarv organiza- 
tions and societies of religious and 
moral purpose. 

The formation of a chapter of 
Phi Beta Kappa, in 1787, was due 
to the desire of the ablest and most 
earnest Juniors and Seniors for a 

(*1G) judge Cross, Class of 1841, calls 
it The Handel and Haydn Musical Asso- 
ciation- 



literary society which would be 
smaller, more select and serious, 
and less subject to student politics 
and disturbances than were the 
great societies. Its debates were 
conducted by two disputants who 
prepared their arguments and two 
who spoke extemporaneously. The 
literary societies were tolerant 
toward the chapter, when they 
found that it did not attempt to 
compete with them in having a 
library and that it took members 
from both without discrimination. 
In early days it elected one-third of 
the junior class at the end of the 
college year. It exclusiveness 
marked it for attack by the elements 
that were hostile to societies. it - 

Soon after 1800 there was a re- 
action in all the colleges from the 
irre.ligion and low standards of the 
preceding decades. This manifest- 
ed itself in the formation .of moral, 
religious, and mission study socie- 
ties. At Dartmouth, in 1801, a Re- 
ligious' Society was established ; and 
some years later, we find a Theo- 
logical Society and a Society of Re-' 
ligiosi. These combined, in: 1808, 
into the Theological Society of later 
years— the only one of the old socie- 
ties which has lived on, under vari- 
ous amalgamations and changes of 
name, into the present century. A 
Society of Inquiry was started, in 
1821, for the study of missions — a 
type which developed under the in- 
fluence of the newly-awakened 
interest in foreign missions. The 
exercises of these societies were, at 
first devotional ; but, later, they 
added dissertations and debates; 
and had an oration, or a sermon, at 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



203 



their Commencement Anniversar- 
ies. 

The conditions in the great socie- 
ties which prompted the formation 
of Phi Beta Kappa, resulted, from 
time to time, in the establishment 
of select local societies — less cum- 
bersome and formal,, and more in- 
tent on improvement; in 1793 the 
Independent Society, or Confeder- 
acy, (the "Potmeal Society") was 
started — not as a select society, 
however, but as a "Grand Liberal 
Society." It appears to have lost 
its radical character; and in 1799, 
it joined with the United Fraternity 
from which its leading members 
probably came — in the face of 
strong objection from the. Social 
Friends — and continued for several 
years as the Dartmouth Literary 
Adelphi with a standing which 
enabled it to hold Anniversaries. 
Between 1808 and 1812 there was a 
small society, called Philoi Euphra- 
dias ; and there may have been 
others, at this period, of similar 
character. (*11) 

For the story of these years we 
may profitably concentrate our at- 
tention on the student life of an- 
other of Dartmouth's noted gradu- 
ates, Amos Kendall. Before doing 
so, however, a reminder may be in 
place not to forget these ephemeral 
societies ; for we shall need to have 
them in mind when we come to the 
formation of fraternities and the 
downfall of the great societies. 

Kendall entered colleg-e in March, 
1S08, as a member of the Class of 
1811; and in April he became a 
member of Social Friends. The 
narrative, in his Autobiography, of his 
student life gives prominence to the 
small societies, and pictures very 
clearly their relation to the great 
societies and the conditions therein 
which gave rise to the select 
groups. (*12) 

His class had organized the 
"Gumnasion Adelphon," a club of 



about fifteen members, early in its 
freshman year and Kendall was in- 
vited to join it. Its purpose was 
mutual improvement and the pro- 
motion of friendship. Members 
were selected for their good morals 
and earnest purpose ; and this made 
it a power for good in the- class. 
Class consciousness and loyalty 
were developing. The club was not 
formal!}' secret ; but it was agreed 
that it should not be mentioned 
(probably to avoid attack) and its 
existence was unknown to out- 
siders. There was no constitution, 
and the members presided in turn 
at the weekly meetings, which were 
held in their respective rooms. The 
exercises consisted of declamations 
and compositions, which were criti- 
cised by all, and discussions. It 
successfully carried out its ideals; 
and Kendall looked back upon it as 
his pleasantest and most profitable 
student experience. In his sopho- 
more year he became a member of 
the Handel Society and was active 
in its work. He was at the exhibi- 
tion at Concord which was given by 
this and similar societies and in- 
cluded an oration by the Rev. Sam- 
uel Worcester of Salem (Class' of 
1795). 

C*ll) The informal nature of these 
societies and their frequent lack of a 
name make it difficult to differentiate be- 
tween thern in the references to their 
existence and activity. Some, doubtless. 
existed which have left no record, or even 
tradition. 

(*12) After graduating, he studied'law; 
and went to Kentucky in 1814, where he 
practiced and was a journalist. He was 
a Democrat and was influential in Jack- 
son's administration and very active as a 
newspaper writer. He was Fourth Audi- 
tor of the Treasury and Postmaster Gen- 
eral. In 1845 he became associated with 
Samuel F. B. Morse in the promotion of 
the telegraph. His energy and ability 
went far in making the invention a com- 
mercial success, and made him wealthy. 
He lived in Washington for the remain- 
der of his life and contributed generously 
of his time and means to religious and 
philanthropic enterprises. 



204 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



This year was marked by attacks 
on the temperance men in college. 
They arose from an attempt of the 
temperance men in Kendall's 
class — he was one of them — to re- 
form "Quarter Day." This was a 
day on which each class gave an 
exhibition, following the announce- 
ment by the faculty of "Appoint- 
ments/' or honors. The recipients 
of the highest were compelled, by 
custom, "to stand treat"; and the 
practice caused much drunkenness 
and. disorder. The temperance men 
succeeded in persuading the class 
to abolish the custom by formal 
vote; but the disorderly element 
succeeded in winning over enough 
votes to make a repeal of the resolu- 
tion inevitable. Thereupon some 
of the temperance men signed a 
pledge not "to treat." Kendall read 
it in a class meeting and asked for 
other signatures. This produced 
such a storm that no one dared to 
add his name. Eight of the high 
honors went to the signers of the 
pledge. An attempt was made to 
stop the exhibition by creating a 
disturbance ; and some students 
were dismissed in consequence. 
Kendall and his associates were 
very unpopular for a considerable 
time in consequence of their stand 
against the abuse. In their senior 
year, however, they had the satis- 
faction of seeing the practice stop- 
ped by the faculty. 

Kendall was never backward in 
championing causes in which he be- 
lieved ; and a political controversy 
increased the unpopularity which 
his attitude on temperance had 
brought upon him. It was propos- 
ed to have a non-partisan Fourth of 
July celebration in 1810. As three- 
fourths of the students were Fed- 
eralists an adherent of that party- 
was, quite properly, chosen orator. 
Kendall, a Republican-Democrat, 
was chosen poet. He felt, however, 
that the orator was so pronounced 



in his political attitude that the 
celebration could but be a political 
affair; and, consequently, he de- 
clined to serve as poet. This set 
the pot — already bubbling merrily 
over the temperance question — to 
boiling furiously. There was great 
excitement and the turbulent ele- 
ment went to extremes. The fac- 
ulty — as Federalist as the stu- 
dents — took sides with their party. 
This brought the more moderate 
men, like Kendall, into the fray ; 
and it was a considerable time be- 
fore the ill-feeling, which the 
episode aroused, was allayed. 
These incidents are valuable illus- 
trations ; for they show that intense 
interest of the students in public 
and political affairs which prompted 
them to fit themselves for active 
participation therein and gave vital- 
ity to the debating societies. Ken- 
dall felt that the unpopularity which 
accrued from these conflicts weigh- 
ed heavily against him ; but he says 
that he regained his standing in 
student opinion. All the honors 
which were his due certainly came 
to him. He was a Phi Beta Kappa, 
and in his junior year, was selected 
to deliver an oration before his 
society, which was, as we have seen, 
strongly Federalist. (*13) 

In April of the same year (1810) 
he was elected to Philoi Euphradias, 
members of which were chosen 
from the best men in the two great 
societies. This was the year of the 
agitation over the Fourth of July 
celebration. Philoi faced the hos- 
tility against which the small socie- 
ties now had to contend. An at- 
tempt was made in both the great 
societies to pass laws to prohibit 
members from joining on the 
ground that it was harmful to them, 

(*13) It must be borne in mind that 
this narrative of Kendall's college ex- 
periences is based on his Autobiography, 
and that it must be read as his recollec- 
tions after an active political life. 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



205 



and that a student could not be 
faithful to both. In the Social 
Friends the motion was strenuous- 
ly resisted by the' Philoi who were 
members; but it was passed. The 
Philoi, including" the President, 
Kendall, and others, then asked 
dismission. This brought matters 
to a crisis, as it removed most of the 
officers and leading members. The 
President had left the room when 
his dismission was not granted. 
The law was repealed, and the 
seceding members were asked to 
return. The champions of higher 
standards had again triumphed ; but 
the Philoi had to face new attacks 
and were subject to annoyances. 
They wore their medals and rib- 
bons — in accordance with the gen- 
eral custom of the societies oi that 
day — and ' were roundly jeered for 
their ostentation. (*14) 

In 1809 the Theological Society — 
still often called the Religiosi — the 
Social Friends, the United Frater- 
nity, Phi Beta Kappa, and the Han- 
del Society, all celebrated their 
Anniversaries within the two days 
preceding Commencement Day. 
This is a typical schedule ; in some 
years other Anniversaries, as that 
of Philoi, are to be added. The 
congestion furnished every oppor- 
tunity for rivalry to burst forth 
into active conflict. Such an out- 
break furnishes the closing episode 
in Kendall's account of his college 
career.' 

We have seen that the rivalry r 
between the United Fraternity and 
the Social Friends over their An- 
niversaries became so intense that 
in 1796, the exercises were sus- 
pended for two years, and that in 
1800, they were definitely abolished. 
They were revived in 1811, Ken- 
dall's senior year. He was sure 
that he would be chosen orator by 
his Society, if he would accept this, 
the highest honor within its gift ; 
but he had literary ambitions in the 



field of poetry and the drama, and 
preferred to take second place 
where he could try his pen. He 
was unanimously elected poet. His 
production was a long tragedy, en- 
titled : Palafox\ or, The Siege of 
Saragassa. It was accepted by the 
Society. A long tragedy was like- 
wise written for the United Frater- 
nity by Nathaniel Wright. Each 
society desired to have its Anni- 
versary on Tuesday, because Com- 
mencement guests were then in 
Hanover in full numbers. A battle 
was the inevitable result in which 
each society used every possible 
historical, technical, and other argu- 
ment in support of its right to that 
day. . The struggle became so heat- 
ed that the faculty was on the point 
of forbidding the presentation of 
both tragedies. The societies then 
tried various expedients for settling 
the dispute. They named a joint 
committee to decide which tragedy 
was the better ; but it divided by 
societies and came to no decision. 
The authors then submitted their 
manuscripts to each other with a 
like result. Kendall surmised that 
Wright would rather have his play 
given on Monday than not present- 
ed at all and that he would, there- 
fore, persuade his Society to accept 
that day. He, consequently, had 
the Social Friends declare that their 
play would be given on Tuesday, 
or omitted entirely. This aggres- 
sive strategy won the day ; 
Wright's tragedy was given on 
Monday- and Kendall's on Tuesday. 
"On both evenings the College 
edifice was illuminated, which made 
a brilliant and enchanting appear- 
ance. The tragedies were per- 
formed before crowded houses 
with much applause." 

The composition of Palafox, the 
author tells us, had been a labori- 
ous task. It was long and had both 

(*14) Philoi was sometimes called 
the "Oratorical Society." 



206 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



prologue and epilogue. The super- 
vision of its production was equal- 
ly arduous. Kendall had never 
been in a theatre, and had only book 
knowledge — and, doubtless, slight 
at that — of stage methods. But he 
selected actors and costumes, and 
was stage manager. The per- 
formance was a success, and his 
play was considered superior to 
that of his rival. His college 
career ended in triumph. His 
tragedy was praised; and, in the 
face of several prolonged absences 
while teaching to earn money to 
pay his college expenses, he grad- 
uated at the head of his class. He 
did not take his diploma, partly be- 
cause he disliked the President of 
the College, and partly because he 
despised the pretence of the hollow 
formality.' 

After graduation he revised his 
play and introduced female char- 
acters, which were not allowed in 
college plays. On the advice of 
friends he sent it to the manager of 
a Boston theatre in the hope that 
he might sell it and get money to 
help him in his study of law. It 
was not accepted, however. He 
wrote another tragedy, The Fall of 
Switzerland, and several poems; but 
could not sell any of them. 

The resumption of Anniversary 
Exhibitions had brought with it 
a disturbing outbreak of society 
rivalry which compelled the faculty 
to limit the exercises. In 1799 the 
societies abrogated the agreement 
which was intended to keep their 
membership equal and prevent 
trouble from their ambition to ex- 
cel in numbers : and during some 
years the contest for members was 
unregulated. Kendall says that 
two-thirds of the students were 
members of Social Friends. Soon 
the faculty interfered here, also ; 
and in 1814, compelled the societies 
to accept a system of alphabetical 
assignment and election combined. 



Tliis was modified and made more 
stringent; but was evaded until in' 
1825. the assignment was made ab- 
solute and new students were divid- 
ed between the two societies by lot 
with no choice but to accept their 
fate. This system prevailed to the 
end —even after the societies had 
become mere administrative ma- 
cnines for supporting the libraries. 

While the societies still had sev- 
eral decades of useful, active exist- 
ence before them, faculty control 
marks the beginning of their de- 
cline. The frequent disturbances 
and the conditions which led to the 
formation of small societies show 
their weaknesses. From organic 
student life they were slowly trans- 
formed into mechanical instruments 
of college government, as the Col- 
lege took up functions which the 
students had performed of them- 
selves, for themselves, and by 
themselves. At the same time 
changes in national ideals and the 
increasing complexity of life, with 
its differentiation of tastes and pur- 
suits, were undermining the old 
educational aims of college and 
literary society and were destroy- 
ing the community of purpose and 
interests which made it possible for 
the whole student body to organize 
in two great societies — rivals in the 
pursuit of the same ends. This 
should be borne in mind while we 
tell the story of the years during 
which they were still vigorous and 
come to the years when they fade 
away and disappear. ■ e:> 

I'he printing press was brought 
into play in advancing the fame of 
the societies. They printed cata- 
logues of their members and of 
their libraries. The United Fra- 
ternity published catalogues of 
members in 1818 and 1840; and the 
Social Friends in 1822, 1826, and 
1839. Phi Beta Kappa, also issued 
catalogues — the first in 1806. Later 
when membership was perfunctory 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



207 



and practically nothing' more than 
a. tax list for supporting the libra- 
ries, they issued several editions of 
Cdnstitutious and . By-Laws — the 
Social Friends in 1858" 1861, and 
1873; the United Fraternity in 1862 
and 1873. To the catalogues the 
enthusiastic society man went for 
justification of his pride in his so- 
ciety and for ammunition to use in 
contests with its rival. Famous 
alumni were exploited to the ut- 
most. What combinations of fam- 
ous graduates must have been made 
to balance the name of Webster? 
And in how many youthful minds 
did this hero worship awaken am- 
bitions which were the most potent 
influences of their student days? 

They also printed catalogues of 
their libraries. The Social Friends 
issued them in 1810, 1817, 1820, 
1824, 1831, 1841 and 1857; the 
United Fraternity in 1812, 1815, 
1820, 1824, 1835, 1840, and 1852. 
The College Library catalogue of 
1825 has forty-four octavo pages, 
the United Fraternity catalogue of 
1824 has forty-seven, and the Social 
Friends catalogue of the same year, 
forty-three. Each society strained 
its resources, to the utmost to have 
more books than the other. The 
College Library contained few 
volumes that any student would 
care to read, or refer to. The 
libraries were, perhaps, the most 
useful branch of society endeavor ; 
and were, certainly, the most per- 
manent. * From the start they re- 
ceived attention, not exceeded, 
even, by that given to the Anniver- 
saries ; and they were looked upon 
with the' same pride, and were used 
for the same purposes, as were the 
distinguished alumni. . 

One episode in the history of 
these libraries has a very intimate 
connection with the general history 
of the societies and the College. It 
occurred in connection with the 
attempt of the State to change the 



name oi the College to "University" 
and to alter the personnel of its 
governing board by amending its 
charter. The State intervened in a 
College feud from political motives. 
The controversy was ended in favor 
of the College by the famous and 
far-reaching decision oi the United 
States Supreme Court in the Dart- 
mouth College Case. A case, noted, 
also, because the Court, in its de- 
cision followed so closely the rea- 
soning of the brief and argument 
of the counsel for the College. It 
is one of Webster's great achieve- 
ments in the interpretation of the 
Constitution, 

In 1817, after the Superior Court 
of the State had upheld the law 
which amended the charter of the 
College, "the University faculty" 
(there were two hostile institutions 
attempting to occupy the same 
buildings and do the same work) 
seized the College Library of about 
4,030 volumes. The societies needed 
no argument to convince them that 
th°ir libraries were in danger of 
meeting the same fate. They acted 
with the promptness and energy 
which we should expect them to 
display in the defence of their most 
cherished possessions. Committees 
of Safety were chosen, and most 
of the books were removed from 
their rooms in the College Hall be- 
fore the invading faculty attempted 
to take control of them. The at- 
tack was made and met with student 
pugnacity. Rufus Choate was 
Librarian of the Social Friends at 
the time, and displayed the same 
energy and resourcefulness in the 
physical defence of his client's 
property that he did later in the 
more quiet and orderly intellectual 
contests of the court room. 

He hired a room in the house 
where he lived, and had the mem- 
bers of the Society take the books 
to it under cover of night. Part of 
them had been removed and the 



208 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



rest packed in trunks for carnage, 
when the University authorities 
learned of the proceedings. The 
University President ordered the 
Inspector of Buildings to take pos- 
session of the library rooms of both 
societies. He collected a posse of 
two professors, rive students, and 
ten '"tosvnies ;" and went to the Hall 
to carry out his orders. They at- 
tempted to force the door of the 
Social Friends, without success; 
and then cut a hole through: which 
they crawled into the room. The 
noise brought the members of the 
United Fraternity, who were hold- 
ing a meeting on the floor below, 
and other students to the scene, 
armed with sticks of cord- wood 
from a pile in the corridor. One 
of them, Henry K. Oliver — best 
known, , as a composer, by his 
Federal Street — rushed out, shouting 
in his deep voice: "Turn out, Social 
Friends, your library is broken 
open." The College bell was, also, 
rung. The alarm quickly brought 
a crowd of enraged College stu- 
dents to the defence of the libra- 
ries. The University party were so 
overwhelmingly outnumbered that 
they discreetly surrendered ; and, 
thus, what would have been a dan- 
gerous sciimmage was avoided. 
They were imprisoned in a room in 
the Hall until the books of both 
societies had all been placed in 
safety, and were then sent to their 
homes. Choate and several others 
were taken before a Republican- 
Democratic justice of the peace and 
held for trial before the Superior 
Court at Haverhill on a charge of 
riot. Their accusers were similar- 
ly held by a Federalist justice. All 
were at the county seat on the ap- 
pointed day ; but the grand jury 
found no bill against them and they 
were discharged. The episode gave 
Choate the opportunity of seeing 
Richardson, Smith, Mason, and 
other judges and lawyers whose 



legal ability made the New Hamp- 
shire bar of that day famous 
throughout the United States. 
Choate had the good fortune to be 
able to congratulate the College on 
its victory before the United States 
Supreme Court in his valedictory 



at his 



graduation. 



This oration 



was long remembered by his class- 
mates as a production worth}* of 
the brilliant and scholarly endow- 
ments which he had already dis- 
played in his college and society 
speeches. (*15) 

The colleges had now begun to 
introduce the teaching of public 
speaking — or oratory, as it was then 
called — into their curriculum; and 
to replace the antiquated and per- 
functory exercises, which had come 
down from the past, with a system 
which was better adapted to the 
times. In 1806 John Quincy Adams 
became the. first Professor of 
Rhetoric and Oratory at Harvard 
on the Boylston Foundation. He 
held the position until 1809, and de- 
livered lectures which he published 
in 1810. These had a country-wide 
influence — though an influence 
which was, in its ultimate results, 
far from beneficial. Yale estab- 
lished a professorship in 1817; and 
Dartmouth followed in 1819, and 
the next year added oratorical 
prizes. The first professor, Rev. 
Charles B. Haddock, was very pop- 
ular ; and "Quarter Days" took on 
new life. The College was assum- 
ing a work which the students had 
performed with striking success for 
nearly half a century. 

The innovation, however, stimu- 
lated interest, for the time being, 
in the societies, where the students 
had a platform, venerable and his- 
toric, for the practical application 
of the principles which they were 

(*15) Among the narratives of the 
library episode the account by Crosby 
(Class of 1820) in his First Half-Century 
is of especial weight. 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



209 



taught. Small, select societies 
again appear. They are always in 
evidence in periods of extraordinary 
interest in speaking and debating, 
when the opportunities in the great 
societies did not satisfy the demand 
of the better students for earnest 
effort and outspoken, but frank, 
criticism. One small literary 
society of high grade disappears as 
a literary society — namely, Phi 
Beta Kappa. In the twenties its 
literary exercises met with decreas- 
ing support, and efforts to revive 
them failed. They finally ceased, 
and the chapter became purely hon- 
orary. Two new societies were 
formed to afford better opportunity 
for practice in extemporaneous 
speaking. One was the Literary 
Adelphi (Adelphian, or Alpha Del- 
ta, Society-), which began in 1821. 
The other was the Phi Sigma (As- 
sembly of Debaters), which was 
started by the Class of 1827 and 
federated with similar class socie- 
ties. The example of Phi Beta 
Kappa in using the initials of its 
name, or motto, as its designation 
had been, up to this time, rarely 
followed. Their use in connection 
with the small societies is not with- 
out significance ; for the first Greek 
letter fraternity was founded at 
Union College in 1825 and the sec- 
ond and third in 1827. At the start, 
moreover, the fraternities had ex- 
ercises quite like those of the liter- 
ary societies, and this was not the 
only point of resemblance. The 
Adelphian and Phi Sigma were 
abolished in 1829, because the fac- 
ulty considered them inimical to 
"the character of the ancient and 
valuable and Rival Societies" and 
harmful to the College on account 
of the demands which they made 
upon the students' time. 

This objection bears a close re- 
semblance to those which have been 
niade to the fraternities. The stu- 
dents' week was then as full of 



society meetings, which,. each time, 
required preparation on the part of 
some members, as it would be now, 
if the faculty permitted, of athletics, 
or — in coeducational institutions — 
of athletics and social functions. 
On Monday came the Theological 
Society, on Tuesday the United 
Fraternity, on Wednesday the 
Social Friends, on Thursday Phi 
Beta Kappa, on Friday the Handel 
Society, and on Saturday a religious 
meeting conducted in the village by 
students. The weekly meetings be- 
gan much earlier, perhaps at the 
very start of the great societies, and 
continued until 1860. The addition 
of the meetings of small societies 
might well be viewed with disfavor 
by the faculty. 

In 1841, again, a small society 
appears. It was called the Anti- 
nomian and was restricted to 
Seniors. A professor presided over 
its meetings, at which a disserta- 
tion, an extemporaneous debate, 
and an oration were given. In 
1S43 it was merged in Gamma Sig- 
ma, a similar organization. This 
ended in 1845 — the last, apparently, 
of the small societies, which had 
been of so much value, and an in- 
dication of that waning of interest 
which would soon carry down the 
great societies. The first fraternity 
it may be observed, at Dartmouth 
was chartered in 1842. Small so- 
cieties, or clubs, of limited and 
special appeal occur later, however. 
Such was one, organized in 1854 by 
Nelson Dingley, on the model of 
the United States Senate for prac- 
tice in parliamentary procedure 
and debate. (*16) 

In the twenties the libraries re- 
ceived more than usual attention. 
Not only were they increased in 
size, but new features were added. 
Members of the Social Friends in 
the Class of 1827 started a Philo- 

(*16) In 1920 there are twenty-two 
fraternities at Dartmouth. 



210 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



logical Library to aid and encourage 
the stud_\- of the classics. It is an 
early instance of the appearance of 
diversification of interest among 
the students to which reference has 
already been made. The cost of the 
classical books, when added to the 
contributions demanded for the 
general library of the Society, was 
too heavy for its founders to bear ; 
and the project was taken over by 
the Society. The United Frater- 
nity opened a reading room, which 
they called an "Athenaeum." This 
was, surely, for newspapers and the 
reviews, which were becoming a 
necessary part of the reading of 
educated people. The libraries 
were also opened daily, instead of 
twice a week, for borrowing and 
returning books and most of each 
day for reading and reference use. 
The societies were, thus, develop- 
ing reading and reference libraries 
of the modern type out of the stor- 
age warehouse type of the past to 
which members might go to get 
books to read, or use for reference, 
in their rooms. The College Lib- 
rary was still inaccessible, but this 
involved no loss to the students. 

The Society of Social Friends was 
incorporated in 1826, and the 
Society of -United Fraternity in 
1827. This was a procedure com- 
monly followed by societies every- 
where. In some instances the 
motive of the college societies seems 
to have arisen from the idea that 
they could, by incorporating, free 
themselves, in a measure, from 
faculty control — a hope which was 
doomed to disappointment. But 
the more cogent reason was that 
they felt that their libraries, which 
they properly considered to be in 
their hands as trustees, were too 
valuable to be left to the care of 
voluntary associations without 
legal rights or responsibilities. 

One other society — of late birth — 
calls for mention. When the 



Chandler Scientific School was 
opened, it was decided — in accord 
with the narrow college ideals 
which still survived — not to admit 
the scientific students to the liter- 
ary societies. The science men, 
therefore, established the Philotech- 
nic Society in 1853. It was incor- 
porated in 1854; and, judging from 
the growth of its library, was active 
and successful. 

The anti-masonic agitation, which 



in the 

against all 



swept over the country 
thirties, was directed 
secret societies of whatever nature 
or purpose. Its chief object of at- 
tack in the colleges was Phi Beta 
Kappa, the single national academic 
society, for the fraternity system 
had not yet become national ; but 
the literary societies also fell under 
its ban. Some of the leaders of the 
movement — notably John Quincy 
Adams — were Phi Beta Kappas ; 
and they compelled the chapters to 
abolish the use of pledges and se- 
crecy. This was done at Dart- 
mouth ; and the literary societies 
followed some years later. As the 
two great societies were then divid- 
ing the student body by lot and the 
pledge of secrecy had come to be 

fundamental 
Yet it was 



lightly regarded, no 
change was involved. 



a formal break with the traditions 
of three-quarters of a century and 
the destruction of a historic charac- 
teristic which had existed from 
their foundation, and could not fail 
to contribute to their downfall. 

By 18-1-1 rivalry between the 
societies — once so intense — had 
lost its vigor, and their meetings 
aroused only moderate enthusiasm. 
In the fifties interest in public 
speaking had decreased to such an 
extent that it was impossible to en- 
force the rules wdiich penalized 
failure to perforin the required ex- 
ercises. The requirement, though 
continued to 1897, had lost all value. 
Likewise interest- in the meetings of 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



211 



the societies had continued to wane. 
Weekly meetings were nominally 
held until 1860; but the impulse for 
work and serious effort was gone. 
Appointees did not prepare their 
parts, the order of exercises was not 
carried through, and the meetings 
had no life except as they furnished 
occasion for boisterous fun and dis- 
order. Even as early as 1828, in 
a lapse from seriousness, one sub- 
ject of debate was : "Where does 
the fire go, when it goes out?" The 
election of officers had formerly 
stirred the College with their con- 
tests 'between the adherents for the 
highly prized honors ; they now 
awakened no enthusiasm and drew 
attention only as the fraternities 
sought advantage through them. 
The last regular initiation was that 
of the Freshmen of the Class of 
1854. The ceremony had degener- 
ated into an escapade in which the 
Freshmen were the victims. They 
were terrified with stories of the 
ordeal which they must face, and 
were roundly jeered when they 
found that the ceremony consisted 
of nothing more than rough horse- 
play which contained no terrors 
beyond making them the butts of 
the laughter. 

A member of the Class of 1856 
(Amos N. Currier) has described 
the status of the old societies in the 
college life of this decade. They 
had been supplanted in usefulness 
(he writes) by the fraternities ; 
though they still had importance 
because of their libraries, as a field 
for college politics, and as a train- 
ing course in parliamentary prac- 
tice. With the classes, they furn- 
ished the divisions for the football 
games in which all students had 
participated. The fraternities had 
taken their place as organic student 
life. These were highly esteemed 
and w r ere very influential. They 
continued the work of the literary 
societies in a form modified to suit 



the ideals of the time (just as the 
lyceum continued that of the town 
and city societies). Their weekly 
exercises consisted of essays, ora- 
tions, and formal conversations on 
assigned subjects. The assign- 
ments were, as a rule, well prepar- 
ed ; and all formal parts were criti- 
cised bv the members who heard 



th( 



The exercises were arrang- 



ed to constitute a three year course 
in history and literature in order to 
supplement the deficiencies of the 
college course. New members were 
admitted at the end of freshman 
year and were, thus, three years in 
the fraternity. Their rooms were 
simply furnished ; they had no con- 
spicious social functions ; and, aside 
from a tendency to clannishness, 
the}- were a wholesome influence 
in the social, intellectual, and liter- 
ary life of the College. (*17) 

In 1861 the meetings were chang- 
ed from weekly to monthly, and 
were devoted solely to business. 
The immediate cause of the change 
was, undoubtedly, the . Civil War, 
which called the students from the 
classroom and the campus to the 
tent and the battlefield: — a call 
which they answered then, as they 
have in the years just closed, with 
the highest patriotism and self- 
sacrifice. At the close of the War 
an attempt was made to re-animate 
the societies ; but in vain. Meet- 
ings, which could not be kept up, 
even when they were held but once 
a month, were resumed ; but soon 
ceased and have never been revived. 

The libraries and Anniversaries 
remained. In 1874 the books were 
put into the hands of the faculty 
and, in 1879, of the trustees under 
a plan for joint support and man- 

(*17) The work of the literary socie- 
ties and fraternities should be given 
weight in every discussion of the relative 
merits of the old, required college course 
and the present elective system. So far 
as the writer remembers, this has never 
been done 



212 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



agemenl of the libraries and Anni- 
versaries. But the purely nominal 
existence of the societies — students 
often did not know to which they 
had been assigned — rendered it im- 
possible for them to carry out their 
side of the agreement: and, between 
1879 and 1885, the libraries were 
consolidated with the College 
Library. They had become too in- 
choate to dispose of their property 
legally, and in 1903, an act of the 
legislature • was obtained, which 
legalized any meeting of the socie- 
ties called by a justice of the peace 
for Grafton County and advertised 
in three consecutive numbers of 
The Dartmouth, allowed voting by 
proxy, made a majority of votes 
cast binding, and authorized the 
societies ,to donate, or sell, and 
transfer their property to the Col- 
lege. Under this law the societies 
formally transferred the libraries to 
the College, leaving only the book- 
plates in the volumes which had 
been theirs to testify to the tradi- 
tions of their former power. 



In sketching the history of the 
literary societies we have noted 
various events and tendencies which 
weakened thern and sometimes 
threatened them with destruction — 
the hostility of some students; the 
impossibility of close friendship, 
due to their size and the unrestrict- 
ed admission of members, and the 
resulting formation of select socie- 
ties of congenial men ; the loss of 
independence through faculty regu- 
lation, which left them hardly more 
than instruments of college admini- 
stration ; the antimasonic agitation, 
which robbed them of other ele- 
ments of sovereignty. Yet they 
worked on successfully under these 
handicaps; and then they disappear 
utterly. That the end did not 
come suddenly, we have seen ; but 
the completeness of their disappear- 



ances surprises us. Why did they 
survive so many attacks and dis- 
sensions for three-quarters of a 
century, and then disappear so ut- 
terly: The Civil War hastened 
their end, but was not the cause 
of it. That is to be found in a 
change of national ideals and intel- 
lectual interests and methods, which 
carried with it a corresponding 
change in educational aims and pur- 
poses. The societies nourished to 
the middle of the nineteenth century 
because the people were everywhere 
deeply interested in public ailairs 
and in moral, theological, and re- 
ligious subjects. They thought 
upon them ; they discussed them, 
informally and formally ; and they 
listened with pleasure and apprecia- 
tion to orations and sermons, and 
honored the men who excelled in 
delivering them. The students in 
the colleges were, for the most part, 
there to tit themselves for the pul- 
pit, the bar, and public life — all, 
professions where ability in public 
speaking was essential to success. 
Teaching, more often than not, was 
but a temporary means of sup- 
port. (*18) 

This common national interest 
w r as the fundamental basis on which 
the societies rested through all the 
years of their success, and the de- 
fense which protected them against 

(*18) The value which the earnest 
members of the societies, large and small, 
placed on their exercises is shown by 
testimony, repeatedly given in this paper. 
It is further illustrated by the fact that 
they continued such exercises after gradu- 
ation and during their professional pre- 
paration. Judah Dana, after his gradua- 
tion, taught a year in the Moor School 
and then studied law in Hanover. Here 
he joined a Debating Club which had been 
founded the year before by men of similar 
tastes and purposes, and also went to the 
meetings of his college society and took 
part in them. Law students very com- 
monly formed debating clubs ; and, like 
Dana, when they remained in their 
academy, or college, towns, attended the 
meetings of their societies. 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



213 



attack and disintegration. They 
disappeared because new interests 
displaced the old; and because stu- 
dents, in consequence, were educa- 
ting themselves, in increasing num- 
bers, for careers which did not re- 
quire ability in public speaking as 
an essential of success. Not only 
so; but in the older professions 
themselves oratory fell into dis- 
favor, and was replaced by a simple, 
but monotonous recital of facts — 
the fruit of the' new scientific meth- 
ods in investigation and thought. 
Men went to college to fit them- 
selves for literary work, engineer- 
ing, business, investigation in 
science, history, and other fields. 
The change is clearly portrayed in 
the college curriculum — the diver- 
sification of 'subjects and courses, 
and the substitution of the elective 
system for the one fixed course for 
all. The interests of the students — 
like those of the nation— were cor- 
respondingly diversified ; and we 
find congenial spirits grouping 
themselves in organizations devoted 
to those interests— science, history, 
literatures, debating (as a special 
interest among other special inter- 
ests), sports, and theatricals. A 
cursory examination of the index to 
T' c Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, 
1916-1917, yields the following 
names of student organizations, ex- 
cluding the fraternities and athle- 
tics : Art Association, Camera Club, 



Christian Association, Dramatic As- 
sociation, .Musical Clubs, and Out- 
ing Club. 

Furthermore, in the country as a 
whole, the increasing complexity of 
life with its inevitaljle result of 
more pronounced differences in 
individual wealth made it less and 
less possible for the societies to 
realize that companionship of their 
members which was one of their 
ideals. But it may be doubted 
whether this was the case at 
Dartmouth. The dissensions, due 
to economic and social distinctions, 
in earlier years of the societies and 
their absence in later years seems 
to reflect correctly college condi- 
tions. ''The promotion of friend- 
ship." that is the social side of the 
old societies— including the smaller 
ones, like the one to which. Kendall 
belonged — were taken over by the 
fraternities which are small, self- 
selected groups. They were the 
product of the changing conditions 
which made the old society system 
an anachronism and, as ever, de- 
veloped a new system of organiza- 
tion, adapted to the execution of 
the ideals of the students who grew 



up under 



their influence. The fra- 



ternities did not destroy the literary 
societies, nor did athletics. The 
same forces which destroyed the 
one, created the others. 

(To be concluded) 



NEW HAMPSHIRE'S MOST FRIENDLY TREES 



Bx Rev. Roland D Sawyer. 



No. 3 
The Apple-Tree 

"The orchard rows arc all a-blush, 
T he 11 3 e a do\ v sail a gl g w ; 

On every bough a vivid flush, 
A drift of petaied snow." 

— Elaine Goodalc. 

In March amid the snows and 
bleak winds, with the earth drear 
and bare, we thought of the ever- 
greens that had been our steadfast 
friends thru the long winter, and 
especially of the Pine our foremost 
friend among the trees. 

In April as the earth showed 
signs of renewal and the little green 
leaves began to appear we thought 
of the Oak, which sturdy and 
strong was reviving with the earth. 
But in May there is but one tree 
that comes first, it's the beautiful 
and useful apple-tree, which now 
gives beaut}' to the whole country- 
side. 

When the wise farmer plants an 
apple-tree, he plants beauty for a 
hundred flowery springs, the com- 
fort of friendly shade for a hundred 
summers, and rich, health-giving 
fruit for a hundred falls and win- 
ters. 

Where can man get so great re- 
turn for his labor as in banking his 
home with an orchard ; it will give 
beauty, comfort and healthy food 
to at least three generations. 

Thoreau said of the apple-tree, 
"It is harmless as a dove, beautiful 
as a rose, valuable as flocks and 
herds." 

William Sharp tells us of the old 
Breton farmer, who so loved and 



appreciated the apple-trees, that in 
May whenever he smelled the 

apple-blossoms lie reverently bow- 
ed his head and crossed himself. I 
think we residents of New Hamp- 
shire ought to feel the same way, 

The apple-tree was much appre- 
ciated by the ancients and the writ- 
ings of Homer, Herodotus, Theo- 
phrastus, Pliny and Tacitus sing its 
praises. When the Romans con- 
quered the British Isles they gave 
at least one great benefit to the 
people ; they took with them into the 
Isles the apple-tree ; there it re- 
mained the joy of our peasant an- 
cestors, to be brought by the Pil- 
grim settlers to America. In the 
wilderness where the fruits of the 
gardener could not be grown the 
settler planted the apple-tree. 
They found in America a species 
of small natural fruit, and also the 
Virginia crab-apples, far better. 
This caused our ancestors to plant 
on this continent the better de- 
veloped apple from England and 
Europe, and so as old as is the set- 
tlement here, so long has the apple- 
tree been our friend. It is the 
tree- that combines utility with 
beauty, and gives us the message 
of service, usefulness in the world. 
The classic tribute of America is 
paid to the apple-tree in Thoreau's 
splendid essay on "Wild Apples/' 
which is a little book that every 
resident of the country should own 
and often read. John Burroughs 
has also written hnely of its beauty 
and usefulness, and he says "When 
the country-bred man no longer ap- 
preciates this splendid tree he is no 
longer fit for earth." 



EDITORIAL 



One year ago, the Granite "Month- 
ly published, as the frontispiece for 
its issue oi May, 1919, a portrait of 
Herbert C. Hoover, United States 
Food Administrator. In this num- 
ber we reprint that picture, as the 
portrait of the man whom we be- 
lieve to be the best fitted, among 
all our fellow citizens, for next presi- 
dent of our nation. 

.It is unnecessary, at this time and 
in this place, to lay emphasis upon 
the elements oi world chaos which 
now threaten the very foundations 
of civilization. The intelligent con- 
stituency of this magazine is well 
aware of the stress and strain to 
which our own form of government 
and our own institutions, political, 
social and economic, will be sub- 
jected during the. next four years. 

L'nder the^e conditions, national 
and international, we believe that 
patriotic duty and enlightened self- 
interest unite in demanding of every 
citizen of the United States such 
expression of sentiment now and 
such use of the ballot later as will 
place at the head of our government 
the man who can best administer 
its affairs for our own well-being 
and that of all mankind. 

This man, in our opinion, is Her- 
bert C. Hoover, the possessor of 
wisdom won by world-wide experi- 
ence, but first, foremost and always 
a loyal citizen of the United States 
of America. 

He was born and educated in 
California. His wonderfully suc- 
cessful business career, has been 
largely on the other side of the 
globe. He has no especial connec- 
tion, of which we are aware, with 
New Hampshire or New England. 
Our view of him, therefore, lacks 
any element of personal attachment 
or individual interest. 

It is based, we. are free to admit, 
and we think that basis is amply 



substantial and sufficient, upon his 
work as Food Administrator dur- 
ing the recent war with Germany 
and her allies. 

We deem it no exaggeration to 
say that by assuming that office and 
discharging its duties in the way he 
did Mr. Hoover fed the world and 
saved the world. No such work of 
constructive accomplishment and 
efficient administration ever had 
been performed before, by one man, 
in the world's history. 

And vet it is not improbable that 
as President of the United States 
for four years from March •!, 1921, 
an even greater opportunity would 
open before Mr. Hoover and a more 
solemn and compelling duty would 
be laid upon him than those which 
accompanied him into the office of 
Food Administrator. 

It. is because we believe this 
would be the case and because we 
have every confidence in his ability 
to meet this greater test that we 
hope for his election as the next 
chief executive of the nation. There- 
is a course, which, if followed will 
lead this nation through the deadly 
morass of social unrest and selfish 
intrigue to firm ground, upon which 
may abide our continued greatness, 
prosperity and honor. 

None but a worthy guide, who 
holds his head erect and gazes for- 
ward with keen, yet kindly, eyes, 
can lead the nation in that safe 
course. We know of no other man 
so well fitted to be that guide as 
is Herbert Hoover. For that rea- 
son we devote to him this page in 
a non-political publication. It 
seems to us a civic duty for all who 
see in him, as we do, the hope of 
America and the world, to make 
such public expression of that senti- 
ment as, in each individual case, is 
possible. 



EDITORIAL 



Accompanying the article, the 
"Great River Naurnkeek," written 
by Mr. George B. Upharn, we pub- 
lish a map of New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts which has never 
heretofore appeared in any printed 
publication. The date is about 
1680. It is unique in showing* New 
Hampshire extending south to the 
latitude of Salem, Massachusetts, 
indicating that the cartographer be- 
lieved the grant of April 22, 1635, 
to be still in force and effect. This 
is the only known map showing 
New Hampshire extending south of 
the Merrimack. It is the only map 
on which the name Naurnkeek 
River appears. 

It is also unique in other respects, 
viz : The inversion, so we must 
hold it south uppermost in order to 
read the greater part of the names. 
The position of Nantucket . and 
Martha's ["Martins"] \ nieyard, 
Avhich have broken loose from their 
moorings and grounded east of 
"Cape Codd." The quaint archi- 



tecture of the sketches, indicating 
that the draughtsman had formed 
his conception of the buildings in 
early New England settlements 
from those of Chester, Shrewsbury 
and other provincial English towns. 
The Naurnkeek River, in fact less 
than four miles long, but shown ex- 
tending inland as far as the Merri- 
mack. The little waterway from 
Gloucester to Annisqtiam, naviga- 
ble only at high tide by small boats 
of the lightest draft, shown wide 
and presumably deep. Plum Island, 
just south of the mouth of the 
Merrimack, marked "Isle Mason," 
was doubtless so named in honor of 
the active Captain John Mason, the 
grantee of this domain, and the 
same whose name is so intimately 
connected with the early history of 
New Hampshire. The original 
drawing extends much further 
down the coast of Maine. 

We regard this map as a notable 
historical find. 



BY THE HELP OF THE HILLS 

("I will look unto the hills, whence cometh my strength.") 
By Harry Webb ForringtOH. 

Into thy bosom, thou high Hampshire hills, 
Wearied and worn with the war that I flee ; 
Gladly 1 come, for thy cjuietness stills 
The tense throbbing tumults that sent me to thee. 

Capped with the chaste clouds, clear lakes at thy feet, 
Girded with garments of green grass and tree ; 
Sound is the slumber, and soothing the sleep, 
Given to guests who go up unto thee. 

Fare, fare thee well, thou faint forested forms, 
Source and the symbol of strength unto me ; 
Seeing thy sides, shroud with sunshine and storms, 
Helped me to Him, who made heaven and thee. 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



Win t E r Sports. V e r s e : A 1 i A n- 
thology by Williams Haynes and 
Joseph Lerov Harrison. Pp., 258. 
Cloth, $1.50." New York: Duf- 
field-& Co. 

New Hampshire, home par ex- 
cellence of winter sports, should be 
interested in the praise of those 
sports by poets of all lands and 
times from Shakespeare, Burns and 
Wordsworth to Amy Lowell, James 
Whitcomb Rilev and the author 
of "Jingle Befis." The present 
well-made anthology gives due 
prominence to the Granite State, 
especially in the clever introduction 
by Walter Prichard Eaton, one time 
resident of Franconia, but of late 
years swearing his allegiance to the 
Berkshire^. 

He says : "When the Dartmouth 
Outing Club is making one of its 
long hikes, from cabin to cabin, 
through the forests and over the 
glittering, naked expanses of the 
White Mountains, and when the 
members reach the Moosilauke hut, 
and are 'too near pipped to talk,' 
you will note that they do not re- 
sent the absence of Ysaye to play 
them Bach ; they vastly prefer 
'Ernie and his old harmonicaw.' I 
like Dryden's Song for St. Cecilia's 
Day, but I also like the nameless 
Dartmouth student's song to Ernie 
and his old harmonicaw. I like it 
because it brings to my mind with 
great vividness the carefree, sturdy, 
laughing line of ski-clad boys, fol- 
lowing the trail breaker through 
the New Hampshire snows, per- 
forming feats that require real 
hardiness for the pure love of exer- 
cise and of the vast freedom of the 
mountains; and because, behind the 
boys, even as they snuggle in their 
shelters and pile the wood on the 
fire, I glimpse the amethyst- tinted 



crystal battlements of Moosilauke 
or Washington, and above the wail 
of Ernie's harmonicaw I hear the 
sigh and surge of the wind come 
down Jobildunc Ravine. 

"It was this same Dartmouth 
Outing r Club which once undertook 
to ascend Mount Washington in a 
blizzard, or rather, four members 
roped together, undertook the feat. 
The snow was so thick that none 
of the four could see the others, nor 
hear them either. At the Halfway 
House the rear man braced his feet 
and hauled the other three down to 
him, communicating at close quar- 
ters his decision to turn back. As 
he was the heaviest member of the 
party, his decision carried weight, 
as it were. There are certain ele- 
ments of balladry here, surely, 
though Ernie will have to desert 
the 'harmonicaw' for some instru- 
ment which leaves his lips unem- 
ployed, if he is to be the club 
troubadour !" 

This is the "Ernie" poem to which 
Mr. Eaton refers : 

When we're crowdin' to the fireside up at 
Cube or Moosilauke 

And our pipes are draggin' slowly and 
we're too near pipped to talk ; 

When a vasty sense o' vitties takes pos- 
session of us all, 

When the shadows from the firelight are 
creepin' up the wall, 

And the time is fast approachin' when 
we're billed to hit the hay — 

Why, then Ernie starts to tunin' on his 
old Harmonicay. 

Oh, he ain't no Boston opera virtuoso, 

Ernie ain't; 
And his sense of classic technique, I should 

say, is rather faint ; 
While the range of his selections isn't 

wide and isn't high, 
And I shan't request his service at my 

fun'ral when I die ; 
But for callin* forth the muses to attend 

the D. O. C. 
I'll place my bets on Ernie and his old 

Harmonikee. 



2 IS 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



First h< start* us kind o' easy with a drag 

a! i )H Black foe; 
Then In yearn* 101 old Vrrginny where 

the corn and tat« rs grow. 
When his may'ring Miserere makes us 

wish v e. to ■. were dead, 
Why, he shifts to something livelier and 

makes us dance instead. 
For "Jmglc Bells," or "Dixie," or "Turkey 

in the Straw " — 
It's ail the same- to Ernie and his old 

Harmonicaw. 



For here's four good fellows 
And the beeclnvood and th< bellow^. 
And the cup is at the lip 
In the pledge of fellowship. 

Skoal ! 

The Hovey of today at Hanover 
is Franklin McDuffee '21, of Roch- 
ester, and his poem, "On to Cube!" 
included in this anthology, shows 
that he deserves to be so regarded : 



()' course he sometimes mixes in a modern 

tune or so.. 
That he picl ed up in the theatre or a 

peerade lone; ago; 
But it's "Old familiar melodies" that D. 

O. C. men like. 
When they're iollm by the fireside. dopin' 

out tomorrow's hike. 
And there's nothing eases up the aches 

and chases care from me, 
So much as hearin' Ernie on his old 

Harmonifcee. 

When my last long hike is over, and I 

reach the cabin door. 
And wipe life's snow from off my skis, 

and know my skiin's o'er; 
When I cat my last camp vittles by the 

last fire's flicker in' light, 
And make my bed contented in the dark- 
ness of the night — 
I've but one lone prayer to offer when I 

hit the final hay- 
To be lulled to sleep by Ernie on his old 
Harmonica}'. 

Best known of all New Hamp- 
shire poems of the seasons is Rich- 



ard Hovcv's Hanover Wint 



er ^on< 



Ho, a song by the fire! 
(Pass the pipes, fill the hovel!; 
Ho, a song bv the fire ! 
—With a skoal!. . . 

For the wolf wind is whining in the door- 
ways, 
And the snow drifts deep along the road, 
And the ice-gnomes are marching from 

their Xorways, 
And the great white cold walks abroad. 
(Boo-oo-o! pass the bowl!) 

For here by the fire 

We defy frost and storm. 

Ha, ha! we are warm 

And we have our hearts' desire ; 



Listen to the wind, fellows ; 
Will you let him taunt you so? 
Fie shall never find, fellows, 
That, however wild he blow. 
We will meekly sit and shiver 
Here before a smouldering fire. 

See the swirling snow, fellows, 
Flear it rattle on the .pane ; 
Blow it high or low. fellows. 
It shall drift and swirl' in vain; 
We will never sit and shiver 
Here before a smouldering fire. 

Then wake up, boy. and take your skis. 
And leave your mimic smouldering fire. 
And the novel on your knees, 
And your lazy little brier. 
Fasten on your rawhide thongs, 
And roll your blanket on your back, — 
And it's out in the wind, and over the 

drifts. 
And into the woods where the soft-snow 

sifts, 
With a merry heart and a well-filled pack. 
And a cider jug of jolly songs; 
In spite of wind, in spite of snow. 
To Cube, with a puff, and a hey-hi-ho! 

Camp-fire, moonlight, crunching snow, — 
Wake up, boy, and let us go ! 

Wake up. boy, and face the bite 
Of the boisterous winter wind; 
Though your upper lip be white 
With the hoar frost, and behind 
Half your muffler whips and whisks. 
You will feel your blood a-tingling, 
And among the birches creaking 
You will find what you are seeking, 
Where the icicles fall jingling 
And the light-foot rabbit frisks; 
So it's on, in spite of wind and snow, 
To Cube, with a puff, and hey-hi-ho! 

Camp-fire, moonlight, crunching snow — 
Lively, boy. and let us go ! 



IN MAY 

By Frances Mary Pray. 

O, who will come to the hills with me, 

Away on the hills today, 
For the sky is blue and the nelds are green 

With the fresh young green of May? 

The leaves are growing, the wind blows cool, 
The road stretches hard and brown, 

And the birds are calling along the way, 
And I long to leave the town. 

So climb the steep winding way with me, 
Thru woodland, by swollen brook, 

By wayside holds where the dew still shines, 
To a pasture's rocky nook. 

And there we'll rest in the spring time sun 

And dream of the days to' be, 
Of the hopes and fears for the future years 

That the present cannot see. 



So come with me to the hills, my love, 

Away on the hills today, 
For the spring is here and the budding year 

With its fresh new davs of Mav. 



o. 



1 



-X 






An Old New England Doorway. 



THE DOORWAY 



By George Wilson Jennings. 



Reflecting, some time ago, at the 
doorway of an ancient home. 1 was 
suddenly overcome with both sad 
and happy memories. What as- 
sociations seem to cluster and linger 
around it ! 

It is here that the visitor stood 
in expectancy, awaiting its opening, 
and wondering ■ if the welcome 
would be formal or cordial. It was 
here the parting guest received his 
last farewell and took away memo- 
ries that would bring him back, or, 
perhaps, never. 

Four generations have crossed 
the threshold of this ancestral home. 
together with countless friends 
who have long since passed to 
"That bourne from whence no 
traveller returns." 

Did it ever occur to the reader 
what a variety of scenes such a 
doorway to an old house must 
have witnessed since it was built? 
With many, at times, it is a fruit- 
ful subject for thought. 

A record of events as they trans- 
pired would furnish a volume rich 



in the history of human affections. 
All that is most bright and beauti- 
ful in existence, as well as the dark- 
er shades, have in their turn been 
found here. 

Youth, ever interested, inquisi- 
tive, and unsuspecting, has as- 
sembled here, as well as vener- 
able, beloved old age ; young and 
old, the sedate and the gay, stran- 
gers and friends have shared in the 
cordial hospitality of this home, 
after passing through this door- 
way. Joy and sorrow have passed 
also through this portal — but never 
together. 

The cordial smile and greeting of 
a sincere and hearty welcome and 
the parting tears have followed each 
other at this doorway. The bridal 
wreath and that for the tomb have 
been woven in quick succession ; 
events the saddest as well as the 
most joyful have come and gone ; 
like the many deepening shadows 
and the brilliant hues of sunlight 
over the landscape. 



THE TREES 

By Harold Vinal. 



The trees, they say, are lovers fair, 
Who wear cool emeralds in their hair. 

By night they keep a windless tryst 
And robed in veils of amethyst, 
They bow and flutter in the midst. 



The trees, they say, are lovers fair. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



COLONEL EDWARD WOODS. 

Colonel Edward Woods, one of the old- 
est members of the New Hampshire bar, 
and prominent both in his profession and 
in public affairs throughout his long life 
died on Monday, April 5, at his home in 
Bath, where he was born October 24. 
1835, the son of the late Chief Justice 
Andrew S. Woods. He was educated in 



In politics Mr. Woods was a staunch 
Democrat. In 1873-4 he was a member 
of the State House of Representatives; 
in 1893 oF the State Senate;* and in 1918- 
1920 of the Constitutional Convention. 
In 1874 he was a member of the staff o\ 
Governor James A. Weston with the 
rank of colonel. His sterling qualities 
were fully appreciated by his fellow citi- 
zens as was shown by his election to fill 



The late Colonel Edward Woods. 



the public schools of his native town, at 
Phillips Exeter Academy and at Dart- 
mouth College, where he graduated in the 
class of 1856. He studied law with his 
distinguished father and was admitted to 
practice at the New Hampshire bar in 
1859. For three years he was a member 
of the firm of Woods & Bingham at 
Littleton ;then practiced with his father 
until the latter's death ; and afterwards 
alone until his retirement from the active 
duties of his profession, some years since. 



the various town offices, particularly that 
of treasurer, which he held for many 
years. He also had served as solicitor 
of Grafton County. On April 2, 1863, 
Colonel Woods married Mary Carleton 
of Bath, who survives him. To them 
were born four children ; Edward, who 
died in infancy; Katherine E., wife of 
Amos N. Blandin of Bath ; Thomas S., 
of Boston; and Andrew, who died a few 
years ago. Colonel Woods was an ex- 
tensive owner of real estate and had 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



223 



various business interests outside of his 
pi .jfession, having been the first president 
of the Lisbon Savings Bank and Trust 
Company. With the highest standards of 
honor, integrity and justice, Mr. Woods 
tally deserved the high place which he 
held in the esteem and a flection of all 
who knew him. 



EDWARD J. BURNHAM. 

Edward J. Burnham, veteran newspaper 
man, died at his home in Chichester. April 
1-! He was born July 6. 1853. in Epsom, 
the grandson of a Revolutionary soldier. 
He attended Bates College for a time, but 
later learned the printer's trade. and 
while employed in this capacity by Henry 
II. Metcalf. at Dover, set all the type for 
the first issue of the Granite Monthly, 
that of April, 1877. In 1880 he entered 
the employ of the Manchester Union and 
there remained for more than 30 years, 
until ill health forced his retirement, dur- 
ing much of the time acting as leading 
editorial writer of his paper. Mr. Burn- 
ham was a student and writer of history. 
a scientist of repute and an Esperanto 
expert. He was one of the founders of 
the Manchester Institute of Arts and 
Sciences and took an active interest in 
its affairs. He was a member of the Odd 
Fellows and of the Grange, in which he 
served as master and lecturer, and of the 
Audubon Society. He had been chairman 
of the State Board of Charities and Cor- 
rection and a trustee of the Elliott Hos- 
pital a Manchester. He is survived by 
his widow and by four children, George 
E. Burnham of Boson ; Mrs. Ursula Kew 
of Hanover ; Mrs. Bessie Marston of Kit- 
tery, Me., and Edward H. Burnham of 
North Chichester. 



GENERAL EDMUND TETLEY. 

General Edmund Tetlev was born in 
Bradford, England, October 26, 1842, the 
son of William and Mary Ann (Bray- 
shaw) Tetlev. When he was 12 years of 
age the family came to America and at 19 
he enlisted in the United States Marine 
Corps at Portsmouth and saw active ser- 
vice in the Civil War. In 1873 he located 
at Laconia and from 1878 to 1917 was 
engaged successfully in business there as 
a manufacturer of paper boxes. Soon 
after he came to Laconia, Mr. Tetley en- 
listed in the local company of the New 
Hampshire National Guard and rose 
through all ranks until mustered out 
March 8, 1909, as brigadier general by 
brevet. In the Spanish American War 



he was major and lieutenant colonel of 
the New Hampshire Regiment. In politics 
Genera! Tetley was a Republican and 
held various offices, including sheriff of 
Belknap county, membership in the legis- 
lature of 1895, and in Laconia's first city 
council, and two terms as mayor. He was 
a member of the G. .\. R., K. of P., I. 
O. O. F. and the Masons, in which last 
order he was especially prominent. The 
Laconia Camp of the United Spanish War 
Veterans was named in his honor. Gen- 
eral Tetley married December 9, 1868, 
Ella E. Merrill of Lowell. Mass., who sur- 
vives him, with their two daughters, Mrs. 
A. R. Philbrick, Montclair, N. J., and 
Mrs. W. J. Haddock, Laconia, and three 
sons, Rev. Edmund B. of Mapleton, Me., 
Guy and Charles of Laconia. 



JOHN K. LAW. 

John K. Law, sergeant-at-arms of the 
New Hampshire House of Representa- 
tives at several sessions of the legislature, 
died at the Margaret Pillsbury Hospital 
in Concord, March 22. He was born 
August 12, 1835, at Franklin, his parents 
being James Law and Rebecca Jane liolt. 
He was educated in the public schools of 
Lowell, and thereafter was engaged in cot- 
ton mills and as an engine man on the Bos- 
ton and Lowell railroad until 1859. when 
he came to New Hampshire where he was 
occupied in shoe manufacturing until 1862. 
On August 12 of that year he enlisted in 
Company B of the 11th New Hampshire 
Volunteers, was promoted to Sergeant, 
wounded at Fredericksburg, and discharged 
Tanuary 19. 1864. After the war Mr. Law 
followed various mechanical occupations 
until 1876. when he bought a large farm in 
New London where as a farmer and auc- 
tioneer he spent the rest of his active life. 
He took an active part in town affairs, was 
moderator for many years, a selectman, and 
served as representative in the legislature. 
He was a member of the G. A. R. and the 
I. O. O. F.. a Mason, Knight Templar, and 
Shriner. Mr. Law married Mehitabel Ring 
of Deerfield in 1858. She died a few years 
aqx>, after more than half a century of mar- 
ried life. Two sons, John W. H. Law of 
Concord, and Fred A. Law of New Britain, 
Conn., survive. 



HON. EDWARD E. GATES. 

Edward E. Gates, one of the best known 
citizens of Northern New PTampshire, 
died at his home in Lisbon, March 11, 
after a brief illness with pneumonia. He 
was born in East St. Johnsbury, Vt, 



224 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



August 25, 1S66. the son oi Ezra B. and 
Belinda (Tabor) Gates. In 1875 the 
family removed to Littleton, where he re- 
ceived his education. In 1891 he located 
in Lisbon and had since resided there, 
being successfully engaged in the grist 
mill and grain business, at first in partner- 
ship with W. W.tOlivcr and later with 
Fred J. Moore under the firm name of 
Gates & Moore. To a remarkable extent 



m 



of Representatives and in 1913 to the 
State Senate, from the old second district, 
acting as chairman of the committee en 
fisheries and game. At the state house, 
as in all the associations of his life, his 
kindness and sincerity won him many 
friends. Mr. Gates was a 32nd degree 
Mason and an encampment Odd Fellow, 
having passed all the chairs in the latter 
fraternity. Flis family religious afnlia- 



,.'.'£.*s.~&!-ie. . , 4~... id 



■ Alii;- v-i,^:...:.-. ■''U., .. , 



The late Hon. Edward E. Gates. 



Mr. Gates possessed the esteem and con- 
fidence of all within his wide circle of 
acquaintance. This was strikingly shown 
in his political success, both within and 
without his own town. He was for many 
years chairman of the school board, and 
at the time of his death had just been re- 
elected chairman of the board of select- 
men, receiving the endorsement of both 
parties although himself a Democrat. In 
1911, he was elected to the State House 



tions were with the Congregational church. 
A very busy man, he never refused to give 
of his time and resources for the benefit 
of the community. The title, "good citi- 
zen," never was more deserved than by 
him. Mr. Gates married in 1894, Miss 
Anna E. Bergin of Littleton, by whom 
he is survived, with their three children; 
Ruth M., Chase E. and George E. ; and 
by a sister, Mrs. Norton Lindsay, and a 
brother, Tabor Gates, both of Woodsville. 






Swi r 









FICTION : 



^Second Best," 3VJ 



'; \ til J 



. s in . '. ■ ;-..',. - . ■ 



RA3LA5 fc PEA] 



: 



Eaite - 



econd? class eg i\ ■,.-.'■' 



:/.-' 



Photo by Kimball 

The late Judge William B. Fellows 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Vol. L1I. 



JUNE, 1920 



No. 6 



"THE SECOND BEST" 



By Frances Parkinson Keyei 



Stretched at full length on the 
sand, the sun of a mid September 
afternoon shining full upon him. but 
tempered by the brisk breeze blow- 
ing up the Sound, Edward Middle- 
ham lay with bis hands behind his 
head, his eyes half closed, a blessed 
feeling of contentment permeating 
his whole being. There were sev- 
eral substantial reasons for his state 
of mind — -aside from the fact that 
being very full of good food and 
fresh air — a', combination hard to 
beat in the mind of the average 
male — he was inclined to view his 
condition in life from a favorable 
angle ; but at this particular 
moment he was not thinking of any 
of these substantial reasons ; but 
principally of the seemingly unim- 
portant and carelessly spoken state- 
ment, made by Mrs. Carruthers 
some hours earlier, that, provided 
nothing more pleasureable or im- 
portant presented itself to her, she 
might join him on the beach be- 
tween four and five, 

It was twelve years — or was it 
even more than that — since he had 
first seen her. Then, as now, they 
had been fellow guests at the house 
of their common friends, the Percy 
Drakes, meeting for the first time, 
in that incubator of modern flirta- 
tions, a week end house party. 
She was a country cousin of Mrs: 
Percy's, on her first long visit away 
from home, younger than any of 
the others, miserably shy at the 
mere prospect of meeting so many 
strangers, ill at ease in the unaccus- 
tomed atmosphere of luxury, pain- 



fully conscious that she did not 
"fit in" — even a little shocked at 
the women's cigarettes and low-cut 
dresses and the men's frequent 
cocktails, and the easy camaraderie 
which existed between all the other 
guests. Middleham was at that 
time, an unimportant young man, 
just out of college, with no record 
of athletic glory behind him, and 
no large fortune ahead of him. He 
was, moreover, quite unencumber- 
ed, not even nominally attached to 
Nancy Plutchinson, the reigning 
belle of the occasion. Mrs. Percy 
found him an easy prey. 

"Do be nice to that poor child, 
if you don't mind too much! She's 
so frightened it's positively painful, 
and I can't do anything with her; 
she has no idea how to dress or 
dance, or talk, or — anything! Not 
a man will look at her except out 
of charity." 

"And I struck you as being the 
most charitable of the bunch !" 

"Well, I thought you wouldn't 
mind as much as some of the others, 
and besides it would be a personal 
favor to me." 

"Oh, well, of course, Hester, if 
you put it that way — " Pie laugh- 
ed good-naturedly, and strolled off 
to be victimized. 

The first attempts were certainly 
discouraging. Mrs. Drake had 
hardly overstated her cousin's lack 
of attractions, and Lucy Miller was 
only seventeen, and had scarcely 
been outside of Millertown, New 
Hampshire, in her life. But she 
was neither diffident nor stupid, and 



228 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



once having gained a little self con- 



fidence, she made rapid strides in 
the right direction. Middleham 
was staying over till Tuesday, long- 
er than most of the others, and 
when he left she displayed a frank 
regret which was very flattering. 

"I hate to have you go, I suppose 
you won't be down again/' 

"On the contrary, Hester has 
asked me to spend my vacation 
here, a week, and that's only ten 
davs off — shall you still be here 
then ?" 

"I think so." 

"I'm very glad.'' There was no 
question about it, he really meant 
it. It was interesting to watch such 
rapid development. He sent her a 
five pound box of candy and a 
frivolous note as soon as he reached 
town. Having done this, he in- 
stantly regretted it. It would never 
do to trifle with the poor little 
thing's young affections ; and not 
being over old himself, he gave way 
to some complacent reflections 
about his over charitable, and 
scrupulously platonic conduct, and 
resolved to adhere closely to it dur- 
ing the approaching vacation. He 
was therefore somewhat piqued — 
such is the inconsistency of man — 
when Lucv neglected to write to 
thank him for the candy for several 
days, and completely ignored the 
tone of his letter, both in her own 
reply and upon his arrival at Meri- 
den. 

She seemed to have spent the in- 
tervals very profitably ; even the 
critical Hester confided to him that 
she was encouraged. 

"The Haven boys came in to call 
Tuesday, and she really did very 
well. Will yon actually believe it, 
they came again last night, and 
George — the younger one you 
know — asked her' to go to the dance 
at the Casino with him this even- 
ing. She's been to Boston and 
bought some new clothes — quite 



pretty — and if she can only get the 
hang of how to wear them, she'd 
look very well. I suppose von 
haven't noticed what wonderful 
color she has, and what lovely hair — 
if she could only do it up proper- 

" "Well, I have," said Middleham. 

So Lucy went off to her party 
with George Haven, looking not 
quite like the other girls, to be sure. 
but very fresh and blooming for 
all that ; and Edward, who came in 
late with Hester and Percy, found 
her enjoying herself very much, 
with only one dance left for him, 
and the next day he did not see 
much of her, either, because she 
went on a long sail with the Havens 
and some friends of theirs whom he 
did not know. Monday morning 
he cornered her, and complained. 

"I came down here on purpose to 
spend my vacation with you," he 
said in a grieved tone that was not 
half so platonic as it might have 
been. 

Lucy opened her eyes very wide. 
They were gray eyes, and they were 
fairly large anyway, with long, soft 
brown lashes that curled most en- 
gagingly over her rosy cheeks. 

"\\ ny, no, you didn't," she stated 
quite frankly, "You had planned to 
come anyway." 

Edward decided that it would be 
wiser to waive this question. 

"1 hope you'll go sailing with me 
today," he remarked, still very 
cordially for a careful young man. 

"Just us two?" 

"Why, yes." 

"I think it's more fun with a 
crowd, don't you?" 

"No." 

The monosyllable was intended 
to carry a good deal of weight. 
Lucy .stood twisting her handker- 
chief around her hands, looking 
down at the piazza floor with evi- 
dent interest. Then she smiled and 
turned away. 



THE SECOND BEST 



229 



vou conmi! 



asked Ed- 



111 tier turn 



to 



"Aren't 
ward. 

"No," said Luc\ 

"Why not?" 

"1 have some sewing I want 
do, and some letters to write and — " 

"Oh, well, of course, if you don't 
want to—" 

''I don't/' said Lucy quite calmly. 

"If that's the way you feel about 
it I won't bother you any more." 

Even this dark threat proved in- 
effectual; and Monday, like Sunday 
before it, was wasted ; on Tuesday 
Edward attached himself to Nancy 
Hutchinson, who had returned. 
with her usual suite. Lucy ap- 
parently did not notice; and this, 
though it appeared strange to Ed- 
ward at first, seemed naturally less 
strange in the light of the fact that 
Nancy's suite was noticing Lucy 
more than on the previous party. 

Edward was piqued nay, more, he 
was grieved ; here was a raw little 
country girl, -whose hair was un- 
tidy and whose belt sagged and 
whose petticoat showed ; who had 
been educated at the High School 
at Millertown, and gone to the Con- 
gregational Church there every 
Sunday, and whose ideal of a ball 
was a "hop"" at the "Town Hall" 
in her native village, and she had 
been just as shy and inexperienced 
and uncultivated as such an up- 
bringing would lead anyone to ex- 
pect, and he had gone out of his 
way to be nice to her— and now — 
almost directly — she was acting as 
if she were not under any obliga- 
tions to him at all — to Edward Mid- 
dleham, who was born on Beacon 
Street and reared in the atmosphere 
of culture and refinement! 

It is probably not fair to blame 
either Millertown, or Beacon Street 
for what happened next. Accidents 
have been known to occur in every 
locality. Lucy and Edward went 
out in the garden after supper and 
sat down on a stone bench that was 



there. There was a moon, and 
stars, and nobody else around — in 
fact, all the accessories for a suc- 
cessful accident. So it happened, 
and Edward discovered that Lucy's 
fresh cheek was even softer than it 
looked, and experienced sensations 
that filled him with great satisfac- 
tion, for a minute. Then he found 
that it would require considerable 
ingenuity to restore peace, not to 
say amicable relations. 

"You nasty, fresh, hateful tiling! 
Go back to the house this minute — " 

"But Lucy — " 

"I don't care! Keep your hands 
off me! No. I won't forgive you! 
I think you are horrid — no, no, no! 
I said no !" 

"I'm no end sorry — " 

"You are not ! You'd do it again 
if you had the chance ! Oh, I wish 
I'd never come here at all!" 

"Please don't say that, I think 
the world of you — ." 

"You do not. You are only teas- 
ing me. And you imagine that be- 
cause I came from the country you 
can do any sort of an inexcusable 
thing, and I won't mind. First you 
make fun of me behind my back, 
and then you look after me just to 
oblige Hester, and then you expect 
me to be grateful to you — I hated 
that letter you wrote me ! I hate, 
loathe to have you touch me — Oh, I 
just despise you anyway !" Lucy 
stamped her foot ■ and wept big, 
wrathful tears of injury and rage; 
then she fled to the house leaving 
a very astonished young man behind 
her. 

It would take too long to follow 
in Edward's footsteps as he walk- 
ed — figuratively speaking — from the 
Drake's garden that July night — 
to the ?\Iiller's "parlor" some six 
months later. Millertown, on a 
cold, sleet}- December day, the bare 
trees swaying in the bitter wind, 
the streets almost impassable with 
icy puddles, the gray, angry sky 



230 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



threat -cuing snow at any moment, 
was not a particularly cheerful and 
inviting spot; -and the room into 
which the stout "hired" girl usher- 
ed him, revealed nothing to raise 
his spirits. There was a blocked up 
fireplace, with an air-tight stove in 
front and a mantel adorned with 
wax {lowers above it, there was 
horsehair furniture, and pillow of 
"patchwork" plush. There were 
large crayon portraits— presumably 
meant to resemble Mr. and Mrs. 
Miller; there was a carpet, and over- 
it some bright rugs with startling 
designs — wreaths of roses, and bark- 
ing dogs, and sacred mottoes, not 
of course all on the same rug. but 
still all in "the same room, and it 
was frightfully chilly, and smelled 
as if it had not been opened in 
months. He sat on the shiny sofa, 
and waited and waited. Then lie 
waited a while longer, then the 
''hired girl" came back with an arm- 
ful of wood and said she would 
light a fire; and then Mrs. Miller 
came and greeted him very doubt- 
fully, and he felt that the artist who 
"did" the crayon portrait had been 
lenient with her. She was just on 
her way to a meeting of the Ladies 
Aid, she said, and Mr. Miller was 
off in the back part of the town 
seeing a man about a horse he was 
thinking of buying, but still he 
wasn't sure— and — 

"Isn 't Lucy here?" asked Edward 
Middleham at last, almost desper- 
ately, considering his upbringing. 

"Yes, she'll be down in a minute." 

A minute ! There was no doubt 
about it, that girl kept him waiting 
at least an hour — Now, twelve years 
later, a little smile began to play 
around Middleham's handsome 
mouth as he thought of it ; but 
then, it seemed very far from funny. 
and when she finally appeared, she 
looked very much more tidy and 
stylish than the summer before, to 
be sure, but very grave, too. 

"Why haven't you answered anv 



of my letters," said Edward, burst- 
ing into the middle of things with- 
out a word of preamble. 

"I didn't know just what to say." 

lie softened at once — Poor little 
Lucy! poor little bewildered un- 
taught child. 

"Then you do believe that I'm 
sorry 1 hurt your feelings, and that 
I never meant to?" 

"Yes. I believe that now." 

"A lid you know that I like vou a 
lot?" 

"Yes, 1 know that, too." 

Lucy no longer twisted handker- 
chiefs. Tier hands were folded 
quite calmly in tier lap. 

"And don't you like me?" 

"Yes, I like you— pretty well," 
she said. 

"Is there anyone else you like any 
better?" 

"My, yes — several people — mother 
and father and — ." 

Edward almost gave up in 
despair. This girl needed every- 
thing spelled right out to her, like 
a child in kindergarten. 

"1 didn't mean that way. 1 meant 
any man — " 

"Oh, I knew what you meant, but 
you interrupted me. I was going to 
say, and Henry Carruthers. 1 am 
at boarding school in New York 
this winter. Em home just now for 
the Christmas vacation— but I am 
going to marry him next fall." 

It was impossible. He, Edward 
"Middleham, had came all the way 
up from Boston in the dead of win- 
ter to see this girl, and she inform- 
ed him that she was already engag- 
ed. He could scarcely believe his 
ears. There was a long silence, 
which embarrassed him very much, 
and which did not seem to trouble 
Lucy at all. 

"Who," he asked at last, "is 
Harry Carruthers?" 

"Well," replied Lucy, "He's the 
boy that lives next door. He's a 
nice bov— that is, I think he is. If 



THE SECOND BES1 



231 



yon want to stay to supper, I'll ask 
1 1 i n i over, too. and yon can see for 
yourself. His mother died this 
spring, so he's awfully lonesome — 
that's One reason why we're going 
t i be married instead of waiting un- 
til we're a little older — he's only 
twenty himself. His father's been 
dead a long" time. He's got plenty 
of money, so we haven't got to 
think of that — and he seems to be — 
sort of in a hurry." The rosy 
cheeks grew suddenly pinker* She 
paused a moment and then went on. 
in a slightly different voice. "If 
I'd known just how to say it, I 
would have written to you — but 
maybe, now you're here, I can tell 
it to you. I 'did like you a whole 
lot — at first. And you helped me, 
ever and ever so much. I'm awful- 
ly anxious to learn — -all those things 
you and Hester tried to teach me. 
I'm going to, some day, too. I've 
learned quite a good deal more this 
winter already, I think. I'm going 
to be — just like Hester, only more 
so— do you know what I mean? 
If you'd only kept on the way you 
began I — " She came to a full stop. 
"You mean you might have cared 
the wav 1 want you to?" he asked. 



very 



;entk 



considering how 



strangely raw he felt inside. 

"Yes; but you were making fun 
of me, and you thought I was 
cheap — oh, yes you did — and I'm 
not, I'm not! I'm all the other 
things you thought, but not that — 
and Harry was right here, and he — " 

Edward rose, holding out his 
hand. "It's all right," he said, "I 
understand. I've been a horrid ass. 
I'm sorry." 



A 



re you sroing a wav 



j" 



"Why, yes," he said, smiling a 
little, "there really isn't very much 
for me to stay for. considering — 
er — Harrv and everything, is 
there?" 

Then Lucy, with the fickleness of 
woman, softened ; she could not, it 



appeared, let him ■ depart in this 
fashion. She sought about for 
words of comfort. 

"I'm sorry, too," she said, and it 
was evident that she meant it — "I 
do like you — after all— a whole 
lot — I think — honestly — I like yon 
second best." 

Edward smiled again. "Thank 
you," he said, "but after all, second 
best doesn't amount to much, does 
it. I'm afraid that wouldn't ever 
satisfy me. I wanted more than 
that, you know." 

And so he left her. 

II. 



overstating the case 



It would be 
to say that Middleham was still a 
bachelor at thirty-five because a 
little country girl threw him over 
for the "boy who lived next door." 
But the incident, slight as it was at 
least taught him two valuable 
lessons. Successful as he became 
in many directions as the years 
went on, he never again over esti- 
mated his own importance, and he 
never again made the mistake of 
taking for granted that an untrain- 
ed mind was necessarily a stupid 
or silly one — and it so chanced that 
he saw or heard of Lucy Miller — or 
Lucy Carruthers, as she had now 
become, just frequently enough to 
keep him in touch with her develop- 
ment, and just infrequently enough 
to make him wish that their paths 
might cross more often. 

Meantime, he had become a very 
fair specimen of the type of Ameri- 
can man who succeeds in business. 
who uses his muscles enough to 
keep physically fit and his brains 
enough to make him an interesting 
dinner companion ; doing, nothing 
very great and good, but nothing 
Very small and bad either — well- 
bred, well educated, well-nourished, 
and pleasant to look upon more 
with the good looks that result 
from these advantages than from 



232 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



any actual physical beauty. Es- 
sentially normal, too, with an even 
and sunny temper, and no signs of 
"nerves" — the stumbling block over 
which many of his associates in- 
gloriously tumbled. In short, he 
was a good sort to have around. 

Hester Drake was among the 
many who always found him so ; 
and having urged him to come in 
early one evening that she might 
have "some chance to talk to him," 
before her other dinner guests ar- 
rived, she entered her drawing- 
room to find him standing with a 
large framed photograph in his 
hand, looking at it very intently. 

"Have you had this long?" he 
asked with his old abruptness. 

"It just came. Lovely, isn't it?" 

lie nodded, without taking his 
eyes off it — "How old's the kid?" 
he asked at last. 

"Six months — a beautiful boy. 
You know Lucy persuaded Harry 
to take her to Europe on their 
wedding trip — and then to remain 
a year. This little chap was born 
in New York soon after they got 
back, and they've stayed on there 
since; but they're going back to 
Millertown in the spring. Harry's 
pining for his native heath. Lucy's 
planning quite extensive improve- 
ments on the house, which she 
writes ought to keep her busy and 
interested there for the present." 

"You haven't seen her?" 

"No, but I've persuaded them all 
to make me a visit before they go 
to the country. 

"I'll be in to dine," said Middle- 
ham briefly ; then as an after- 
thought — "What's the matter with 
Harry that he can go wandering 
around the earth like this — hasn't 
he any business, and isn't he 
enough — with her — with the kid — 
to keep her 'busy and interested' 
anywhere?" 

"Oh, I don't know," Hester gave 
a little laugh, and taking the photo- 



graph 
table. 



from him set it back on the 



"I onlv saw 



h i m , 



casually of course, at the wedding. 
He seemed a good enough sort — 
nothing extraordinary. He was 
very young, you know, just out of 
some small college. I believe he 
expects to farm — that's what his 
father did. But lie's fairly well-to- 
do, for a country boy, and the re- 
sult is that he probably won't work 
very hard at any thing. He'll have 
lost the habit, anyway, after all 
this idleness." 

"Trips of the sort you describe, 
and winters in New York are fair- 
ly expensive, even for a 'well-to- 
do' country boy." 

"Well, they may have used capi- 
tal. Lucy was bound to have her 
'chance'* as she called it ; and he 
was perfectly crazy over her — 
that's one .'sure thing. What is 
there about her that ?" 

"Purpose and sincerity and — 
purity," said Edward Middleham 
quietly, and he took up the picture 
again, but even the photograph and 
the information that lie was able 
to gather from Hester did not pre- 
pare him for all that he saw when 
he met Lucy face to face again. 

Yes, the husband was common- 
place — there could be no doubt of 
that; and. even allowing for the 
passion that he must have felt, and 
the admiration that he must still 
feel for his wife, there was bound 
to be so little congeniality between 
them, soon, if not already, as to be 
a serious drawback to their happi- 
ness together. Lucy had always 
possessed the sterling qualities in 
which he was totally lacking, and 
it was not strange that, at seven- 
teen, she had failed to realize that 
he would inevitably disappoint her 
in his mere standards of actual 
right and wrong, still less strange 
that she could not have known that 
she would so rapidly outstrip him 
in all the more superficial require- 



THE SECOND BEST 233 

ments and social graces. Still her must be the house— great, isn't it? 
behavior as an affectionate wife, no Look at those piazzas— r-and the 
less than as a delightful individual, view you get from 'em — she must 
left nothing to be desired, and her have done wonders. 1 wonder if 
devotion to her baby was so whole she'll have changed a lot again— 
heartedly joyous, that it was a and what way, this time?" 
revelation to see them together. They were destined to find out 
While the Carruthers made their very soon — and to leave Miller- 
visit at the Percy Drakes, Middle- town more silently, and with sober- 
ham not only dined there. The cr faces than the}- had approached. 
hours that he spent in sleeping, at The little boy had died only a month 
business and occupied by other before, so Lucy — dressed all in deep 
social engagements were mere step- black — told them > herself, quite 
ping stones to the time when he calmly, and the six weeks' old baby 
should be free to sit quietly beside girl was sleeping, and was so fragile 
this starry-eyed, rosy-cheeked, that she did not dare run the risk 
grave young mother, who seemed of taking them to see her in her 
so simple, lovely, successful and cradle, for fear of waking her; and 
serene. He had not the lack of there was something in her voice 
taste to attempt to make love to when she told them, in response to 
her; in fact, it may be quite truth- their civil inquiry, that her husband 
fully said that he had not the slight- was not at home, that caused them 
est desire to do so. With all her to feel no astonishment when they 
loveliness she possessed none of the overheard two strangers talking 
natural coquetry necessary for the about him at the little inn where 
equipment of a married belle. they stopped to eat their dinner. 

Then, suddenly, the visit was "Harry Carruthers? a good farm- 
over , and the Carruthers were gone . er? Lad, he hasn't been sober 
Two summers later, motoring enough to walk straight, let alone 
through the White Mountains with farm straight, for the last six 
George Haven, Edward suggested months, tie had always had it in 
that they should call in Miller-, him to go that way — but he hasn't 
town. George made no objections, been downright bad at it till just 
rather the contrary. He, too, had this last year. Trouble with him 
seen Lucy on that memorable visit. is, he hasn't any pride — never did 

"Do you remember what a queer have — or he'd have hung on to 
little kid she was?" he asked, as decency like grim death for the 
they were speeding along over the sake of that wife of his. Darned 
hilly but excellent roads of the hard on her, I call it. He had a 
Granite state. "Scared to death, good property, too; but between 
and always with the look of being her ambition, and his lack of it, 
half put together — hairpins falling they must have made ducks and 
out and buttons coming off, and drakes of it by now — she'll blame 
all that? Gosh! I nearly fell herself for that too, more than she 
over on my face when she sailed ought to — she just naturally 
into Hester's drawing room in white couldn't seem to help wanting the 
satin and tulle only three years best of everything, and that don't 
later, looking as if she'd never been mean just money's best, either." 
dressed by any one less than Worth Middle-ham avoided George Hav- 
from her cradle up. I liked best en's eyes all that day; and sudden- 
seeing her with the youngster ly, in the dead of night, the fierce 
though — he was a bully kid. That desire to go to Lucy and crush her 



234 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

in his arms, and kiss the cc»Ior back as that, in its turn, had supplanted 
into her white checks, arid the dark her awkwardness and shyness. She 
circles from under her eyes, to never, in any way, referred to her 
take her away from the sickly baby situation ; but Hester did not fail 
and the drunken husband., and the to comment on it. 
dreary guest of poverty, already "If it wasn't tor the baby I think 
knocking at her door, swept over she'd lose her reason — and of course 
him like a surging fire, and made she just mustn't with that delicate 
him hot with shame that lie should child to consider — so she doesn't 
have such thoughts, and still the and leaving Harry doesn't even 
thoughts persisted, and gave him seem to occur to her — though he's 
no peace — all the old evil arguments given her causes enough. Heaven 
that ma.de black look white — or at knows! — more than one — she'll 
least a delicate pearl gray — swept stick it out if it kills her— -and some 
through his mind, almost convinc- times I think it will kill her — if it 
nig him as it has convinced many — lasts hang enough." 
and possibly . better — men before And so matters stood for a long 
that the thing he wanted to do was time, changing only to grow 
the thing that was right to do. gradually' worse. Then, suddenly, 
Lucy would resist, of course. But came the news that Harry had died, 
still, she was surely too weak, too under circumstances too disgrace- 
broken, too disillusioned and em- ful to dwell upon ; that Lucy had 
bittered, to resist long. That he paid all her debts, sold the farm, 
would ruin the very qualities which and with little Angela abruptly 
had made her so dear to him if he left for Europe. The first distant 
succeeded did not of course occur rumbling, threatening a great War. 
to him then; he thought only of her brought her back again, after she 
deliveiance and his possession. had been there a little .over a year; 

But when morning came, it and apparently with great content- 
found him with his mind master ment, she fell in with Hester's sug- 
of itself once more, and face turn- gestion that she and Angela should 
ed sternly towards the city. spend the summer with the Drakes 
, Tr in Meriden, while she considered at 
her leisure what she should do next. 

That night was now mercifully So there, in time, Middleham 
far behind him. In the years that came, too; and having come once. 
lay between he saw her from time and been made welcome, he came 
to time, when she went to visit often; and now the summer was 
Hester ^n Boston, or school friends almost gone, and he lay on the sand 
in New York; but she did this very waiting for her to join him for one 
seldom, and even then the meetings of those long, quiet talks, some- 
were only accidental and casual. times alone, sometimes with little 
For by this time he realized that Angela beween them, that had be- 
the only safe and decent thing for come almost a daily custom with 
him to do was to avoid her. Each them. 



r ' 



m 



time their paths crossed, his heart "Hello! I'm a little lat 

was wrung afresh by the black afraid! but George delayed me. 

clothes that she never laid aside Now he's taken Angela off for a 

after tine little boy's death ; by her ride in his motor, and I'm quite at 

increasing thinness and pallor; and your service for the next two 

by the silence and reserve that had hours." 

supplanted her radiant poise, just Middleham sprang to his feet. 



THE SECOND BEST 235 

She had come up so softly that he you care for me — at least a little — 

had not heard her, and now stood too?" And as he still received no 

quite close beside* him, all in crisp answer, "Surely it can't he hard for 

white, her soft hair blowing in the you to answer — you must have 

wind, her cheeks tanned and rosy. been expecting this to happen for 

How well she lev iked again, how a long time." 

wholesome and content ; alive in "Oh, yes," she said, "I have, but 

every fibre of her being, how lovely still it's hard to answer just the 

and desirable. same." The weariness in her voice, 

"George never did have any idea in striking contrast to her happy 

of <"hc value of punctuality,'' he re- manner a quarter of an hour earlier 

marked duly, "but after all, I don't filled him with quick alarm. 
blame him much. You look gooel "What is the trouble? Why, 

enough to eat—you- remind me of my darling. I wouldn't have hurt 

all kinds of pleasant, fragrant you for the world. Is it too soon — 

things, someway — fields of clover, 1 thought?" 

and orchards -with the apples all "Oh, no." she said, "it isn't too 

ripe, and blue salt water in the soon- — it's too late. I care for you — 

sunshine." not a little but a great, great deal — 

"How nice of you!" she returned in a way more than any one in the 

gaily, sitting down on the sand and .world except Angela — but it's no 

tucking her feet underneath her, "I use." 

never should have thought of com- "There's some one else — again- 
paring a woman to any of those whom you're planning to marry?" 
things — and they're all delicious." "No, it isn't that — I'd be glad — 

"So," he said sitting down be- this time to say yes — but J can't." 
side here, "are you — I don't know "My dear," he said, still more 

any word that describes you so gently, "you've never told me — 

well." but I know you've suffered — that 

"I'm nearly thirty," she remark- you've undergone great grief and 

ed irrelevantly. shame. Don't make the mistake 

"Balzac's 'Femme de Trent of letting that cause you to be 

Ans?" afraid of marriage — to think un- 

"That wasn't half as nice as your fairly of it." 
other compliment. Balzac's Julie "It isn't that either," she replied, 

was a— well, she zvas attractive, but so low that he could hardly hear 

some way ." the words, "it's because it wouldn't 

"Oh, she didn't come up to you. be fair to you. Its a case of — sec- 

I know," retorted Middleham, ond best — for you again this time. 

laughing, "Few do ." You told me before you wouldn't be. 

"Did you want to come out here satisfied with that — and I won't 

just to talk to me in this silly way?" give it to you." 

Her tone was light enough, but "I shall be thankful for whatever 

for some reason he grew instantly you will give me now. But I don't 

grave. understand ." 

"No, my dear," he said soberly. "I will tell you," she said. 

"I wanted to speak to you of grave For some minutes, she sat very 

things — things that I think matter still, looking out at the water, her 

to us both — I've waited a good lips trembling in spite of the great 

while to do it." He paused, and as self control which he knew she pos- 

she made no reply, "Twelve years," sessed. Then she faced him 

he added slowly. "Lucy, you know squarely. 
how much I care for you. Don't 



236 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



"When J had been married about 
four years/' she said, "I fell in love. 
deep!}', violently., passionately in 

love — and the man— loved me," 

Middleham felt his throat grow 
dry. 

"I was wretchedly unhappy at 
home — you say you've never spoken 
of it — well, I will today! I mar- 
ried a weak, ignorant, vicious boy. 
He was attractive and he was rich, 
and Ik was eager 10 marrv me when 
I felt that the people whose opinion 
I valued, looked down on me. I 
was ambitious to attain all those 
little, little things-all that veneer. 
which looked like solid mahogany 
to me then,' and he could give it to 
me and longed to. So I let him. 
He broke my heart, if you like to 
put it that way — he certainly de- 
graded my body and smirched my 
soul ; and it was when things were 
at their very worst — when the 
money was nearly gone, and my 
little boy had died, and I had come, 
to the realization that my own false 
ideas had brought me to this pass, 
that I had no one but myself to 
blame, it was then that I met the 
other man." 

"I met him in New York — I had 
scraped together the money, in the 
face of violent opposition from my 
husband to take Angela to see a 
doctor there, a great specialist. I 
went to stay with an old school 
friend. It happened at her house.'' 

"1 loved him from the first 
moment I ever saw him ; I never 



shall get over 



loving him as long 



as 1 live — and he loved me, too, as 
I said before — but — he didn't love 
me enough." 

"Enough for what?" asked Mid- 
dleham, stupidly, speaking with 
difficulty through that dry throat of 
his. 

"Oh," she said bitterly, "he loved 
me enough for what you are imagin- 
ing. He loved me enough to want 
to buy me from my husband — and 



he was rich enough to do that, for 
he had a great deal of money. He 
urged me to — to divorce Harry and 
leave him to — drink himself to 
death alone— and I could have kept 
Angela. There wouldn't have been 
any trouble about that, for Harry 
had been unfaithful and— -and cruel, 
too. Those things usually come, 
with the other. That's why its 
worse than anything else, because 
it drags so many other horrors in 
its train. But I wouldn't go. You 
see, I had made my own bed, and 
I had to lie-in it. I had to. I 
couldn't leave him, no matter how 
bad he was. I couldn't. Do you 
understand?" 

"Yes," said Middleham hoarsely. 
"I understand — most women could. 
but you couldn't. So this man 
wanted to have you marry him 
after a divorce, but when you 
wouldn't — what then ?" 

"He suggested that I should stay 

with my husband and ." The 

bright head sank, and then came 
bravely up again — "And oh, I 
wanted to! You shan't think me 
one bit better than I really was — 
Just seeing him, and looking into 
his eyes was Heaven, and when he 
touched my hand! But I couldn't. 
I couldn't do that either. Of 
course, you know that." 

"Of course, 1 know that." 

"So then, he thought I didn't 
love him. He didn't believe me. 
He was angry and harsh, and he 
went away. He didn't love me 
enough to trust me, and wait for 
me, even to the end of his life, if it 
had been necessary. That's the 
way 1 loved him. He didn't even 
love me enough to keep decent for 
me, and now that I'm free I can't 
marry him — he isn't tit for me to 
marry. I'd have to go through all 
that — that mire of Hell a second 
time. L've just got back to — to 
feeling like a human being again 
after all these frightful years, and 



THE SECOND BEST 23/ 



Angela would see the very things tween us again. It was a mista 
that her father's death saved her that we allowed it to before. \V 



;e 
e 

from. He says now it was my mustn't repeat that mistake — Dear 

fault that lie went down hill. I Lucy, can't you see?" 

don't know, perhaps it is, but I "I've thought of all you've said," 

don't believe so — anyway I could she answered dully, "hundreds of 

have been good for him. But even times. And its partly true, large- 

if I knew it were, I'd have to do the 1}" true perhaps.. But it doesn't 

same thing right over again. Of matter. 1 can't marry you. I 

course I realize, that he's made of can't go to him; but I'm his, all that 

very diiterem clay from Harry, and part of me — in my mind— just the 

that I understand so much and — and N same. It would lie a — a sacrilege 

want him so that it wouldn't be to forget that for one single 

quite the same. It would be worse moment." 

because I love him so much. I'd "By-and-by my dear, I hope you 

let myself be cut into little pieces may feel differently." 

for him gladly*. I often lie awake "I never shall," she said. "Dear 

all night thinking what bliss it friend, donT give the pain of speak- 

would be to belong to him, but I ing of all this again; and now, let 

won't marry him." ' me go back to the house." 

"Lucy," Middleham found that Twice, looking fully at her, real- 
his own voice was breaking. izing as never before how vitally 
"Don't you know how safe Angela precious she was to him, Middle- 
would be with me? Don't you' ham opened his lips to speak, and 
know that I love you so that in each time something in the steady 
time I can make you even forget * eyes looking into his checked him. 
that this ever happened? Don't. For a full m.oment they faced 
you know that you've come through each other, both white with deter- 
sorrow and suffering and sacrifice mination ; then, silently he bowed 
to be one of the noblest women that his head, and .raising it an instant 
ever lived? My dear, 1 don't de- later, still silently, he stood and 
serve .you— but won't you come to watched her out. of sight as she 
me just the same? Don't let this walked slowly away across the 
spectre of the second best come be- sancf 



y WAITING • ■ 

By Ruth Bassett Eddy. 

You are away from me and all the world 

Has huddled into dark. The very air 
That laughingly and buoyantly unfurled 

Its four glad wings into the trembling day 
Has hushed its pulsing breath, and all the rare 

Sweet songs of things have stilled their minstrelsy 
The loneliness around me grows apace — 

I want to hear your voice and see your face ! 



> v 



METAMORPHOSIS 

i?V /- 5. Morrison 

Now have come the spring days, 

The joy-in-everything days, 
The life-without-a-sting days, 

That mean so much to me. 
Gone again are cold days, 

The I-am-growing-old days, 
The everything-is-told days, 

The years have seemed to be. 

Here again are tap days, 

The time-to-gather-sap days, 
The do-not-care-a-rap days, 

That fill me full of glee. 
Gone again are sad days, 

The all-the-world-is-bad days, 
The everyone-is-mad days, 

That winter seemed to me. 

Here are wander-out days, 

The tramping-all-about days, 
The catch-the-largest-trout days, 

That bring my youth to me. 
Past are all the dark days, 

The dogs-do-bite-and-bark days, 
The sorrow-leaves-its-mark days, 

We never more shall see. 



'THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY" 



By John Kim 

Author of ''The Bridge of Eire, 

The first light of a clear morn- 
ing in June illuminated Franconia 
Notch, one of the most picturesque 
places among the matchless White 
Mountains of New Hampshire. 
Under the strange, stone Profile, 
near the lovely, little lake, a young 
Indian slept in front of a smoulder- 
ing fire. 

A catamount crept toward this 
sleeping warrior. The fierce ani- 
mal crouched to spring. 

The loud ' report of a heavy 
musket awoke all the slumbering 
echoes of these mighty mountains. 
With a fearful scream, the wound- 
ed catamount sprang into the air, 
fell upon the young India!: and 
writhed in the agonies of death. 

The red warrior rose swiftly. lie 
looked for the foe who had arous- 
ed him. 

He saw the cacamount, bleeding 
and quivering in the last agonies 
of death. A short distance away 
he saw a young Paleface, reloading 
a Queen Anne musket. His active 
mind, trained, in the exciting inci- 
dents of a rough mountain life, 
comprehended the situation swiftly. 

The red warrior strode toward 
the young Paleface. In his head 
dress five eagle feathers, the sign 
of a chief, waved slightly in the 
balmy zephyrs of this beautiful 
morning. He extended his right 
hand, in the English way, and said, 
with Indian brevity, in fairly good 
English : 

"1 thank my white brother. He 
has saved my life." 

The young Paleface clasped the 
young Indian's hand warmly and 
replied, with a pleasant voice that 
inspired confidence: 

"I only did my duty. Chief. You 
would have done as much for me." 

With no display of vanity; the 



ball Chase, 
"The Angel of Death," etc. 

red warrior continued: 4 T am Red 
Eagle, the Sagamore of ■ the Pe- 
quaket Indians. We will be White 
Brother and Red Brother." 

"I am plain John Washington," 
replied the young Paleface, with a 
pleasant laugh. "T like your looks 
Chief. Yes, we will be. Red Broth- 
er and White Brother." 

These young men could not fore- 
see the strange events that would 
come from this unique friendship. 
Historical facts are sometimes 
stranger than fiction. 

With a searching glance, in 
which curiosity and a little sus- 
picion were blended, the Saga- 
more inquired: "Why did my white 
brother walk all alone in the dark 
night through the great woods on 
the land of the Pequakets?" 

"It's a fair question, Red Broth- 
er," answered Washington, with 
his pleasant laugh. "I expected it. 
I am visiting my uncle, Captain 
Jonathan Chase, at Franconia. Do 
you know my cousin, Mary Chase?' 

"Yes, I do know the White Lily 
of the settlement," replied the Saga- 
more. "She is the fairest flower 
that blooms on these mountains." 

Swift and sharp as the Mash of 
the lightning was Washington's 
glance at his red brother. The 
crafty Sagamore did not appear to 
observe this significant glance. 

In a voice as pleasant as before, 
Washington continued: "Yester- 
day, after dinner, Mary went to the 
south field to pick strawberries. 
She did not return. Aunt Sarah 
went to get her. But Mary had 
disappeared. In great alarm, my 
aunt hurried back to the farm- 
house. wShe blew the horn so loud 
and long that uncle and I came 
from the corn field on a run. We 
ran to the south field. The signs 



240 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



showed that a large bear had stood 
erect on his hind legs, taken Mary 
in his tore paws and carried her 
into the woods." 

"Did the bear harm White Lily?" 
asked the Sagamore, with what 
seemed like the solicitude of a 
lover. 

"I do not know," replied Wash- 
ington, thoughtfully. "We found 
no blood, no signs of a struggle, 
though Mary is an athletic girl, 
with the courage of a lion." 

"Do you think that White Lily 
consented to go?" asked the Saga- 
more. 

"There are some things I do not 
know," answered Washington. 

"Did the bear, who stood on his 
hmd legs and carried a woman in 
his fore paws, walk with his feet 
turned out like a Paleface?" was 
the next question of the Sagamore. 

"No, he did not walk with his 
feet turned out, like a white man," 
replied Washington. 

"Did he walk with his feet turn- 
ed in, like an Indian?" asked the 
Sagamore. 

"No, he did not walk with his 
feet turned in, like an Indian," re- 
plied Washington. 

"Did it walk with its feet straight, 
like a bear?" asked the Sagamore. 

"Yes, it did walk with its feet 
straight, like a bear," replied Wash- 
ington. 

"Bears arc so fond of straw- 
berries, they will leave anything 
else to eat them," said the Saga- 
more. "Did this bear eat the 
strawberries ?" 

"The bear did not eat any of the 
strawberries," replied Washington. 

"It's a queer bear," said the Saga- 
more. 

"I'm puzzled," remarked Wash- 
ington. 

"Did you follow the trail?" ask- 
ed the Sagamore. 

"Uncle Jonathan and I followed 
the trail as fast as we could," re- 



plied Washington. "We thought 
we could soon catch the bear, 
hampered witli the weight of a 
woman. But the tracks did not 
grow fresher." 

"How far did you follow the 
trail?" asked the Sagamore. 

"The trail went as straight as the 
Might of a bee straight toward the 
Indian village of Pequaket," replied 
Washington. "Uncle Jonathan 
thought it would not be safe for so 
small a party to go too far. So he 
returned to the settlement for more 
men. He planned for me to follow 
the trail until dark. In the morn- 
ing, I would meet the rescue party 
at Stone Face and guide them to 
the trail." 

"Did you follow the trail until 
dark?" inquired the Sagamore. 

"I lost the trail," answered Wash- 
ington. "The trail was broken 
suddenly, in a very strange way." 

"I thought you would lose the 
trail," said the Sagamore. "No one 
has ever followed the trail of this 
bear very far." 

It was clear the Sagamore knew 
more about this affair than he had 
told. Washington thought the 
time had come to ask for his aid. 

"Red Brother, I am in great 
trouble about Mary," said Wash- 
ington, in a very earnest voice. 
"Will you aid me, as I aided you?" 

"I will aid you gladly, all I can," 
answered the Sagamore, in a voice 
that seemed very sincere. "1 could 
form no plan until I knew the facts. 
I do not think the white men can 
find White Lily. They can not 
find the broken trail. We will go 
to Pequaket. With my best, war- 
riors we will search the woods and 
the mountains for White Lily." 

"I thank you, Red Brother," said 
Washington. "You know these 
woods and mountains better than I 
do. Our white friends may help 
too." 

"W T hite Brother, I will talk to 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



241 



' said 
grave 



you with a straight tongue 
the Sagamore, in a very 
voice. "I will tell you what 1 have 
hidden from my own people. On 
there is something 
fearful. White 



mean, 
surpri: 



said Washing-ton, in 



these mountains, 
strange and 
Brother, listen 
White Lily has 
away by a hear, 
carried away by 



to what I say. 

not been carried 

She has not been 

any white person 

or Indian, in the skin of a bear." 

"I do not understand what you 



CHAPTER IE 
BROKEN' TRAILS 

"White Lily was carried away by 
the Evil Spirit," continued the 
Sagamore, in a very grave voice. 
"The Evil Spirit often takes the 
form of a bear." 

Washington understood the sup- 
erstitious character of the Indian 



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[John Kimball Chase, the author of the 
serial story. "The White Mountain 
Mystery," whose publication we begin in 
this number of The Granite Monthly, was 
born in Wolfeboro 63 years ago, a mem- 
ber of a prominent Xew Hampshire 
family. For several years he has been 
totally blind and what he accomplishes in 
spite of that handicap is remarkable. He 
writes his stories on a typewriter which 
has strings attached to certain keys in 
such a way that by the sense of touch 
he turns out much better "copy" than 
many of us who are blessed with entire 
vision. In this way he has produced 
manuscripts which have been accepted for 
publication by The Country Gentleman, 
Harper's Monthly, The New England 
Magazine, and other periodicals in addi- 
tion to The Granite Monthly. It is his 



custom to write one page of manuscript 
on his typewriter every morning and to 
spend the rest of the day in sawing wood 
and in other helpful occupations, and in 
thinking out the next day's "stent" of his 
story. While he was writing "The White 
Mountain Mystery," Mr. Chase sawed and 
split five cords of wood. The accompany- 
ing illustration, showing the author adding 
to what he thinks is one of the largest 
wood piles ever "worked up" by a blind 
man, was printed in The Country Gentle- 
man last year in connection with the 
article, "A Blind Man on a Farm," and 
is here reproduced by the courtesy of that 
publication. "The White Mountain 
Mystery" is to be printed in The Granite 
Monthly exactly as it came from Mr. 
Chase's typewriter. — Editor] 



242 



TI 



GRAXITE MONTHLY 



race. He did not believe in this 
Evil Spirit. However, from the 
Sagamore's great knowledge of 
these mountains, he might get iii- 
forrriation that would guide him to 



the missing girl. 

"Does this Evil Spirit carry away 
many white girls?" asked Washing- 
ton. 

"It never carried away a Pale- 
face girl before/' replied the Saga- 
more. 

"Does it hart the white people?" 
asked Washington. 

"This is the first time the Evil 
Spirit has touched a Paleface." an- 
swered the Sagamore. 

'•'This may not be the Evil Spirit. 
but it may be a cunning man in the 
skin of a bear," suggested Wash- 
ington, with a pleasant laugh that 
softened the implied doubt ot his 
comrade's good judgement. 

"The bear did not walk with its 
feet turned out like a Paleface or 
turned in like an Indian," reminded 
the Sagamore. 

"Men of the same race do not 
always walk in just the same way," 
suggested Washington. "In the 
south, where I live, th^re is a race, 
neither white nor red, who walk 
with their feet straight." 

"I have never seen tin's race," said 
the Sagamore. "They do not come 
here." 

"I'm here," laughed Washington. 
"Where 1 have come, they may 
come." 

"Do you always lose the trail of 
a bear?" asked the Sagamore, with 
a twinkle in his eyes. 

"I did lose this trail," laughed 
Washington. "But it was almost 
sunset, when the shadows were 
long and dark. In a better light, 
I may hud it." 

"No one can find it." said the 
Sagamore. "1 have followed the 
same trail many times and lost it. 
My best warriors have failed." 

"Does this Evil Spirit carry away 



[ndiau girls?" inquired Washing- 
ton. 

"1 have never known of such a 
:ase." answered the Sagamore. 

"Does it harm the red men?" ask- 
ed Washington. 

"Idle Evil Spirit kills my war- 
riors and puts his mark on their 
foreheads." replied the Sagamore, 
with deep emotion. 

Washington gave a start of sur- 
prise. After a moment's thought, 
he inquired : "What is this mark- 
that the Evil Spirit puts on the fore- 
heads of your dead warriors?" 

"I will show you," answered the 
Sagamore. 

The red brother and the white 
brother stood on the shore of the 
lake. Hie red brother bent over 
and made a mark in the moist sand. 

Washington gave another start. 
Then he said, thoughtfully: "This 
is the sign of the Cross. It is the 
sign of our religion, the sign of the 
white man's God." 

"Why does the Evil Spirit put 
the sign of the white man's God on 
the foreheads of my dead warriors?" 
inquired the Sagamore, with a 
searching look at his companion. 

"Men are sometimes greatly 
wronged," suggested Washington. 
"They may try to avenge these 
wrongs." 

"I have wronged no man." 
answered the Sagamore, in an earn- 
est voice that seemed sincere. "I 
have buried the hatchet. I am at 
peace with the red man and the 
white man." 

"Red Brother, we will capture 
this Evil Spirit," suggested W ash- 
ington. "Then we may under- 
stand." 

"We cannot capture this Evil 
Spirit," said the Sagamore, in a dis- 
couraged voice. "You cannot cut 
him with the sharpest knife. You 
cannot shoot him with the best 



gun. 



Washington gave a start of sur- 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



243 



prise, for the third time. He began 
to understand what, the Sagamore 
meant, when he said: ''On these 
mountains. ' there is something 
strange and fearful." His cousin, 
Mary Chase, had been carried away 
by this mysterious, and fearful 
being. 

"Why did you say the sharpest 
knife cannot cut this bear or the 
best gun shoot him?" inquired 
Washington. 

"White Brother, I will talk to you 
with a straight tongue/* replied the 
Sagamore, repeating the words he 
had used a short time before. "I 
will tell you what I have not told 
my own people. A few days ago, 
with one of my warriors. I went 
on the mountain, to hunt deer. I 
hid in the bushes, with my gun. 
My warrior went to scare up the 
deer and to drive them where I 
could shoot them. I heard a strange 
cry. It was not the war cry of 
white man or red man. I saw a 
large bear, on his hind legs, with a 
knife in his fore paw, run swiftly 
toward my warrior, Red Serpent. 
Red Serpent was one of the strong- 
est and best warriors in my tribe. 
He fought the bear like a brave 
man, knife to' knife. With this 
sharp knife, I saw him strike the 
bear many times, with all the force 
and fury of a strong man who fights 
for his life. The bear and the war- 
rior moved and turned so swiftly 
that I did not dare to shoot, for 
fear of hitting my warrior. Before 
I could reach them, the furious 
tight was over. My warrior laid 
on the ground dead, with the mark 
of the bear on his forehead. I bal- 
anced the barrel of my gun on the 
low branch of a tree. I aimed at 
the heart of the bear with great care 
and fired. When, my bullet hit the 
heart of the bear, he laughed with 
joy. Then he came after me, with 
his knife. If I had not been the 
swiftest runner in my tribe, my 



body would now moulder on the 
mountain, with the mark of the 
bear on my forehead/' 

"This is the strangest story I 
ever heard/' said Washington, 
thoughtfully. "T cannot doubt its 
truth. My heart is greatly troubl- 
ed about Mary. We must capture 
this bear as quickly as we cam" 

The Sagamore did not answer. 
He raised his arm and pointed with 
his hand. 

Washington saw a woman. She 
came toward them on a swift run. 
She seemed greatly excited. 

"It is Aunt Sarah," said Wash- 
ington. "What has happened?" 

When Mrs. Chase saw Washing- 
ton, she extended her arms toward 
him and cried out: "My Johnny, 
Oh, my Johnny." Then she swoon- 
ed. 

The young- men ran to help her. 
The Sagamore brought water from 
the lake. Washington bathed her 
face and wrists. 

When she revived, Mrs. Chase 
said : "I went to the spring for a 
pail of water. As I came back, I 
saw a big. wolf come from the 
house. The wolf walked on his 
hind legs and carried our babv in 
his fore paws. I screamed with 
all my might, dropped my pail and 
run after the big wolf. But I could 
not catch him. He ran into the 
woods." 

"I followed, but I lost the trail. 
I knew Jonathan was going to meet 
you at Stone Face this morning, so 
I came here." 

With his usual prompt decision, 
Washington said: "Aunt Sarah, you 
must stay here. Tell Uncle Jona- 
than to go on after Mary. The 
Sagamore and 1 will get the baby. 
Goodbye." 

With a comforting clasp of his 
strong hand, Washington parted 
from his doubly bereaved aunt, 
jrhen he and his red brother ran 
toward the Chase home. 



244 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



"This is a strange affair," said 
Washington. 

"It is the Evil Spirit." suggested 
the Sagamore. "Sometimes the 
Evil Spirit takes the form of a bear, 
sometimes it takes the form of a 
\voif. T * 

"It will be a mighty bad day for 
the Evil Spirit when I get hold of 
him." gritted Washington, as he 
set his teeth together hard and ran 
faster. 

From the Chase house, the trail 
of the wolf was plain. They fol- 
lowed it into the woods, on a run. 

In all America there were no 
better trailers than this strong man 
from the north and this strong man 
from the south. Cunning beyond 
description, was the man who could 
hide his trail from them. 

On the trail the first look is the 
clearest. This first look shows the 
grass and moss bent, crushed or 
broken, by the feet, the leaves turn- 
ed over, brushed from their natural 
position or broken at the stem, the 
twigs bent, pushed from their place 
or broken, the thousand and one 
other little details that become more 
indistinct on a longer inspection. 
In favorable places or in the dew, 
this first look may even show the 
impression of the foot. 

One of the world's best trailers 
once said to me : "The secret of 
good trailing is in the first look. 
The best trailer is the swiftest." 

"Tin* abductor must be badly 
handicapped, with the skin of the 
big wolf and the weight of the big 
baby," suggested Washington, in 
an encouraging voice. "We shall 
surely catch him very soon. Then 
something will happen." 

"It is the Evil Spirit," groaned 
the superstitious Sagamore. We 
shall lose. this, trail, as so many 
others have lost it." 

"This trail is so fresh we cannot 
lose it," laughed Washington. "If 
we do lose it, I will admit we have 



followed a supernatural being. Can 
a spirit carry a big baby or a heavy 
woman ?" 

"The Evil Spirit has killed my 
warriors," answered the Sagamore. 

They followed the trail of the 
wolf to a meadow. A freshet had 
covered this meadow with white 
sand. A recent shower had wash- 
ed all tracks from this sand. 

On a run, they followed the trail 
of the wolf to the middle of this 
meadow. In this moist sand, the 
impression of every footstep was as 
distinct as in warm wax. 

At the middle of this meadow- 
was the end of the trail of the 
mysterious wolf. 

In great amazement the trailers 
looked in every direction. There 
were no places where the wolf 
could hide, no stones or other things 
to break his trail. 

Had this mysterious abductor 
lured his pursuers to this meadow 
to show them how easily he could 
elude their best endeavors? What 
had become of the wolf and the 
baby. 

"This is the strangest experience 
of my life," said Washington. 

"This is the Evil Spirit," said 
the Sagamore. 

The strong man from the north 
and the strong man from the south 
stood on the white sand, bewilder- 
ed, at the end of the broken trail. 

CHAPTER III 
PARADISE 

Mary Chase, "the fairest flower 
that bloomed on these mountains," 
picked strawberries in the south 
field. She heard a slight sound, 
like a soft step at her side. Mary 
looked up at a huge bear, standing 
on its hind legs and towering above 
her. She swooned. 

Mary Chase recovered slowly. 
She was lying on a comfortable 
couch. Her mind was confused. 
Was she in the den of tiie bear? 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



24 



Mary's mind cleared. She rose 
to a sitting- position on the couch. 
She looked around. 

Mary was in the finest room she 
had ever seen. The furniture was 
beautiful and artistic. Through 
the open windows,- she saw a love- 
ly garden with vegetables, berries, 
fruits and flowers. Beyond this 
garden she saw a panorama of the 
grandest mountain scenery in the 
world. Was tins ] leaven? 

No, she could not be in the realm 
of unchanging f elicit}'. She saw 
the same mountain peaks she had 
seen all her life. Mary had never 
heard of so lovely a home among 
these mountains. Where was she? 

In an alcove a woman with a 
pleasant face, sat and sewed. She 
laid down her work, came out and 
spoke to Mary in a very kind voice. 

"I am glad you have recovered," 
she said. k T will inform Mr. Wind- 
sor." 

A moment later, a man came into 
the room. The pioneer girl thought 
he was the finest man she had ever 
met. 

This man was tall, with a form 
like a Greek God. The supple 
grace of his movements was the 
poetry of motion. His refined fea- 
tures were as clear as if chisel- 
ed by a sculptor. 1 1 is large, dark 
eyes were luminous with the glow 
of a gifted mind. 

"I am glad you have recovered, 
my dear" he said, in a very kind 
voice. "You are entirely free from 
any harm." 

Mary blushed. To her mind, 
the tones of this man's voice were 
like the rhythm of a beautiful song. 
In a voice that showed her em- 
barassment, she inquired: "Where 
am J?" 

"You are in. Paradise, my dear," 
replied Mr. Windsor with a very 
pleasant laugh. "Paradise is the 
name of my farm. I gave it this 
odd name, partly because it is a 



pleasant place and partly because 
the name of mv home in. England 
is Paradise Hall," 

"How did I come to Paradise?" 
inquired Mary with another blush. 

"I brought you here in my arms, 
my dear," answered Mr. Windsor, 
in a tone that made Mary blush 
again. "As I passed through the 
forest I saw a bear, with a woman 
in its fore paws. I frightened the 
bear, so it dropped the woman and 
tied. Then I brought you here, for 
medical treatment as quickly as I 
could." 

Mr. Windsor understood the 
bashful einbarassment of the pio- 
neer girl. With thoughtful tact he 
led her conversation to pleasant 
topics. The time passed so pleas- 
antly they were surprised when the 
woman called them to supper. 

"Please pardon my bad man- 
ners," said Mr. Windsor with 
pleasant badinage. "Miss Mary 
Chase, kindly allow me to introduce 
you to Mrs. Jennie J. Jones, my 
good and faithful housekeeper. 
Her husband, James G. Jones, is 
my gardener, a most trustworthy 
assistant." 

"Please pardon my bad manners," 
said Mrs. Jones. "Miss Mary 
Chase, kindly allow me to introduce 
you to Mr. William Plantagenet 
Windsor, the pleasant owner of the 
pleasantest place among the White 
Mountains." 

Mr, Windsor conducted Mary to 
the dining room. The table was 
covered with a linen cloth of spot- 
less purity. It was set with dishes 
of semi transparent china, artistical- 
ly decorated with paintings of 
flowers and fruit in natural colors. 

The menu was snow white bis- 
cuits, golden butter, luscious straw- 
berries with maple sugar and 
cream, cakes and cookies, delicious 
cherry pie. tea. This was the first 
time the pioneer maiden saw white 
biscuits, cultivated strawberries and 



246 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

English cherries. The meal was Mr. Windsor laughed in a way 

enlivened with tactful conversation that showed her exclamation had 

and pleasant badinage'. greatly pleased him. Then he 

After this collation, Mr. Wind- answered: 

sor conducted Mary to a cosy seat "I have done my level best to 

on the front piazza. He took a seat make Paradise the pleasantest place 

near her. among the White Mountains." 

This piazza was long and wide. After a pleasant conversation. 

There were ornamental lattices in Mr. Windsor said with a tender 

several places, on the front and glance: "I am very sorry to say, 

sides. Climbing vines had been Mary. I must leave you for a short 

trained on these. From the green time. I have a business matter 1 

foliage, came the the first bright cannot postpone. Will you kindly 

blooms of the year. consent to stay here until I return? 

In front of the piazza were large Then I will guide you to your 

beds of roses, now at their brightest heme." 

and best. 'Among these and be- "1 will wait for you, gladly." 

yond them were the vivid lines of answered Mary, with a vivid blush, 

many other June Mowers. "I should be perfectly contented in 

Then came the vegetable garden, this pleasant place if I did not fear 

with the colors and forms arranged my folk's would worry about me." 

in pleasing effects. Among these "I will inform your parents of 

growing vegetables were patches of the facts," replied Mr. Windsor. 

berries and groups of fruit trees. "I may persuade them to visit 

Beyond this garden were fields of paradise." 
corn, grains and grass. In a green A few minutes later Mary saw- 
pasture was a small herd of cattle Mr. AYiiidsor go through the garden 
and a flock of sheep and lambs. into the woods. As she Watched 
Then came a circle of variegated his graceful movements, she felt 
woodland. the warm glow of true love. 

From her position, Marv had a In the forenoon of the next day, 

fine view . of the great, grand Mary helped Mrs. Jones about the 

mountains. Bathed in the rich housework. After the dinner work 

hues of the setting sun, the forest had been cleared away, Mrs. Jones 

primeval swept in sublime grandeur said : 

over peak and dale. "Mr. Windsor instructed me to 

The 'mild zephyrs of June show you about the farm. We will 

brought to them the sweet fra- begin now. By the way, I usually 

grance of roses and other blooms. call him the master and you may 

A short distance away near a call me Jennie, if you wish to." 
great oak, a thousand years old, a When they were in the garden, 
copious spring of- very pure water Jennie continued, "This farm is on 
gushed from the ground with the almost flat top of a minor moun- 
refreshing coolness. The water tain. The soil is rich and deep and 
gathered in a lovely pool under the has been improved by judicious cul- 
old oak and then went trickling and tivation. The .Master is a wonder- 
tinkling over the stones to help ful farmer, as you will see. The 
water the beautiful gardens of farm is entirely surrounded by a 
Paradise. • forest of great trees, mostly pine 

"I think this is the pleasantest and spruce. These great evergreen 

place I was ever in," exclaimed trees shelter the crops from bleak 

Mary, with the enthusiasm of youth. mountain winds and conceal the 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 247 

farm from the eyes of hunters and blush, again. "But the St. Francis 

Indians. From the foot of this Indians, from farther north, come 

•mountain it looks like an unbroken here often to take white captives 

forest to the. summit. By judi- to sell to the French for slaves. 

cious training, the under growth The Master may understand these 

has become impenetrable. As matters better than we do. The 

game annuals cannot penetrate it. White Lily might bring a big price, 

there is nothing to tempt anyone to The Master said your bear was 

cut a way to the top.'' human. I think he shot him." 

"There must be a road through "Can the Indians see this place 

this forest to the farm," suggested from the other mountains?" asked 

the pioneer girl. Mary, partly to turn the conversa- 

"The only path to this farm is tion from too personal topics. 

the bed of the brook that has its "The higher mountains are too 

source in the spring by the old far away for the eye to separate 

oak," replied Jennie, with a laugh. the cultivated part from the many 

"When you walk in running water, fruit and evergreen trees that are 

you leave no trail that man or beast scattered over the gardens, fields 

can trace, you know." and pastures." answered Jennie. 

"There must be trails to the "The buildings are on a slight ele- 

brook," said Mary. ration, the crest of the mountain. 

"The Master is careful to make They are 'sheltered and concealed 

no path, or trail near the brook." with tall pines. They are also 

answered Jennie. "In several con- painted the same color as the ever- 

venient places he has hidden two greens and almost covered with 

rolls of strong, stiff cloth. He vines. Xo where else on this earth 

spreads out one of these, walks will you find any other farm just 

over it and spreads out the other. like this hidden heme on the top 

In this way he covers his trail for of one of the White Mountains, 

any distance. In some places he Now my dear, you must rest until 

us.es two skins. He frequently supper/' concluded the housekeep- 

changes these hiding places/ 5 er, kindly. "Tomorrow, I will 

"It is the best way to break a show you the growing crops and 

trail I ever heard of," said the the Master's wonderful inventions 

pioneer maiden, thoughtfully. "But in the workshops. The Master is 

he cannot use cloths and skins rich. He was a duke, or something 

in some places." of the sort, in England. I think 

"The Master has other ingenious he came here to work on his inven- 
contrivances," replied Jennie. "His tions. His mind is too much en- 
mind is so quick and inventive no grossed with these inventions. He 
Indian can trail him very far. I has strange dreams in the night 
will show you some wonders when about going among the Indians in 
we get to the workshops." the skins of beasts, doing fearful 

"Why does William fear the deeds and escaping by feats that 

Indians?" inquired Mary, blushing, seem beyond the craft of man. 

because she had used his given Such dreams are not good for his 

name for the first time. "Are we mind. I think your visit may 

not at peace with them?" divert his mind and prove a great 

"We are at peace with the Pe- benefit to him." 

qnakets and their Sagamore is in The kind hearted housekeeper 

love with some of us," replied conducted Mary to a comfortable 

Jennie, with a look that made Mary seat under a singing pine, gave her 



;?4S THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

an interesting book and filled her mer sun. The book slipped from 

lap with delicious little cakes and her lily white hand, 

large luscious strawberries. For With a powerful effort, Mary 

some time Mary read her book and aroused herself, picked up her book 

minched her cakes and berries. and tried to read. She soon nodded 

From shrubs and trees the sum- again. Sweet Mary, White Lily, 
mer birds sang, drowsily. The slept with the other flowers, 
summer zephyrs moved slowly A slight touch on her head awoke 
down and up, as if nodding to sleep • her. She heard a slight sound, like 
The summer Mowers bowed their a soft step at her side. Mary look- 
fair heads and slept in the sleeping ed up at a huge bear, standing on 
sunshine. its hind legs and towering above 

Fair Mary's head, with its rich, her. She swooned, 
golden hair, like summer sunshine. The bear lifted her up very ten- 
began to nod with the rest. Her derly and carried her into the 
large blue eyes closed slowly, like woods that she had been told were 
bright morning glories in the sum- impenetrable. 

(To be continued) 



THE WATERS SPEAK 

By Walter B. IVoljc. 

This evening the river whispered 

To the great stone pier shrouded in shadows 

Of oncoming night, the secrets of the ages: 

This evening, as the ripples washed on the strand 

And murmured to the grey stone their song, 

The ineffable refrain of lost aeons 

Surging to the sea — 

And the fragrance of fresh lilacs 

By the river bank; was borne past me 

By the cool wind of evening 

Fluting in mellow overtones 

A prelude to the solemn chanting of the waves — 

And I, lying in the cool lush grass 

Along the riverside 

Heard the waves, and felt the wind of evening 

About me, and the fragrance of fresh lilacs, 

And I knew the song and the murmuring of the waves 

That whispered to the great stone pier — 

And the harmony of the scented night wind — 

I felt the urge, I knew the burden of the symphony, 

The refrain of lost aeons winding to Eternity — 

"Fight, more Fight!" 



THE DARTMOUTH LITERARY OR 



DEBATING SOCIETIES 



By Asa Carrier Tilton 
CONCLUDED 



The Commencement Anniver- 
saries have come into the narrative 
of the preceding' columns as they 
stood out prominently, from time 
to time, in the general history of 
the societies. They deserve sup- 
plementary treatment as an insti- 
tution, that is as exhibitions. An 
exhibit ton was a public function at 
which the members of a society — 
academic, or other — exhibited their 
proficiency in declamation, oratory, 
debate, the drama, music, before 
their friends and neighbors. If 
orations, essays, plays, poems, and 
songs were original the}' exhibited 
ability in composition, as well as in 
presentation, and raised the exhibi- 
tion to a higher level. An exhibi- 
tion might consist of one, or more, 
or all, of the parts listed. An ora- 
tion was usually original ; but the 
term was sometimes applied to the 
declamation of a selection from one 
of the great orators. A dialogue, 
drama, or play, was often selected ; 
but it was sometimes written for 
the occasion ; and in the colleges — 
as we have seen — the best students 
were as ambitious to write and 
manage plays as to write and de- 
liver orations. Songs, or odes, were 
frequently composed to be sung to 
popular tunes — pre-eminently Auld 
Lang Sync. The exhibition sprang 
from the national predilection for 
those literary forms which require 
vocal expression to impress them on 
the mind and heart, in distinction 
from those which appeal from the 
printed page through their thought 
and sentiment. This national trait 
has been commented upon by the 
present writer in the July, 1919, 



number of the Monthly, p. 3.14, and 
does not require further attention 
here. This was, also, it is needless 
to repeat, the basis of the existence 
of the literary societies. Their regu- 
lar meetings were secret practice 
meetings; in their public exhibi- 
tions, the greatest of which at Dart- 
mouth were the Commencement 
Anniversaries, they showed their 
friends what they could do and ac- 
customed themselves to appear be- 
fore larger audiences ; and in 
all they were preparing to make 
their influence felt among their fel- 
low citizens when, in active life, 
they should raise their voices— in 
the pulpit, at the bar, in the legisla- 
ture, in Congress, or before public 
assemblies — in the expression of 
their opinions and principles on the 
great questions which might be 
foremost in importance to the na- 
tion. 

College Commencements form- 
erly were — and in some institutions 
still are — exhibitions. The parts 
at the first Dartmouth Commence- 
ment (1771 J, which was held out 
of doors, were: Salutatory Oration, 
in English, on The Virtues. An- 
them. Clyosophic Oration in Latin. 
Disputation: An Vera Cognitio Dei 
Luce Naturae Acquiri Potest? Vale- 
dictory Oration in Latin. Anthem, 
composed and set to music by the 
candidates for a degree. It is also 
said that there was an Oration by 
one of the Indians and a Poem. 
The Rev. Jeremy Belknap, whose 
History of New Hampshire is one of 
the classics of American historical 
literature, attended the Commence- 
ment of 1774, and has left on record 



'50 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



the program to which he listened. 
It occupied both forenoon and after- 
noun, and was as follows: Prayer by 
the President. English Oration. 
Syllogistic Disputation on the 
Question: Amicitia Vera nan est 
absque Amove Dii'ina? CHosuphic 
Oration. Anthem: The Voiee of my 
Beloved Sounds. Forensic Dispute 
on the Question : Whether Christ 
Died for all Men. Anthem : Lift 
up your Heads, Ye Gates. Din- 
ner. Latin Oration : The State of 
Society. English Oration : The 
Imitative Arts. Conferring- of De- 
grees. Then "two bachelors spoke 
a dialogue of' Lord Lyttleton's, be- 
tween Apicius and Darteneuf, upon 
good eating and drinking.'' They 
did well (he writes) : but the Mer- 
cury, who comes in at the end. did 
poorly. The President and audi- 
ence laughed heartily. Anthem. 
Prayer. 

The Commencements in the old 
days combined the refined pleasures 
of a literary assembly with the 
popular attractions of a country 
fair. The inhabitants of the sur- 
rounding towns poured into Han- 
over until every house was crowded 
with guests. Some persons had a 
record of attendance on fifty con- 
secutive Commencements. Trad- 
ers, peddlers, jugglers, and show- 
men had their booth in the open 
places. Beer, cider, and liquors 
were sold ; and, by evening, the 
crowds were often disorderly. A 
resident of Hanover wrote the fol- 
lowing account of the Commence- 
of 1845 in his Diary. The literary 
features (he says) were less im- 
pressive than in the preceding years ; 
but great crowds came because of 
the unusual outside attractions. 
These included "a Boston Brass 
Band, Ole Bull, the famous violin- 
ist, and four Albineos. or white 
negroes." There was everything 
(he mourns) to draw attention away 
from the great concerns of eternity 



and the duties of charity ; so that 
even clergymen could not resist 
paying fifty cents to hear the violin- 
ist. But we may note, again, the 
close touch between the College and 
the common people — which exists 
today in state institutions, but has, 
unfortunately, disappeared in the 
larger endowed colleges and uni- 
versities. Similar features of the 
Commencement at the New Hamp- 
ton Institution are mentioned in the 
July, 1919,' number of the Monthly, 
p. 6 16. 

It is in connection with, the music 
at Commencement — as we have 
seen — that the first traces of a stu- 
dent organization appear. The pro- 
grams varied with the passage of 
time ; but the one given by Belknap 
shows their length and characteris- 
tics. It may be compared with the 
Lancaster Academy program of 
1844, printed in the July, 1919, num- 
ber of the Monthly, p. 316. We 
should also recall the "Quarter Day" 
exhibitions, which were the cause 
of so great commotion in Kendall's 
time. At the sophomore "Quarter 
Daw" in June, 1793, there were 
three orations — Latin, Greek, and 
Philosophical — and a number of 
dialogues, one of which was written 
and presented by Judah Dana and 
Samuel Worcester. 

The societies sometimes varied 
the program of their regular meet- 
ings with orations, addresses to 
new members, farewell addresses, 
moot courts, plays, and rehearsals 
for their exhibitions. But their am- 
bitions and energies were concen- 
trated on their Anniversaries, when 
they were allowed to celebrate 
them. The loss of the records of 
the Social Friends makes it impossi- 
ble to tell when their Anniversaries 
began. They were held, however, 
on the Monday before Commence- 
ment, while those of the United 
Fraternity came on Tuesday. In 
the struggle for the possession of 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



251 



Tuesday, in 1811, the Fraternity 
based their claim .on right by pos- 
sesion, while the Socials based 
theirs on right by prescription. 
Practice in forensic disputation was 
bearing its fruits. The Fraternity 
Anniversaries began in 1/87, and 
Phi Beta Kappa' in 1788. When 
those of the smaller societies were 
added, after 1800, they filled— with 
the Commencement exercises — 
three days so full of disputations, 
orations, and plays that the appetite 
of our forebears for this form of 
entertainment and instruction, great 
as it was, must have been satiated. 

In 1787 the -Fraternity had an ora- 
tion and a tragic dialogue ; the next 
year a dialogue with ten parts and 
an epilogue and an oration ; and, in 
1790, an original drama, the French 
Revolution. (*19) 

In 1792 the Socials had an oration 
and a comedy. Reference has al- 
ready been made to the drama, pre- 
sented by the Fraternity in 1799, 
of which Webster was one of the 
authors. Dana writes that it was 
customary for the United Fraternity 
to have an oration before the Society 
on the day before Commencement 
and to exhibit, in the evening, "an 
original Dialogue, or Tragedy, or 
Comedy." In his senior year (1795) 
he and Samuel F. Dickinson were 
chosen to write the dialogues. The 
principal one, a tragedy, The Fall of 
Poland, was largely Dana's work; 
and he played the leading part. The 
audience, which filled the College 
Church to overflowing, was highly 
pleased with the performance, and 
he proud of his success. The pro- 
logue and epilogue were by Josiah 
Dunham. (*20) • 

The exhibitions — with all their 
excellent features — and particular- 
ly the plays were, however, a held 
where the low standards of the 
period following the Revolution, to 
which reference has already been 
made, had every opportunity of dis- 



playing themselves. This side of 
them has been well described by 
1 ; . 1 d e t A ri el Ive nd r i c k , w 1 1 o • w a s 
born in 1772. spent his boyhood in 
Hanover, where he attended the 
Moor School, and became a Bap- 
tist minister, lie is not an unpre- 
judiced witness; but his statements 
are amply substantiated by other 
evidence. He writes: "The stage, 
at that time, exhibited scenes 
wounding" to Christian piety, and to 
which modesty was indignant." 
Quarrels were enacted with crude 
and disgusting realism. A perform- 
er would sometimes play the part 
of the unlearned minister and. at 
the same time, pared}- his sermons 
and satirize the Bible. Some of 
the parts were so objectionable that 
they occasioned a College law, in 
1791, to the effect.: "that all drama- 
tic exhibitions, either of a comic or 
a tragic nature, and spirituous 
liquors, or representations thereof, 
be wholly excluded from the stage ; 
and that no profane or obscene ex- 
pression, or representation, or fe- 
male habit, be introduced in any 
exhibition on the stage: on penalty 
of fine, not exceeding five shillings, 
or admonition." If this rule was 
intended to forbid all plays, it was 
either modified or leniently enforc- 
ed; for plays were acted in the 

(*19) This play, "Exhibited in the 
United Fraternity at Dartmouth,*' (was 
published at New Bedford, Mass., in 
1793. Perley I. Reed. Realistic Prescnta- 
tatioti of American Character, p. 147. It 
should be clearly understood that the 
citation of Anniversaries for certain years 
is merely illustrative of general character- 
istics, and does not imply that they were, 
or were not, held in other years, nor that 
the parts were invariable. The political 
and historical trend of the themes of the 
dramas, is seen in the title of this, as of 
others which are cited elsewhere. 

(*20) Dunham graduated in 1789 and 
for the next fifteen years was famous, 
locally, as a scholar, wit, satirist, poet, 
and orator. lie delivered a great num- 
ber of political, patriotic and other ora- 
tions. 



252 



THE GRAXITE MONTHLY 



years immediate 



the 



w, 



don 



punisn participants m v 

contained objectionable 
We have evidence that 
effect in 1811 from Kendall's in- 
clusion of female characters in the 



ig. But 

only to 

s Which 

features. 

was in 



revision ot 



stage. 



Fro 



>lav 

the 



tui 

\ ea 



th 



1829 



os ton 



we 



hear, again, of objection to the 
student theatre'; but this was due, 
rather to the disturbances which it 
occasioned, than to the plays them- 
selves. 

Hie conditions which are illus- 
trated by this coarseness in the ex- 
hibitions and .by the disturbances 
in the societies are still sometimes 
attributed, Unreservedly, to French 
influence. But we should remem- 
ber — what has already been em- 
phasized—that we had just passed 
through a Revolution ourselves. 
When an established social order is 
destroyed, or its power temporarily 
suspended, or — as in newly settled 
regions- — has not become firmly 



grounded, confusion 



.able, 



and extremes in thought and con- 
duct — the bad as well as the good — 
develope. French influence was 
harmful in many respects, and it 
was beneficial in others ; but the 
same is true of conditions in the 
United States. 

A digression here will aid us in 
keeping a correct perspective of the 
history of the societies in the period 
with which we are dealing. It is to 



tell 



tl 



ie pioneer 



work of two 



Dartmouth men, Caleb Bingham 
and David Everett, in the publica- 
tion of school text books. Everett 
graduated in 1795. He is best 
known as the author of : 
"You'd scarce expect one of my age 
To speak in public on the stage." 
which he wrote while teaching 
school. The lines take on new 
meaning, when read in this, their 
proper setting. He became a news- 
paper man, and also wrote several 



books, including a tragedy which 
was published at Boston in 1800. 
His contributions to text books will 
be referred to directly. Bingham 
graduated in 1782. He taught a 
year in the Moor School and then 
established a school for girls in 
Boston, where he also kept a book 
store. 

When our national life began, 
text books — an absolute necessity 
in the development of a school sys- 
tem — were utterly lacking Bing- 
ham and Xoah Webster were rival 
pioneers in their production. An 
earlier Dartmouth text book pioneer 
was Abel Curtis (Class of 1776), 
who wrote : A Compcnd of English 
Grammar — Printed at Dresden 
(Dartmouth College) by J. P. ee A. 
Spooner, 1779. Bingham may have 
patterned on his work. Bingham's 
and Webst-er's readers and spellers 
penetrated everywhere ; there was 
probably not a town in the United 
States where their books— especially 
Webster's— were not used. Bing- 
ham had two readers: The American 
Preceptor and the Columbian Orator, 
Designed for a Second Part to the 
American Preceptor. Sixty-four edi- 
tions (649,CC0 copies) of the Pre- 
ceptor were printed ; and twenty- 
three editions (19G\C00 copies) of 
the Orator. Not only are the num- 
bers impressive of themselves, even 
in these days of large editions, but 
each copy was used by far more 
pupils than is the case today. It 
passed from eldest to youngest in 
the large families of that time ; and 
then, perhaps, to the next genera- 
tion, or to another family. It is 
needless to tell this to anyone who 
has seen a soiled and tattered copy 
with its end-papers and fly-leaves 
covered with the quaint signatures 
and the "His Book," or "Her Book" 
of its successive possessors. Dia- 
logues were the distinguishing feat- 
ure of both of Bingham's books. 
It is not known who wrote those in 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



253 



the Preceptor; Everett was the au- 
thor of those in the Orato\ As the 
first edition appeared in 1797, he 
must have written them in college, 
or soon after he graduated, when 
his knowledge of the needs of the 
schools and literary societies was 
fresh from experience. 

Webster's and Bingham's readers 
and speakers were the first of those 
compilations of ' short selections 
from literature — poems, scenes from 
plays, essays, orations, and occas- 
ionally original pieces — which form- 
erly occupied so prominent a place 
among. American text books. Bing- 
ham's were more popular than Web- 
ster's and held the held for a quarter 
of a century. They were not of so 
high a literary standard as their 
competitors, but they appealed more 
strongly to the popular taste — in- 
evitably, for they sprang more 
directly from the people. Not only 
were these books used in the schools, 
the literary societies, everywhere, 
went to them for their declamations 
and dramas. They stand side In- 
side with the literary societies in 
origin and influence ; and are but 
another phase of the work which 
the college societies fitted their 
members to do among the people. 
From them our parents and grand- 



parents and 



■randparents 



who did not go to col lege, obtained 
their only insight into secular litera- 
ture. Their influence was deep ; 
if their users had but a few 
extracts at their command, they 
did come to know those few so 
thoroughly that they never forgot 
them. The readers and speakers 
are second only to the Bible in their 
influence upon the language of the 
people of America.* (21) 

The popular interest in the drama 
furnished the basis for a national 
dramatic literature. That great 
dramatists did not appear, while the 
corresponding interest in oratory 
did produce great orators, is due to 



the existence, or development of cer- 
tain national conditions and charac- 
teristics, and the absence of certain 
others. To -deal with this problem 
is beyond our present purpose. 

To return to the exhibitions. Phi 
Beta Kappa regularly had an ora- 
tion at its Anniversary ; and the Re- 
ligious Society had one in 1804. 
The oratorship was the highest 
honor which a societv could bestow 
on one of its members ; and the in- 
tense rivalry for public approval 
between the societies ensured the 
choice of the one who was consid- 
ered the best by a majority of his 
fellows. Idie office, usually and 
naturally, went to a Senior. Web- 
ster — as has been stated — was ora- 
tor in his senior year; and Kimball 
declined to be, because of his pre- 
ference for second place, that of 
poet. The trouble, caused by the 
revival of the Commencement An- 
niversaries in 1811, prompted the 
faculty to interfere and restrict the 
celebrations to an oration each on 
Tuesday. These were given by 
Seniors until 1832; then by invited 
speakers until 1837, when the socie- 
ties combined their celebrations and 
invited the speaker together. In 
the attempt to revive the societies 
after the Civil War, a society ex- 
hibition was arranged for the fall, 
and a junior exhibition for the 
spring; the former ended in 1870, 
the latter in 1877. In 1872 the two 
societies and Phi Beta Kappa ar- 
ranged a three year schedule of An- 
niversaries, which were, in reality, 
managed by the faculty; and this 
plan continued until 1902, when the 
Adversaries ceased. 

(*21) Bingham's Grammar first appear- 
ed in 1785, his Speller in 1792. and his Pre- 
ceptor in 1794. Webster's Speller had the 
most phenomenal career of any of these 
early text-books — in fact of all text-books, 
if not of all books after the Bible, in Eng- 
lish. It was first published in 1783, end 
did not meet with serious competition until 
after 1870. It is estimated that eighty. 
million copies were sold up to 1880. 



254 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



The close touch which the college 
societies maintained with the people. 
and the wide spread and deep in- 
fluence which they exerted, are 
shown by various facts and inci- 
dents, scattered throughout this 
paper. They are further illustrated 
in Dana's narrative. Like many 
students, throughout the prosper- 
ous decades of the great societies, 
he taught school to help pay his 
way through college. Vacations 
were arranged with the view of 
making this as easy as possible, in 
his junior year he was a teacher in 
the Moor School, or Hanover 
Academy, as it was then sometimes 
called. There were fifty boys and 
twenty girls in the school ; and they 
were preparing- with great enthus- 
iasm, for an exhibition at which 
Addison's Colo was to be the princi- 
pal attraction. Two days before the 
date of the exhibition the boy who 
had the part of "Cato" became dis- 
gruntled and refused to play. No 
substitute could be found ; and 
Dana, to save the exhibition from 
failure, agreed to read the lines. He 
had no intention, however, of mere- 
ly reading them; spent most of the 
night in memorizing and practicing; 
and played the part to the great de- 
light of his scholars. His popu- 
larity and influence were, doubtless, 
increased in the same measure as 
are those of a teacher today when 
he puts on his old football uniform 
and goes onto the field to help de- 
velop a strong eleven. 

The next year lie taught at Or- 
ford, New Hampshire. It was a 
large school with many grown-up 
pupils. Boys and girls, in those 
days and long after, were not 
ashamed to attend the common 
schools after they were of college 
age ; and thus, by using the leisure 
of the winter season, to compen- 
sate for the short terms and meagre 
opportunities which were offered 
them. A college man who taught 



usually had pupils older than him- 
self. Dana's school wished to have 
an exhibition; and he was pleased 
with the idiea. "for (he writes') I 
was very fond of theatrical dis- 
plays." No dramas could be found 
which were suited to the ages and 
Capacities of the pupils. He had 
written (lie says) "my sophomore 
dialogue with my friend. Worces- 
ter," and also some blank verse; 
and, with this experience, he under- 
took to write a play for the exhibi- 
tion. His effort was sucessful, and 
was praised both in the town and 
at college. Student teachers were 
everywhere doing this society exten- 
sion work. 

The change from orations by 
students to orations by speakers of 
national reputation in the thirties 
coincided with a transformation 
which was taking place in the lite- 
rary societies which existed outside 
the colleges and academies. They 
became part of the lyceum system, 
which had started in the preceding 
decade. Often the change was in 
name only, and the old order of ex- 
ercises remained. The ideal of the 
Lyceum, however, was the educa- 
tion of its members by mutual ef- 
fort in gaining information in 
science, literature, and other sub- 
jects of intellectual interest, as well 
as in public affairs. Papers and 
lectures by members took the place 
of declamations, plays, and debates. 
The old societies sometimes adopt- 
ed this ideal and modified their ex- 
ercises accordingly. From papers 
by members to lectures by scholars 
and public men, the step was logical 
and easy. As an institution for 
self-education the Lyceum was 
scarcely more than a survival ; as a 
system of local organizations, cov- 
ering the whole northern portion 
of the country from the Atlantic to 
the frontier, for providing addresses 
and lecture courses it was an insti- 
tution of great power and influence. 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



255 



Our foremost scholars, literary men, 
and publicists toured the country* 
year after year, during the three 
decades preceding the Civil War in 
its service, and the anti-slavery 
leaders used it with telling effect. 
.The Lyceum is best known — and 
justly so — -by tin's phase of its ac- 
tivity. When the Dartmouth socie- 
ties began to invite distinguished 
men to address them and the col- 
lege community at their Anniver- 
saries, they were following a change 
in national ideals; and t lie same is 
true of the college authorities in 
their expansion of the curriculum. 
To be sure, this change in ideals 
would ultimately destroy the socie- 
ties ; but the anniversary oration is 
the one feature of their later days 
which is worthy of their earlier 
achievements. It is fitting, as well 
as instructive, to end this account of 
the exhibitions with the mention of 
some of the orators and their mes- 
sages.* (22) In 1809, Webster de- 
livered an address before Phi Beta 
Kappa on The State of our Literature. 
* (23) lie was a lyceum lecturer; 
but did not attain fame on this 
platform. We are told by a hearer 
that his lectures did not show his 
power as an orator ; because he con- 
fined himself to the statement of 
facts, unrelieved by wit or humor — 
a style uusuited to the youthful 
and pleasure-seeking audiences of 
the Lyceum. This is an over-severe 
criticism. His Lecture before tlie 
Society for the Diffusion of Use- 
ful Knowledge at Boston in Novem- 
ber, 1836, introductory to a course 
of lectures in science and literature, 
is -a well-informed and thoughtful 
account of the underlying forces 
which produced the Lyceum. 

In 1838, Emerson delivered the 
address ''before the Literary Socie- 
ties." It was on Literary EtJiies, 
and was published at Boston. In 
1843, Rev. Andrew P. Peabody de- 
livered the address ''before the 



United Literary Societies," and it 
was printed. 'The same year Henry 
F. Brownson delivered an address 
before the Gamma Sigma Society 
on The Scholar's Mission, and it was 
published at Boston. The action 
of the United Literary Societies, in 
1853, on the selection of a speaker 
for the Anniversary is amusing. 
They voted to invite Hon. Henry S. 
Foote of Mississippi, as Commence- 
ment Orator, with Hon. John J. 
Crittenden of Kentucky, as substi- 
tute : and Park Benjamin of New 
York, as Poet, with Oliver Wendell 
Holmes of Boston, as substitute. 

In ]SS5 Wendell Phillips deliver- 
ed . the address on The Duties of 
Thoughtful Men in a Republic. In this 
lie portrayed the politicians, the 
pulpit, and the press as faithless ; 
and the scholar-** too servile. The 
scholars, he said, must come down 
to the people. He referred, of 
course, to the arousing of the peopde 
on the slavery question. Alas! he 
was several decades behind the 
time when the members of the 
societies were intent on fitting 
themselves for such missions; but 
many who had fitted themselves in 
those earlier days, were, like him, 
exerting a powerful influence from 
the platform throughout the North. 

The story of Phillips' visit to 
Dartmouth, as told by Samuel R. 
Bond, chairman of the committee 
of the societies to secure an orator, 
is both interesting and instructive. 
He invited a number of well known 
speakers, all of whom declined. 
Then, "in despair," he invited 
Phillips, who promptly accepted the 
opportunity of addressing the Col- 
lege. When this was known Bond 
was summoned to the house of 

(*22) Information concerning these 
addresses, and often the addresses them- 
selves will be found in the biographies 
and works of the men who delivered them. 

(*23) So far as this address was 
written, it was written on the road front 
Boscawen to Hanover. 



256 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



President Nathan Lord, where the 
faculty was sitting. Here he was 
met by Professor Edwin D. San- 
born, who asked if the report con- 
cerning Phillips was true. The 
Chairman answered that the invita- 
tion had been extended and accept- 
ed. The Professor then remarked 
that the President's consent had not 
been obtained. The Chairman ask- 
ed if this had' ever been required. 
■To this the Professor replied that 
perhaps it had not ; but that the 
President had the right of veto, 
would not consent to having the ad- 
dress delivered, and that it had been 
arranged to have Professor Samuel 
G. Brown address .the alumni a,t the 
same time and place (the College 
Church). The Chairman, becoming 
somewhat excited, replied: "Mr. 
Phillips has been invited, has ac- 
cepted the invitation, and is going 
to speak." The Professor answer- 
ed: "But we hold the key to the 
Church." This angered the Chair- 
man; and, jumping up, he retorted: 
"But you haven't the key to the 
Common ; and we will have Mr. 
Phillips speak there at the same 
time that Professor Brown address- 
es the alumni, and see which will 
draw the large audience." (Sure- 
ly a spark of the old society fire 
still lived). This determined atti- 
tude made its impression on Pro- 
fessor Sanborn ; he said he hoped 
there would be no trouble, and ask- 
ed the Chairman to wait until he 
reported to the faculty. After a 
brief absence he returned and said 
that Professor Brown had declined 
to speak under the circumstances, 
and that the arrangements for the 
Anniversary might proceed. Presi- 
dent Lord was an anti-slavery man 
until about 1847, when — in the con- 
servative reaction on the subject — 
he became a firm believer in slavery 
and the doctrines of Calhoun. He 
preached sermons to the students 
in which he held that the Bible 



showed slavery to be a divine in- 
stitution. Anti-slavery leaders, like 
Phillips, were utterly obnoxious to 
him. 

Although the President and facul- 
ty submitted to Phillips' coming, 
they were decidedly cold toward 
him during his stay in Hanover. 
It had been the custom for some 
professor to entertain the Anni- 
versary Orator at his home ; but no 
such radical as Phillips had been 
chosen before, and it was certain 
that a request to entertain him 
would be refused. The town would 
be crowded, as always at Com- 
mencement. The Chairman, there- 
fore, went to Professor Edmund R. 
Peaslee, whom he knew well, and 
laid the case before him. Professor 
Peaslee said that he disagreed with 
Phillips' views as decided!}' as any 
of the faculty; but that it would be 
a disgrace to Dartmouth if so fine 
a gentleman as Mr. Phillips were 
ignored, or treated discourteously : 
and that he would entertain him, 
himself, if his house were not full. 
He cheerfully assisted in finding 
suital.de accomodations. The facul- 
ty extended no courtesies, how- 
ever, and the Chairman had the 
privilege of associating with him 
during the whole of the two days 
he was in Hanover. When the An- 
niversary exercises were ended, Mr. 
Phillips was left alone on the plat- 
form while the procession formed 
to march to the alumni dinner. The 
Chairman took him to the hotel, 
where the dinner was served ; and 
had Professor, later United States 
Senator, James W. Patterson take 
him in. When the customary hon- 
orarium was offered him, Mr. 
Phillips refused to take it, saying: 
"1 regard the spontaneous invita- 
tion of the students of Dartmouth 
College, whose conservatism I know 
so well, to come and address them 
as the highest honor I have ever re- 
ceived." 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



257 



Finally — to end our list— George 
William Curtis delivered an oration, 
in 1857, "before the Literary Socie- 
ties'" on Patriotism. In this lie pic- 
tured slavery as triumphant, and 
sought to encourage the growing 
determination oi' the North to end 
its power. (Sentiment had swung 
back from the conservative re- 
action.) This oration well illustra- 
tes how men like Pihllips arid Cur- 
tis influenced the country through 
such addresses. ' It was delivered 
at Union College on 20 Jul)', at 
Dartmouth on 29 July, at the West- 
field (Mass.) Normal School on 31 
July, and at Brown University on 
J September; and was printed in the 
New York Tribune of 4 September 
and the Anti-Slavery Standard of 12 
September. 



In sketching the history of the 
societies some of the outstanding 
events in the history of their libra- 
ries have been related. We have 
seen that they began with the be- 
ginning of the societies, that they 
were one of the battle-grounds of 
society rivalry, that they were the 
sole resource of the students for 
reading and study, that the socie- 
ties exerted themselves to the ut- 
most to enlarge them, that jthey 
printed catalogues, that they im- 
proved their service and added new 
features, and that they were finally 
turned over to the College and be- 
came legally, what they had always 
been, in fact, a part of the College 
Library. They were the element 
in the activity of the societies which 
made for permanence and respon- 
sibility — as the possession of pro- 
perty always does. Their value 
and influence at Dartmouth and — if 
we include those in all the colleges, 
for their history is everywhere es- 
sentially the same — the part which 
they have played in the develop- 
ment of the present incomparable 



library system of the United States 
require that they be considered 
further and by themselves, as have 
been the exhibitions. 

The College Library is a negli- 
gible institution in college life dur- 
ing- all the years of the active exist- 
ence of the society libraries. Little 
need be said of it; but this little 
may well be disposed of before tak- 
ing up the society libraries. 

At the start the College charged 
the students for books which they 
borrowed from the Library accord- 
ing to a fixed schedule. In 1793 
this system was abolished and all 
students were compelled to con- 
tribute equally to its support 
through a charge on their term bills. 
An amusing story relating to this 
tax comes down to us from Web- 
ster's davs. A college friend of his, 
Stephen' Grant (Class of 1800) 
found the usual library charge on 
his term bill. Like most of the 
students he had never borrowed a 
book; but, unlike them, he did not 
pay the tax without a protest — and 
a protest of a very original sort. 
His objection on the ground that 
he had not used the Library was 
met by President \\ neelock with 
the declaration that the item was 
entered on the term bills of all 
students, that the Library had been 
opened regularly, and that he might 
have used it, nad he so desired. 
Grant did not complain further and 
paid his bill ; but he did not let the 
matter drop. He sold cake, beer, 
and such like at his room to help 
pay his way through College. At 
the close of the term following his 
interview with the President, he 
sent the head of the College a bill 
for refreshments. The President 
protested that he had purchased 
none. Grant, in turn, replied that 
it was generally known that his 
room was open for their sale, and 
that it was the fault of any College 
officer if he had not availed himself 



258 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



of the privilege of buying. We are 

not told whether the President paid 
the bill ; but we 'know that the libra- 
ry tax continued. 

The first Catalogue of the Col- 
lege Library was printed in 1810 — 
the first of the Soeial Friends in 
the same year, and the 'first of the 
United Fraternity in 1812. It then 
had about 2.900 Volumes. In 1817, 
when it was. seized bv the Univer- 
sity Faculty, it had "about 4.000. 
The interest in the society libraries 
in the twenties, which led to their 
expansion and to innovations which 
increased their usefulness, did not 
react on the College Library. It 
had but few books of value, and 
was opened to the students but 
once in two weeks. In 1828 the 
general assessment was replaced by 
the earlier system of charging for 
books that were borrowed. The 
rates — which remained until 1855 — 
were ten cents for a folio volume, 
eight for a quarto, six for an octavo, 
and four a duodecimo. There were 
so few calls that it was opened but 
one hour per week, instead of two 
as it had been for some years. 
The general library practice of that 
day was to fix the length of time 
during which a volume might be 
retained on the same basis — that 
of size ; but this, and the number 
of volumes allowed at one time, 
usually varied also with the rank 
of the borrower from Freshman to 
Senior and Professor. The Library 
was in the same moribund state in 
the forties and in the sixties. The 
historian of the Class of 1863 tells 
us that, in his day, there was a 
College Library, but that a student 
saw it only once during his college 
course — at the graduation recep- 
tion — and that it was locked up 
the rest of the time to the detri- 
men of no one. 

In 1864 the authorities felt that 
it was necessary to allow freer use 
of the Library in order to encourage 



studious habits. Their reforming 
zeal went so far that the Library 
was opened one hour a day for six 
days in the week. In 1865 the Col- 
lege started a reading room for 
newspapers and periodicals ; and 
part of the expense was levied on 
the students. But in 1869, this was 
put under the charge of the socie- 
ties — the United Fraternity, as we 
have seen, had such a reading room 
in the twenties. The College Libra- 
ry continued to be. of little use to the 
students down to the time when the 
society libraries were consolidated 
with it. To be sure, it was open 
six hours in the week, while they 
were open but three. But the 
students did not have access to the 
shelves, the catalogue was incom- 
plete, the room was not heated in 
winter, and — what is more conse- 
quential — the society libraries con- 
tained, in spite of losses, duplica- 
tion, and indiscriminate accumula- 
tion, the books which were most 
profitable for study and most enter- 
taining for reading. The relative 
status of the College and society 
libraries during the century of their 
independent existence has been suc- 
cinctly stated by one of the College 
historians : "The library of the Col- 
lege was so far eclipsed by them 
that for many years, down even to 
our own day, it was wholly neglect- 
ed." This is no reflection on Dart- 
mouth ; for the statement holds 
true for nearly all — if not all — of 
our colleges. 

Attention has already been call- 
ed to the fact that the Social Friends 
started a library as soon as they 
were organized. The same is true 
of the United Fraternity. Its con- 
stitution provided that each mem- 
ber should contribute twelve shill- 
ings for the library — a considerable 
sum for the student of that time. 
In the second year of its existence, 
the library numbered thirty-four 
volumes of books and twenty-three 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



259 



of magazines. The agreement, 
which the disturbances, arising from 
.the intensity of their rivalry, com- 
pelled the societies to make in 1790, 
included — as we have seen — the 
union of their libraries as a Federal 
Library. This was opened one 
hour a week. A Senior might take 
out two books, and any underclass- 
man one, for two weeks. The 
hue for not returning a book was 
a sixpence per week. Each society 
contributed to its support accord; 
ing to the number of its members; 
and all used the books in common. 
This plan was followed for nine 
years; but the* feeling between the 
societies was so intense that a re- 
turn to the old, dual system was 
inevitable. However, as feeling be- 
came less intense with the passing 
years, the societies extended the 
courtesies of then libraries to each 
other more or less freely. 

Each library was more than 
doubled in numbers within two 
years of the dissolution of the Fed- 
eral Library. The taxes for the 
support of the libraries were heavy 
during all of the earlier years. 
Their rules were strict. Members 
who desired access to the shelves 
were admitted only under special 
regulations and only two or three 
at a time. Nevertheless they suffer- 
ed heavily both from damage and 
losses. Phi Beta Kappa avoided 
the enmity of the great societies in 
its first years, in part, because it 
did not attempt to have a library. 
In 1798, however, it did establish a 
library of natural history and 
chemistry. This, probably, did not 
infringe on the field of the society 
libraries; but, even if it did, there 
was no chance for trouble, for the 
attempt was unsuccessful and was 
abandoned after four years. The 
chapter, also, tried to publish a 
periodical ; but their ambition was 
again doomed to disappointment. 

The Musical Society, or Choir, 
which — as we have seen — was the 



earliest college organization, had a 
library, or, at least, a collection of 
song and hymn books. It could 
not exist without them. When the 
Handel Society was formed, in 1807, 
it began a library. Like the Choir 
it must have song and hymn books; 
and, in addition, the scores for the 
anthems and oratorios which it pro- 
duced in fulfillment of its purpose 
to create a national taste for good 
music and to replace the current 
church music — a crude imitation of 
the fugue — with the more simple 
and impressive forms which the 
church had once used. Professor 
John Hubbard (His connection with 
the Demos thenian Society at the 
New Ipswich Academy was referred 
to in the July, 1919, number of the 
Monthly, p. 313), who was active in 
the establishment of the Handel 
Society, is said to have had the best 
musical library, at that time, in 
America. Most of this came into 
the possession of the Society in 
1810. The Society also purchased 
musical instruments. Unfortunate- 
ly the library — which would be of 
great interest and historical value 
today — was dispersed and lost. 

When the first catalogues of the 
College and society libraries were 
published in 1810-1812, the former 
numbered about 2,900 volumes and 
the latter about 1,000 each. It is 
necessary throughout this account 
of the libraries to take book statis- 
tics with decided reservations. The 
process of arriving at totals was the 
simple one of adding accessions 
to the last totals without any de- 
ductions for the heavy losses which 
accrued from the start. The totals, 
therefore, always exceeded the num- 
ber of books actually on the shelves. 
Nor did the societies discriminate 
between useful and useless books ; 
anything in the form of a book was 
accepted and counted. There was, 
also, much duplication between the 
two libraries. 

In the twenties — as already stat- 



260 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



rd — there was an increase of inter- 
est among the members of the socie- 
ties in enlarging and improving 
their libraries. In 1825 they made 
use of rooms in Dartmouth Hall, 
which were allotted to them by the 
College, to expand their library 
facilities — the United Fraternity by 
opening a reading room, the Social 
Friends by starting a Philological 



Lib 



rarv 



The e:eneral libraries re- 



ceived their share of the new en- 
thusiasm. They were opened daily 
instead of three times a week, as 
they had been. The two society 
libraries numbered, it is stated, 
about 6,000 volumes at this time. 
The Philological Library originated 
with the Socials of the Class of 
1827. one of whom was Alpheus 
Crosby, the noted classical scholar. 
Its supporters undertook to buy the 
standard critical books on Latin 
and Greek. The attempt increased 
interest in the study of the classics ; 
but the heavy expense prevented 
the continuance of the undertaking 
by its founders, and it was taken 
over by the Society and merged in 
its library. If we but remind our- 
selves of the paramount position of 
the classics in the college curriculum 
of that day, we may see in this 
society experiment a striking illus- 
tration of the supineness of the 
College authorities toward the pro- 
vision of books to aid the students 
in their work. The incorporation 
of the societies followed this library 
renaissance. The authors of the 
Memorial of tie Class of 1827 bear 
witness — as the old graduates so 
frequently do — to the value of the 
society collections. The members 
(they tell us) took great pride in 
them, gave liberally of their meagre 
incomes to support them, and went 
to them for the books which they 
wished for reading or study. To 
quote: [the societies] "through 
their literary exercises and their 
valuable libraries have been of such 



inestimable service to the College 
generally, and to successive genera- 
tions of students. If, from any 
cause, the old order of affection has 
declined, it is well worth great ef- 
fort for its revival." The writers 
were discriminating scholars of 
sound judgement. 

The 1835 Catalogue of the United 
Fraternity gives the number of 
volumes in the library as 4,908. It 
was still opened daily ; and books 
could be kept out for two weeks. A 
Freshman or Sophomore could take 
two, a Junior three, and a Senior 
four. In earlier days members 
were not allowed to take books out 
of town during vacations. This 
was changed in 1824, under the in- 
fluence of the progressive tenden- 
cies which prevailed, by a rule which 
permitted members to take books 
with them in numbers which varied 
with the length of the vacation. 
Later they were allowed to take 
them while absent to teach school ; 
but such absence would normally 
be in vacation. These books were 
read by others than the borrower — 
another instance of the influence of 
the societies among the people. It 
would appear that the practice re- 
sulted in considerable damage to 
the books ; for a complaint is enter- 
ed on the records of the United 
Fraternity for 15 May, 1832, to the. 
efTect that they "were thumbed by 
every old farmer and snuff-taking 
maiden till the contents (if any re- 
mained) were rendered as brown 
as the ingredients of her box." Or 
is this an example of literary society 
humor! 

A member of the Class of 1831 
confirms the testimony which has 
been quoted from the preceding 
college generation, to the value of 
the literary societies and their libra- 
ries. They exerted (he says) a 
very marked influence in college. 
A young man usually has a period 
in which he "craves books." Give 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



261 



him a good library, let him roam in 
it as he wishes, read, assist in the 
selection and purchase of books, 
"any you have done the best thing 
von can do towards cultivating his 
taste for letters, and stimulating a 
spirit which he will carry with him 

through life All this, and more, 

these societies, with their excellent 
libraries, have done for the many 
hundreds who have belonged to 
them. Among the general influ- 
ences of the College.... I hardly 
know of one to be placed before 
them." A like, but more circum- 
stantial, tribute — to be quoted at 
length later — comes from the Class 
of 1844. 

The societies had some trust funds 
whose income went to the increas- 
ing oi the libraries ; but the chief 
source of accessions, at this period, 
lay in the custom of a gift by the 
graduating class. Sometimes — 

perhaps regularly — the class raised 
funds in its sophomore year and 
purchased books which it held for 
its own use until graduation and 
then presented to the society. A- 
round 1840 the value of the books, 
given by a class to its society, vari- 
ed from one hundred to five hun- 
dred dollars. For both societies 
the average would be doubled. 
This system ensured a steady flow 
of the books which the members of 
successive classes wished to read 
early enough in their college course 
to leave ample time to enjoy them. 
It also gave them personal interest 
in their selection. 

In October, 1853, the Social 
Friends had, according to their 
Ntatistics, 6,836 volumes ; and the 
United Fraternity, 6,954. A year 
later the numbers were 7,213 and 
7,115, respectively. In 1854, the 
year after its foundation, the Philo- 
technic Society had three hundred 
volumes, which had increased to 
1.200 in 1874. In this decade— the 
fifties — the societies began to take 



more systematic measures to pre- 
vent losses, which had long been 
heavy and had been omitted in mak- 
ing up their totals. Society rivalry, 
rather than ignorance and indolence, 
arc probably at the bottom of this 
inaccuracy. Up to 1830 the United 
Fraternity had met with the greater 
losses; and a committee was then 
chosen to bring the library to the 
level of that of the Social Friends. 
But the latter had, also, suffered 
so severely that a committee was 
named, in 1832, to find means of 
protecting their collections. In 
1850 they lost about one hundred 
and fifty volumes. It was propos- 
ed to put glass doors on the cases ; 
but the plan finally adopted was to 
place the library at one end of the 
room with a .counter in front to 
prevent unauthorized access. The 
same year the United Fraternity 
put wire doors on their cases ; and 
the Socials followed, in 1854, at a 
cost of four hundred dollars — a 
considerable sum for such a society. 
This plan was successful and was 
continued until the libraries were 
completely merged in the College 
Library. One society member was 
expelled from his society for steal- 
ing books, kand from College for 
the same offence in the College 
Library. The societies had, in some 
instances, expelled members for 
stealing books and published their 
names. In addition to the introduc- 
tion, of mechanical protection the 
societies began to take an annual 
inventory and to place the libra- 
rians under bonds. But the pay was 
too small and the labor of the office 
too heavy to make it possible to 
find librarians who were willing 
thus to guarantee the societies 
against losses. 

Not so very many years ago some 
of our most progressive librarians 
aroused great interest in the library 
world by introducing the "open 
shelf" system. That is they placed 



262 



THE GRANITE .MONTHLY 



the best and most used hooks where 
borrowers could go to the shelves, 
browse around at will, and select 
books to take home to read. Before 
long discussions arose over the wis- 
dom of the system. Man)- books 
were stolen. Did the advantage to 
the readers counterbalance the loss 
to the library? How could the 
books be safe-guarded? Was the 
system a school of dishonesty? Had 
the shades of the fathers been call- 
ed up from the old literary societies, 
the)- would have shown a familiari- 
ty with the whole subject that 
would have startled their progres- 
sive and "up-to-date" descendants. 
The societies had run into debt to 
support their libraries ; and they 
had become so decrepit that they 
could not properly administer them. 
A change was necessary and inevi- 
table. In 1874, they put the ad- 
ministration of their libraries into 
the hands of the faculty : and, in 
1879, into the hands of the trustees. 
The College was to choose and pay 
a librarian and assistants, pay the 
expenses of the Anniversaries, and 
grant the Social Friends and the 
United Fraternity one hundred and 
fifty dollars a year, each, for buying 
books. The Philotechnic Society 
was to receive a proportionate 
amount. The funds were to be 
raised by a library fee, levied on all 
students alike. The books to be 
purchased were selected by a com- 
mittee in each society. The Col- 
lege, also, agreed to maintain a 
reading room for newspapers and 
periodicals. The libraries were kept 
in their old rooms until 1879. Their 
transfer to the College Library then 
began, and was completed in 1885. 
The society book-plates were care- 
fully retained. The College Library 
received 18.7C0 volumes from the 
two great societies and 3,5CO from 
other organizations and assumed 
the library responsibilities which the 
students had so long, and on the 
whole, so well borne on their own 



shoulders. Btit the societies had 
already come to the point where 
their existence was less than nomi- 
nal. They held no regular meet- 
ings, and man}- students did not 
know to which thev had been as- 



signed 



The book 



committees 

neglected their duties. There were 
many duplicates and many books 
which were not considered worth 
preservation. These could not be 
disposed of, legally. It was neces- 
sary, therefore, to end the legal 
existence of the societies and trans- 
fer the title to their property to the 
College. This was done under the 
Act of 1903. 

Before the days when library ad- 
ministration became a trained pro- 
fession, with its own schools and 
technical literature, men and women 
who took charge of libraries had no 
preparation except such chance 
knowledge as they might have gain- 
ed througdi contact, in some way, 
with books. Often they began 
their duties without even such ex- 
perience. Among the men who 
founded the profession and carried 
it through its infancy were some 
who had been members of college 
literary societies, and had there ob- 
tained such knowledge as they had 
of libraries and library management. 
A biographical census would pro- 
bably show them to have been the 
leaders in the new movement. 
Names might be mentioned of some 
who were librarians of society 
libraries and there began their life 
work. 

One of the society men who be- 
came well known in the library 
world was Mellen Chamberlain 
(Class of 1844), a member of the 
Social Friends — a historian of re- 
pute and Librarian of the Boston 
Public Library. He has left us his 
recollections of the society libraries 
and his estimate of their value. The 
judgement of so competent a critic 
is worthy to be quoted in full : 

"Among the privileges of my col- 



THE DARTMOUTH SOCIETIES 



263 



lege days I gratefully remember 
the libraries, which yvere ample for 
our purposes. We could not,- in- 
deed, have verified Gibbon's authori- 
ties, nor have explored any subject 
exhaustive!}' in original sources. 
But the books we needed were to 
be found either in the society libra- 
ries, the college library, or that of 
the Northern Academy [of Arts 
and Sciences] ....'. .On the same 
terms [payment of fees] the college 
library was open to us. But 1 
fancy the accomplished librarian 
found his duties neither arduous 
nor largeh' remunerative. 

"In the Society libraries, however, 
wore famous browsing pastures 
stretching away from the heathery 
Grampians to the honeyed Hymet- 
tus. Free even to license, the privi- 
lege was seldom abused, and is of 
Mich value that it should be accord- 
ed, when practicable, even at the 
risk of some inconvenience. Of 
like value was that other privilege 
of carrying away to our homes, or 
to the rural districts where we 
taught school, a trunkful of litera- 
ture for the long winter evenings. 
To this day 1 hear the stage driver's 
good Matured, but highly objurga- 
tory, epithets lavished on those 
book-laden trunks, as he hoisted 
them to the rack; and the no less 
significant exclamations of the youth 
who, at the end of the route, assist- 
ed their progress to the school 
master's chamber. After a half 
century of such usage no one could 
reasonably expect to find many of 
those identical volumes on the 
shelves. Those who read them are 
gone. The past itself is gone, but 
its memories and its influences en- 
dure. I wish to pay a tribute of 
respect to those peripatetic volumes. 
1 hey did a useful work. They en- 
tered into the rural life of northern 
New England and aroused new 
thoughts and new purposes. They 
stimulated a desire for a broader 
education in some whose names 



would not otherwise have honored 
our rolls; and in others who wan- 
dered from their native hills and 
became pioneers of civilization by 
the Great Lakes and beyond the 
Mississippi. Those were days of 
toil and privation, of spare and 
homely diet, of coarse and scanty 
raiment; but they cover no incon- 
siderable portion of that period 
which measures the intellectual 
movement of our New Emgland 
society. We gratefully remember 
the good they brought us. but can- 
not wish their return. 

"At the time of which I speak, 
the libraries of the United Fraterni- 
ty and of the Social Friends aggre- 
gated about fifteen thousand 
volumes. As I recall these collec- 
tions, they 'fairly represent the 
tastes, judgements, and needs of 
those to whom they were mainly 
indebted for their existence. Each 
class, divided equally between the 
two societies, made a donation to 
their respective libraries in its 
Sophomore year. That is, in that 
year they raised the funds with 
which they purchased books. 
These books were held for special 
class use until near graduation, and 
then were given to the society 
libraries. In my own class I was 
one of the committee of the Socials 
for that business. Two of us were 
selected to go to the great city, in 
the summer vacation, and make 
purchases ; and, from memoranda 
made at the time, I know that the 
hours spent in making our selec- 
tions from the bewildering riches 
of Little & Brown's shelves were 
considered a 'hard day's work.' 
Few titles of our purchases T now 
remember: but, in history we rang- 
ed from the Chronicles of Frois- 
sart and Monstrelet to the Memoirs 
of Yidocq ; and I hope that my as- 
sociate, who still Jives, read the 
former with as much avidity as I 
devoured the latter." 



*$&% 



IN WEAKNESS STRENGTH 

By E. H. Cheney. 

When I am weak! Then am I strong! 
I can but, then, for weakness long 



&> 



The weakness that begetteth strength, 
And maketh truly strong at length. 

Strong in the strength that God supplies, 
We cannot fail of Paradise. 

The newborn baby rules the home ; 
At its command we go and come. 

It utters ne'er a word, 'tis true; 
Its very silence makes us do 
All that a newborn baby needs; 
And all the household gladly heeds. 

Where baby bids how swift we run ; 
•Indeed we count it only fun; 

Keep doing— doing ; make no fuss : 
That's what our Maker does for us! 

He, ere we ask — our Living Head, 
Gives us, each day, our daily bread. 

Ere yet we breathe our daily prayer 
Tis answered ! Such our Father's care. 

Each time a newborn babe we aid 
We prove we're in His image made. 

Were this world full of strength like this 
'T would be indeed a world of bliss. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE'S MOST FRIENDLY TREES 



By Rev. Roland D. Sawye 



No. 4 

The Elm 

In June we think first of all of 
the majestic elm, the friendly 
\vayside tree of the average 
farm home, the friendly shade tree 
of so man)- a street in the villages 
and cities. Where can we find so 
inviting a spot as some stately farm 
house, with the broad lawn now 
carpeted with the deep rich green 
grass, and over it .the wide, shelter- 
ing branches of a great old elm 
that has watched over several gen- 
erations of the inhabitants of that 
home. More scenes of love and 
domestic happiness in New Eng- 
land are associated with the elm 
than with any other tree. To us 
natives of New England, many an 
elm is sacred. Many a weary 
traveller has returned to the old 
home to rest beneath the wide pro- 
tecting arms of the old-home-elm 
and watch the nest of the hanging 
birds seventy feet above, building- 
just where they did when he was 
a boy perhaps sixty years before. 

There was a real art in the build- 
ing of the ancestors when they 
planted the elm to shelter the great 
square home beneath its branches; 
the scene it makes is rarely beauti- 
ful. 



Earlv in April the elm puts forth 
its. clusters of red life and by the 
first day in June it has readied the 
height of its beauty of foliage. 

So many insects have fastened 
themselves upon our elms that this 
beauty of foliage is the first to go, 
unless we guard against their de- 
pradations. 

The elm always speaks to me of 
hospitality, it is so inviting', and is 
so closely associated with the home 
life of New Hampshire. 

Again the very form of the tree 
is hospitable. It is shaped like a 
great protecting umbrella, its wide- 
ly spreading branches casting a 
shade of many feet. Some of our 
oldest trees are the elms, and it is 
certain that our most noted trees 
are elms. Washington took com- 
mand of the continental troops be- 
neath the elm at Cambridge ; Bos- 
ton Common has some noted elms 
which date from colonial days ; 
Hartford has its Eiberty Elm, 
where the colonists met and refus- 
ed to surrender to Gov. Andros the 
colony charter ; Ware, Mass., has 
its Lafayette elm, beneath which 
the great Frenchman rested while 
touring the country; and. Philadel- 
phia, has its Treaty elm, beneath 
which E^erm made his famous treaty 
with the indians. 



LOSS 

By Harold Vinal. 



The sea is sleeping in the rain, 
The land is sleeping in the sun 

But oh, no rest nor peace for me, 
In either rain or sun. 



Only a ceaseless overtone. 

Beating and throbbing in my brain 
The years will not bring rebt to me — 



Unless you come again. 



EDITORIAL 



. The almost absolute interdepen- 
dence of all the units in our modern 
social structure has been illustrated 
in a very striking manner in New 
England this spring by the contro- 
versy over "daylght saying." Set- 
ting the clocks ahead an hour in 
oirler to take advantage of the 
earlier rising and later setting of 
the sun seemed to work well during 
the war for increased food produc- 
tion and in other ways, but 'when it 
was proposed to continue the cus- 
tom this summer, vigorous and ap- 
parently well grounded protests 
came from so many quarters that 
the adoption of daylight sav- 
ing by the nation, or, the 
next most practicable step, by 
the people of one time zone, was 
impossible. But the great state of 
New York adopted it and so, in 
turn did the state of Massachusetts. 
These two acts made it seem neces- 
sary to the officials of the Boston 
and Maine system that they should 
accomodate their train service to 
the changed conditions ; which they 
did by retaining standard time, but 
starting almost all their trains one 
hour earlier. New Hampshire, al- 
most entirely dependent upon the 
Boston and Maine for railroad ser- 
vice, found itself thus committed 
to daylight saving willy-nilly and 
several cities and large towns pass- 
ed local ordinances setting ahead 
their clocks, while others refused to 
do this. The result was great con- 
fusion, which still exists to a some- 
what abated degree. As the result 
of complaint to the public service 
commission by agricultural inter- 
ests and school authorities, the rail- 
road restored a few trains to their 
former time, but these changes did 
not fit into the new schedule with 
entire success, and the whole situa- 



tion is annoying. But the signifi- 
cant fact, showing how closely we 
are all bound together in the life of 
today, is that an act of the New 
York Assembly can force a New 
Hampshire farmer to rise an hour 
earlier in the morning. In view of 
this directness of contact, a course 
of action becomes desirable, and. 
in the end, inevitable, which Gov- 
ernor John H. Bartlett, in comment 
upon the daylight saving situation. 
phrased well, as follows: "What 
New Hampshire and the world need 
most is earnest and unselfish effort 
to restore good feeling among our 
people, and every proposal, how- 
ever meritorious in theory, which 
tends to stir up strife, is ill advis- 
ed." The Golden Rule seems to 
have gone out of fashion, these 
days, but it must come into its own 
again before the present troubled 
waters can be made smooth. Sel- 
fishness, starting with the indivi- 
dual and displayed on a large scale 
by classes and sections, can end in 
nothing but discord and strife. 
The righteous man is told by his 
conscience that it is his duty to 
think of his neighbors as of himself. 
The wise man, righteous or un- 
righteous, knows that if he does 
this his peace and prosperity will 
be enhanced. As of the man by 
himself so of the association into 
which he is gathered. It must con- 
sider other associations, other 
bodies of men, in its every act, in 
order to achieve with true success 
the ends at which it aims. Church 
organizations, political parties, farm 
bureaus, labor unions, associations 
of manufacturers, all have equally 
powerful reasons for taking home 
this thought today, in New Hamp- 
shire, and everywhere else. 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



Ships Across thl Sea. Bv Ralph 
D. Paine, illustrated. "Pp. 347 
Cloth. $1.90. Boston: Ploughton 
Mifflin Company. 

Few writers of today in an}' lan- 
guage equal Mr. Ralph D. Paine of 
Durham. New Hampshire* in inti- 
mate, accurate knowledge of the sea 
a/id those who go down it in ships; 
! nowledge. moreover, which he is 
able to transmit to us through the 
printed page in a way that is always 
interesting, whether its medium be 
history, narrative" or fiction. The 
Chronicles of America, a 50 volume 
series from the Yale University 
Press, includes in its issues for 
1920. Mr. Pam6*s account of "The 
FigT it for the Sea." A year ago we 
were reviewing in The Granite 
Monthly his splendid piece of war 
correspondence contained in the 
book, "The Fighting Fleets." And 
now we have just finished enjoying 
"'Ships Across the Sea," a volume 
of short stories dealing with the 
naval activities of our nation in the 
Great War, full of the strenuous 
life, vivid m coloring, thrilling in 
action, leaving us stirred to the 
depths with pride at the heroic 
achievements of our sailor men. 
While- "Ships across the Sea" is 
fiction, it is so based upon what the 
author himself saw and heard and 
learned about, over across, in the 
war years, that its verity is ecpial 
to that of the most matter of fact 
log ever kept and the impression it 
makes upon the reader is absolute- 
ly truthful. It is a good book for 
supplanting pessimism and pacifism 
with proper pride and patriotism. 



Mary Marii-. Bv Eleanor II. P 



or- 



Cambridge, Mass., of Mrs. Eleanor 
Hodgman Porter, native of Little- 
ton, New Hampshire, lends sad in- 
terest to this last of her published 
works. In it she returns to the 
form of story telling in which she 
has been the most successful of 
recent writers and Mary Marie, 
"the sunbeam girl," is as pleasant- 
ly interesting a character as her 
famous predecessor, Pollyanna, "the 
glad girl." Mary Marie has differ- 
ent troubles and problems from 
those above which Pollyanna rose 
triumphant, but they are just as 
real and come just as near home in 
the hearts of a million readers. 
The key to the story is in the title, 
for "Father calls me Mary. Mother 
calls me. Marie. Everybody else 
calls me Mary Marie." You can 
see the difference between father 
and mother and understand their 
separation. Flow that separation 
affected the daughter and how 
Mary Marie brought them together 
again, in the end, with happiness 
for herself and them, forms the 
substance of the story. Mrs. Por- 
ter's host of admirers will like it 
immensely and will be glad that 
her last book was one in which 
her personality and her theory of 
life have such happy expression. 



ter. Illustrated. Pp. 296. Cloth, 
$1.90. Boston: Houghton Mifflin 
Company. 

The recent death, at her home in 



FjREweed. Bv Joslyn Gra\\ Pp- 
331. Cloth, $1.75. York: Chas. 
Scribner's Sons. 

Divorce furnishes the motive for 
another novel of the month by a 
New Hampshire writer, "Fire- 
weed," by Miss Joslyn Gray of 
Hinsdale. Miss Gray has written 
several very successful books for 
girls and in this, her first novel, she 
shows herself equally capable of 
interesting more mature readers. 
This she does more by cleverness 
of characterization than by intrica- 



268 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



cv of plot, though the development 
of the story is managed in an un- 
hackneyed way. It .starts with 
Mrs. Erica Manners, idle, selfish 
and frivolous, unsuccessfully con- 
testing a divorce suit in which the 
case against her is handled by Caleb 
Cotton, a lawyer from the West, a 
Lincoln like figure who dominates 
the book and in whose depiction 
Miss Gray is at her best. Then 
the scene changes to Europe and 
to the cast of characters is added 
the membership of a typical Ameri- 
can "excursion." party, delineated 
in a manner so true to life that one 
suspects the author of having 
transferred some personal experi- 
ences to the printed page. The 
tour is ended by the breaking out 
of the war, and Miss Gray gives a 
vivid picture of the plight in which 
American- abroad found them- 
selves. But the world at war 
brought peace to the hearts of the 
principal characters in the story and 
in their lives a new chapter began, 
typified by the fireweed, "whose 
romantic, rose-amethyst blossoms, 
appearing suddenly after midsum- 
mer and the first harvest, have cov- 
ered the charred ruins of desolate 
homesteads and glowed above the 
blackened prairies/' 



Isle o' Dreams. By Frederick 
Ferdinand Moore. Frontispiece. 
Pp. 234. Cloth, $1.50. New 
York; Doubleday, Page & Co. 

Other American tourists, much 
farther from home than Miss Gray's 
and mailing up a very different 
party, we meet in "Isle o' Dreams," 
the latest story of the Far East 
from the prolific pen of Frederick 
Ferdinand Moore, once of Enfield. 
New Hampshire, but since then of 
Manilla, and all cities and ports be- 
tween. His intimate knowledge of 
the people and place- about the 
China seas are revealed once more 
in this tale about gold that was not 



gold on the Isle o 5 Dreams, where 
death and disappointment came to 
some, and life and love to others. 
It is a lively tale of adventure un- 
der strange skies and very readable. 



The First Valley. By Mary 

Farley Sanborn. Pp. 232. Cloth, 

SI. 7 5. Boston: The Four Seas 

Company. 

It is the longest journey of all 
which one takes with Mrs. Mary 
Farley Sanborn, native of Manches- 
ter, New Hampshire, in her latest 
novel, "The First Valley." Tina. 
the heroine, has passed the "fog 
wall" and dwells in "the first 
valley," with Odo, the poet fool, 
and the Spade Man, garden philoso- 
pher. We all of us take thought, 
in one way or another, of the life 
beyond the grave. It is one of the 
results of the great war that the de- 
sire and the search for some knowl- 
edge, some proof, of that life, is 
more intense today than for many 
years. That longing, seeking ex- 
pression, has resulted in many 
books of varying merit. This of 
Mrs. Sanborn's is beautiful in its 
simplicity, comforting in its creed, 
hopeful in its essence. 



Peter Kindred. By Robert Na- 
than. Pp. 362. Cloth $2. New 
York: Duffield & Co. 
Mrs. Sanborn's gentle phlosophy 
would not have been sufficient for 
Peter Kindred when they brought 
him the news that his child was 
dead and he cried, "I will go and 
find God." "But," continues Mr. 
Nathan, "all men go to find Him, 
the armies of their faith thunder- 
ing before them ; on every field 
their faith is challenged and con- 
fused, and on every field they search 
with out flung arms to come to 
grips with God." This story of 
such a search is a very promising 
first novel, with new types of 
characters cleverly drawn and the 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 269 

striving" of youth to find itself de- "'Flic town, in autumn," he writes, 

picted with power •and understand- "rambling in a slight valley, among 

ing. The birth control issue is oh- forests, is as lovely a spot as in all 

trude'd rather unnecessarily into the New England: It is on the fron- 

latter part of the narrative, which tier of the north, and lies beneath a 

does not, in fact, measure up in deeper sky than even Boston, in a 

achievement to the earlier chapters clearer air. Fires of gathered 

of life at Harvard and RadeliiTe. brown leaves tang through Octo- 

The New Hampshire connection of ber ; the air grows colder and 

the book comes .in the fact that the brighter, and vital with sunlight, 

hero fits for college at Phillips Exe- like some delicate and potent vin- 

ter Academy, to which he devotes tage." 
a score of appreciative pages. 



THOUGHTS 

By Mary II. Wheeler, 

What are 

Playing the wool about long needle tips. 
Not of your work was that thought I am sure 

That brought the half smile, to your opening lips. 

Thoughts are like birds that go flitting at will 

Into the future and over the past. 
Flocks of them follow, all breathlessly still, 

One leading thought and they go very fast. 

Thoughts are like ships that go out on the seas, 
Argosies, brigantines, schooners in fleets. 

Shaping their course to a hint of a breeze, 

Scudding and racing with wind in their sheets. 

What are your thoughts. Love? That smile is so dear 
My heart is longing its secret to know. 

Whisper it softly, Love, close to my ear. 

What is the thought that is pleasing you so? 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



JUDGE WILLIAM B. FELLOWS 

William Bainbridge Fellows. one oi 
New Hampshire's best known public men, 
was born in Sandwich, July 5. 1858, the 
son of Colonel Enoch Q. and Mary E. 
(Quimb'y) Fellows, and died at his home 
in Tiltoti Sunday, May 2. He graduated 
from Tilton Seminary in the class of 
1876, and from Dartmouth College in the 
class of 1880. At Hanover he was a 
member of the Delia Kappa Epsilon fra- 
ternity. Following his college course, he 
studied law with the late Hon. E. A. 
Hibbard of Laeonia and was admitted to 
the New Hampshire bar in September, 
1883. In 1885 he removed from Ashland 
to Tilton and was a useful and public- 
spirited citizen oi the latter town until 
his death. Entering public life as ser- 
geant-at-arms of the New Hampshire 
Stare Senate at the session of 1881, he was 
subsequently private secretary to United 
States Senators Austin F. Pike and Person 
C. Cheney, and during tins service was 
clerk of the Senate Committee on Claims. 
Mr. Fellows was solicitor of Belknap 
county 1839 to 1891 and 1893 to 1S97, and 
gained the title by which he generally was 
addressed from service as probate judge 
of the same county from 1895 to 1909. 
From 1901 to 19*1*8 he was secretary of the 
state board of equalization, and in the 
latter year was a member of the special 
state tax commission. He held the office 
of state auditor. 1909 to 1911. and in 1911 
assumed the position of member and 
secretary of the New Hampshire tax 
commission which he held at the time of 
his death. With his accustomed industry, 
application and thoroughness. Judge 
Fellows had made such a study of the 
subject of taxation in both its general and 
local applications as to become a recog- 
nized authority upon all its aspects, and 
by his death the state sustains a severe 
loss in this department of its govern- 
mental administration. He was a dele- 
gate from the town of Tilton to the 
constitutional conventions of 1902 and 
1912, and in the latter body introduced 
and championed several important reso- 
lutions dealing with matters of taxation. 
Judge Fellows was treasurer of the town 
of Tilton in 1902 and 1906. and at the 
time of his death had been a trustee of 
Tilton Seminary since 1896, of the Tilton 
and Northfield Library Association since 
1887, and of the Hail Memorial Library 
Building since 1901. One of the best read 
men in public Hie, a keen and cultured 
critic of literature, he saw the possibili- 



ties for good in our free public library 
system and did much to realize them in 
his own sphere of influence. The history 
and biography of New Hampshire were 
subject- in which he took much interest, 
and the Granite Monthly long had found 
in him a helpful friend and supporter. 
Judge Fellows married November 1, 1881. 
Ida Grace Scribner of Ashland, who died 
in 1908. Their two sons are John H. 
Fellows of New Britain, Ct., and Paul R. 
Fellows of Evanston, 111. August 24, 
1909. he married Miss Clara Douglas 
Merriman, then preceptress of Tilton 
Seminary, by whom he is survived. The 
attendance at the funeral services of 
Judge Fellows, held in the Congregation- 
al church at Tilton on Thursday, May 6. 
testified to the affection and esteem with 
which he was widely regarded. By order 
of Governor John II. Bartlett. the state 
house at Concord was closed during the 
hours of the funeral, which was attended 
by as many as possible of the heads of 
state departments. Sincerely devoted to 
the best interests of his native state. 
Judge Fellows was privileged to render 
he r long and valuable service. A good 
friend, keen observer, and witty conver- 
sationalist, his death brought a painful 
shock of personal loss to the wide circle 
of those who had known, appreciated and 
loved him. 



CHARLES A. WALKER 

Charles Alvah Walker who died Sunday. 
April 11th. at his home, Brookline, Mass., 
was born in Loudon, October 13, 1848. the 
son of Dr. Charles H. Walker and Julia 
P. Morse. Fie moved to Chelsea Mass., 
in 1859 and was a graduate from the 
Chelsea High School. He developed a 
talent for both wood and steel engraving 
and the latter became his profession for 
many years. From engraving Mr. Walker 
gradually turned his attention towards 
painting and his works in water color and 
oils were regularly exhibited throughout 
the country until about ten years ago. 
He was interested in art affairs at the 
Boston Art Club, where he was vice- 
president for two years. Mr. W'alker 
was responsible for bringing to public at- 
tention and perfecting the monotype pro- 
cess of individual reproductive art and 
exhibits of the same were held in Boston. 
New York and London, where they attract- 
ed wide interest. For the past fifteen 
vears he 'has been a collector and dealer 



NECROLOGY 



271 



in works of art by the master painters 
and was responsible for .the collections <»f 
several prominent men. He is survived 
by his wife, who was Mary Elizabeth Mit- 
chell of Campton ; one daughter, Mrs. 
Horace P. Wood of Brookline, and a son, 
M. Leon Walker of Boston. 



sistant clerk of the New Hampshire 
House of Representatives. While serv- 
ing as secretary to Congressman S.ullo- 
way's successor. Hon. Sherman E. Bur- 
roughts. Mr. Topping's health gave way 
and he has been incapacitated for work 
for some time. Death came to him on 
Thursday, May 20. 



WILLIAM H. TOPPING 

William Harold Topping, prominent in 
New Hampshire journalism and politics 
for 30 year's, was born in Waveriy, N. 
V., November 26, 1865. the son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry Topping, and learned the 
printer's trade in the office of the Waver- 
iy Advocate. Later he was connected 
with the Bayonne. N. L, Herald as re- 
porter, and in 1890 came to New Hamp- 
shire for employment on the Hillsborough 
Messenger. He was connected with the 
New Hampshire Republican, of Nashua, 
during its short life, and afterwards for 
many years worked on the Manchester 
Union and Mirror, becoming known as 
one of the brightest and most entertaining 
writers in the state, his legislative corres- 
pondence being particularly famous. 
Through his newspaper work he became 
interested in politics and was secretary to 
Congressman Cyrus A. Sulloway during 
most of that gentleman's long service at 
Washington. In 1899 and 1901 he was as- 



MRS. ELEANOR H. PORTER 

Mrs. Eleanor Hodgman Porter, the 
most popular author of New Hampshire 
nativity, died at her home in Cambridge, 
Mass., May 21. She was born in Little- 
ton, December 19, 1868, the daughter of 
Erancis Fletcher and Llella (Woolson) 
Hodgman, and was educated in the public 
schools, by private teachers and at the 
New England Conservatory of Music. 
May 3, 1892, she married John Lyman 
Porter of Corinth, Vt., who survives her. 
Mrs. Porter was for some years a choir 
and concert singer and teacher of music, 
but in 1901 turned her attention to writ- 
ing. She was the author of a dozen 
novels and several hundred short stories. 
"Cross Currents" was her first book; 
"Pollyanna," her most famous ; and "Mary 
Marie," her most recently published ; al- 
though "Sister Sue" was complete at her 
death and will be published in the fall. 



PUBLISHER'S NOTES 

The beautiful illustration accom- initial issue Mrs. Keyes eontribut- 
panying the article on doorways by ed a book review and sympathetic 
Air. George W. Jennings in the character sketch, "Our Doctor." 
May Granite Monthly, was a picture In spite of the social and other de- 
of the entrance to the home of Air. mauds upon her. in Washington, as 
Jennings' great-grandfather at Dur- the wife of the Junior United States 
ham, Xew Hampshire. General Senator from New Hampshire. 
John Sullivan was the friend and Airs. Keyes contrives to make time 
neighbor of Mr. Jennings' ancestor for her writing and has published 
in this historic town and they built ' recently in the D. A. R. Magazine. 
homes there at the same time, in an historical article about one of 
1785. The May number of The the homes of her ancestor, "Master" 
House Beautiful (Boston) contain-'" Parkinson, and in the Atlantic an 
ed an illustrated article by Mr. essay, "On the Fence," as to suff- 
Jennings on "oriental vases, which rage, which has caused much corn- 
was most interesting. ment and discussion. 



Airs. Frances Parkinson , Keyes, ■• For the July number of The 

whose return to our pages this Granite Monthly, Air. George B. 

month, will be welcomed by every Upham has prepared an article, "A 

reader of The Granite Monthly, is Barrier against the Indians,'' which 

one of the editorial staff of The is a valuable addition to his series 

Pen woman, of which the first num- of historical papers and which will 

ber was issued at*- Washington, D. be illustrated by. a reproduction of 

C., last month ,and which will be one of his "finds" in the way of 

published quarterly by the League maps, this one from a London 

of American Penwomen. To the magazine of 1757. 



ANARCHISM 

Bv Albert Annett. 



Rats undermined the wall, 

And while men slept 

The floods that basined in the hills, smiled at the day, 

Crept in by stealth and tore their bounds away : 

And onward swept 

Where busy towns in tranquil beauty kept 

The peace ; and with the power of many waters pent 

Homes were engulfed and hills in twain were rent. 

Steeple and tower 

Fell toppling down, and in a breath 

When happiness had dwelt, were devastation, woe and 

death, 
And these few words were written of the fall: 
While watchman slept 
Rats undermined the wall. 



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The late David D. Taylor. 



THE GRANITE MOI 




,11. 



JULY. 1920. 



No. 7 



DAVID D. TAYLOR 

By II. H. Metcalf. 



The good old town of Sanbornton, 
in the early days Ot the last century, 
ranked as the third town in the 
state, in point of population, Lon- 
donderry and Gilmanton only ex- 
ceeding it in that respect. The 
town has always been noted for the 
beautv of its scenery, the excellence 
of its agriculture, and the sturdy 
character and marked intelligence 
of its people. 

Among the leading families of 
the town for several generations 
have been the Taylors, descendants 
of Nathan Taylor, born in the town 
of Stratham in 1696, who settled in 
Sanbornton, late in life in 1773 with 
his son, Jonathan, at which time 
there were only about forty families 
in town. The descendants of 
Jonathan were numerous, and their 
families large, and the name became 
prominent in the history of the 
town. 

More men named Taylor have 
represented Sanbornton in the State 
Legislature than of any other name, 
and two have sat in the State Sen- 
ate, one of whom also served in 
the Governor's Council and as a 
presidential elector. This latter 
was' Nathan Taylor 2nd, a son of 
Jonathan 1st, who was prominent 
in the state militia, serving as divi- 
sion inspector with the rank of 
brigade major, and who command- 
ed what was known as the "Ring- 
bone Company." composed of most- 
ly Revolutionary soldiers, of whom 
he was one, having served at Ticon- 
deroga, where he was badly wound- 
ed in an Indian ambush, while com- 
manding a scouting party, and in 
several later campaigns. Another 



Taylor — Chase, son. of Nathan 1st — ■ 
also did valiant service in the 
Revolution, commanding a com- 
pany raised by himself, from' San- 
bornton and neighboring towns. 
With this, he arrived at Benning- 
ton the evening before the battle, 
took a conspicuous part in that im- 
portant engagement and was 
wounded in the battle. 

Jonathan S. Taylor, a descendant 
in the fourth generation from 
Nathan 1st, and a son of Jonathan 
3rd, who also served in the Revolu- 
tion and the war of 1812, was an 
intelligent and successful farmer, 
who enjoyed the confidence and re- 
spect of his townsmen, and twice 
represented them in the legislature. 
He married Sarah Rogers and 
had several daughters and one son, 
the latter being the youngest of the 
family, with whose life it is the 
purpose of this sketch, primarily, to 
deal. 

David Daniel Taylor was born 
in Sanbornton, October 20, 1849. 
His middle name was given in 
honor of an uncle, Daniel Taylor of 
the wholesale firm of Taylor and 
Waldron, crockery dealers, Broad 
and Milk Streets, Boston, who was 
also an extensive ship owner, and 
prominent in the business affairs of 
the city. While attending the dis- 
trict school and the academies at 
New Hampton and Tilton, in his 
youth, he was employed more or 
less, on his father's farm, and took 
no little interest in agriculture, 
particularly in stock raising, being 
especially fond of horses. In 1869, 
at the age of twenty years, he left 
home, came to Concord and entered 



276 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

the employ of & orris and Crockett. In politics Mr.. Taylor was an un- 
wholesafe and retail bakers and compromising Democrat, standing" 
confectioners, m connection with by the principles of Jefferson and 
wliici. business he continued Jackson, "without variableness or 
through lite. lie commenced with shadow of turning/' He was a 
a determination to make himself Democrat from conviction, and re- 
useful to his employers; devoted mained true to his part)', whether 
himSeH thoroughly,. to the business; in victory or defeat, through devo- 
mastered all its details, and came to tion to its principles whose triumph 
be relied upon by the firm for his he believed to be essential to the 
sound judgment and accurate welfare of the people. He never 
knowledge. Upon the death of sought office, and often avoided it. 
George W. Crockett, the junior refusing to become a candidate for 
member, in 1886. he became a mem- various positions which he might 
ber of the firm, although the busi- have attained had he allowed the 
ness continued under the old name. use of his name. At one time — in 
After the death of Mr. Norris the 1890 — when he was assured that 
business was "incorporated as the his candidacy would materially 
Xorris Baking Company, Mr. Tay- strengthen his party's • ticket in 
lor being the principal stockholder the county, he reluctantly consent- 
and becoming treasurer and mana- ed to run for the office of County 
ger. in which position he continued Commissioner, and was elected 
until his death on Monday night, along with two other Democrats. 
May 17, 1920, after a long and pain- one of whom was his long* time 
ful illness, in which he bore his friend and, later, near neighbor., 



&' 



suffering with heroic fortitude to the Hon. Jeremiah A. CTough, whose 

end. death preceded his by about a year. 

As has been said. Mr, Taylor was To this office he was re-elected, 

interested in agriculture in youth, serving four years in all. from 1891 

and so continued for many years. to 18 () 5. 

looking after the old home farm in Again, in 1900. he yielded to earn- 
SanbornLon, for some time after his est persuasion, and was named as a 
father's decease, where he raised candidate for Representative from 
some fine stock, this being a diver- Ward Six, normally Republican by 
sion from the cares of business life about ICO majority, but which gave 
in Concord. It was this youthful him a majority of 41 votes. Enter- 
interest that led him in later life to ing the legislature of 1901, he was 
engage for a time in sheep raising assigned by Speaker Cyrus II. 
in Wyoming", as a member and Little to service on the Judiciary 
president of the Pass Creek Ranch Committee— the most important in 
Company of that state, in which he the House — of which A. T. Batchel- 
was associated with the late Dr. E. der of Keene was chairman, and 
H. Foster of Concord. His sound several other equally able lawyers 
judgment in business affairs led to were members. This assignment 
his election as a director of the was marie partly because of the 
First National Bank of Concord, dearth of Democratic lawyers in the 
which position he held for nearly a House membership, but none the 
score of years before his death, and less because of the sound judgment 
to his election, also, as President of and recognized ability of Mr. Tay- 
the Union Trust Company, former- lor himself. It may be noted that 
ly the Union Guaranty Savings two other laymen, the late William 
Bank. F. Whitchcr'of Haverhill and Fred- 



DAVID D, TAYLOR 



:// 



crick E. Small of Rochester were 
members of this committee, and it 
is safe to say that the three laymen 
had as much influence in shaping 
the work of the committee, as any 
three of the eminent lawyers in the 
body. 

Mr. Taylor was frequently urged 
to accept a nomination for Mayor 
and for State Senator, the feeling 
being that he could readily be elect- 
ed to either office, despite the decid- 
ed Republican majority; but he al- 
ways firmly declined, not from fear 
of defeat, but rather, as he some- 
times said, from fear of election, 
and his decided aversion to publici- 
ty, lie has served, however, for 
many years, since 1898, as a member 
of the Board of U. S. Jury Commis- 
sioners for New Hampshire. 

No man in Concord or in Merri- 
mack Count}' had a better knowl- 
edge of men, or a sounder judgment 
in matters political and his counsel 
and advice were more generally 
sought by his party, in his ward 
and city than that of any other; yet 
his modest, unassuming manner. 
gave no token of his real influence. 
For many years, up to the time of 
his death, he was a member of the 
Democratic State Committee, and 
in that capacity, quietly but ef- 



fectively, served the interests of his 
party. 

Fraternally Mr. Taylor was 
affiliated with the 1. O. O. F., being 
a member of White Mountain lodge. 
and Penacook Encampment of 
Concord. Though not a church 
member, he was, as. long as health 
permitted, a regular attendant upon 
and supporter of the services of the 
South Congregational Church. 

June 13, 1878, Mr. Taylor was 
united in marriage with Minnetta 
F. Cheney of Concord, ■ who died 
March 12, 1901. Their son and only 
child, Dr. Fred B. Taylor, born 
November 16, 1881, a graduate of 
Tufts Medical College, class of 
1909, survives. Pie was the physi- 
cian at the New Hampshire State 
Prison under the administration of 
Governor Felker, 1913-15. 

Quiet, unassuming, reserved and 
unostentative though he was, avoid- 
ing publicity and the "limelight." 
few men have exercised a stronger 
or better influence in the communi- 
ty in which they have lived than 
did David Daniel Taylor in the city 
of Concord, whose people sincerely 
regret his departure and will long 
cherish the memory of his modest 
worth and kindly, helpful spirit. 



YE BUMBLEBEE 

By Albert Annctt. 

Behold ye bigge, bolde Bumblebee ! 

How grande he rumbles by ! 
He seems to jar ye atmosphere, 

To hyde ye clovers try ; 
And everything is filled with feare 

Suche majestie to see; 
Creation seems to stand in awe 

Of ye bigge Bumblebee. 



THE DAGUERREOTYPE PERIOD 



By George Wilson Jennings. 



The daguerreotype age is an in- 
teresting subject of study at all 
times, not only to those who delight 
in the antique, but to every person 
who is fortunate enough to possess 
one or more of these unique pictures 
of his ancestors. Each picture por- 
trays simplicity, and quiet dress, 
we'll made, and of the most sub- 
stantial material that could be pro- 
cured. Those who had their 
pictures taken never donned their 



est types in this art. Here we also 
illustrate what was called in the 
early days a "group picture," and 
which represents a New England 
beau of 1835 with two lassies who 
resided in Boston, Mass. 

The finest portrait the writer has 
ever seen, adorns the living room of 
a colonial home in Durham, New 
Hampshire. This portrait was cop- 
ied from a daguerreotype taken of 
this New England woman in 1835. 



. . ..... . _. • . ''J&ai^i:..*..: 



best attire. They wished to as- 
sume a natural pose and not to be 
seemingly "sitting" for a picture. 

One picture here represented is 
of a girl of twenty wdiose face bears 
an expression which resembles a 
Madonna. This picture was taken 
by Brady in the early forties, when 
he was located at the corner of 
Broadway and Fulton Street, New 
York City. This has been consider- 
ed his best work and has been cop- 
ied by many artists as one of the fin- 



In attire severely plain, the picture 
shows the sheen of the silken gown, 
a 'kerchief folded about the neck, 
with a lace cap crowning a wealth 
of raven hair. This painting one 
could never forget. Today that 
serene and thoughtful face looks 
down from the picture on her great 
grandchildren, the heirloom being 
prized as one of the most treasured 
possessions in their family. 

The severe and studious face here 
shown is that of Ezekiel Webster, 



THE DAGUERREOTYPE PERIOD 



279 



~r-.ru 



280 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



(brother pi Daniel Webster), a por- 
trait of him which has never before 
been published. If was during- a 
sojourn of Mr. Webster's in France 
in 1837 that he had this picture tak- 
en by Daguerre. Years later it was 
presented to the writer's maternal 
great grandparent, a friend of Mr. 
Webster's. 



Frenchman, who gave to the world 
the result of these researches, and 
today we. have come to consider 
Daguerre as the real father of 
photography. Hence the name 
daguerreotype. This process was 
perfected in the year 1830, after 
main" years of experimenting, and 
held sway in England, France, and 




More than a century has passed 
since the first experiment that 
amounted to any value was made 
in trying to reproduce the image of 
an object, mechanically, by means 
of ray light. The most serious ob- 
jections to it were the cost of the 
plates, which was excessive, and the 
impracticability of multiplying the 
reproductions, owing to the opacity 
of the plates. It was Daguerre, a 



America for more than sixteen 
years. 

This remarkable work of art, the 
daguerreotype, is thus a link be- 
tween the past and the present and. 
brings to us a glimpse into days of 
long ago, which were days of con- 
tentment and where, the traditional 
"simple life" was lived in tran- 
quility and in the true meaimg of 
happiness. 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



B\ John Kimball Chase 



CHAPTER IV. 
HADES 

At the close of the second chapi- 
ter, Washington and the Sagamore 
stood on the white sand at the end 
of the broken trail. Washington's 
keen eyes inspected the white sand. 
He discovered a little mark in the 
sand about half way to the brook. 
This brook was too far away for any 
man to reach it by a jump from 
w lie re the trail ended. 

Washington went to this brook. 
He walked down the stream and 
the banks closely. He found no 
clue. 

He turned and went up the brook. 
Finally he held up a pole, with an 
e x c 1 a m a t i o n o f t r i u m p h . 

"I have found it," he said. 

It was clear the Sagamore did 
not understand the pole. 

"I forgot that vaulting is not an 
Indian accomplishment," said 
Washington, with a laugh. "I will 
show my red brother." 

Washington was a skilled athlete. 
He stood at the end- of the broken 
trail, placed the end of the pole in 
the sand by the side of the mark 
and vaulted, or swung himself by 
the aid of the pole, easily into the 
brook. 

"It is a new way to break a trail," 
he said with a laugh. "But you 
see it can be done easily." 

"How did he do it with a baby 
in his arms?" asked the still puzzled 
Sagamore. 

"He unbuttoned the head of the 
wolf's skin and tipped it back," re- 
plied Washington.. "This made a 
soft, warm pocket for the baby and 
left his hands free." 

"We are not following an In- 
dian," said the Sagamore. 

"A white man took the baby," 
said Washington. 



Washington stood on a stone in 
the middle of the brook and said: 
"Up stream or down stream, which 
way did the wolf man go?" 

Without hesitation, the Saga- 
more answered : "The wolf man is 
very cunning. He placed the pole 
up the stream and said : 'They will 
say I tried to fool them and go 
down stream after me. So I will 
go up stream.' We will go up 
stream too." 

"Good," said Washington. 

They went up the brook quite a 
distance. They inspected the banks 
carefully. They saw no trace of 
the wolf man. Had they taken the 
wrong direction? 

They went on up the brook, into 
a strange, picturesque pass, or can- 
yon. This is now called the Flume. 

"This is a queer place," said the 
Sagamore. "The Evil Spirit lurks 
in the dark places among Lhe great 
rocks." 

"It is very uncanny," said Wash- 
ington. "I do not understand why 
the wolf man came into this weird 
pass with the baby." 

A few minutes later, Washing- 
ton said : "There's a path. But it 
does not look like the trail of the 
wolf man." 

"The path, was made by a Pale- 
face." said the Sagamore. 

"There are no wolf tracks on it. 
It is a path from a Paleface camp 
to the brook for water. We have 
lost the trail of the wolf man again." 

The young men followed the mys- 
terious path until they came in sight 
of a strange habitation in one of 
the most desolate places in the 
world. 

"This is surely the home of the 
Evil Spirit," said the Sagamore, 
with a superstitious shudder. 

A rude hut of logs, the hurried 
work of a few hours, had been built 



282 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



at the base of a singular cliff. The 
upper part of this great rock project- 
ed over the log house and sheltered 
it from mountain storms and blasts. 

In some prehistoric epoch, a tre- 
mendous convulsion of nature Had 
riven the heart of this great moun- 
tain and opened it to the inspection 
of man. This great wound was jag- 
ged and torn. In some places the 
rough rocks we're twisted into fan- 
tastic forms, as if still writhing in 
the great agony of that tremendous 
convulsion. 

The bottom and sides were ragged 
and torn rock, m the mourning color 
of dust and ashes. In a few places 
on the bottom, a scant soil had gath- 
ered and produced dust colored 
mosses and funeral ferns. In the 
scattering hollows of the crags were 
stunted black birches, mourning 
pines and weeping willows. 

These dwarfed trees were bent, 
twisted and gnarled into unnatural 
and distorted shapes by the mighty 
blasts and storms of the herce White 
mountain winters. 

Over dust and ash colored rocks, 
the mourning waters dripped, trick- 
led and flowed, as dark as the river 
of Death. These waters gurgled, 
groaned and murmured, like the 
ghosts of murdered men. 

The human mind cannot picture 
a more desolate scene. In the apt 
words of the Bible, it was "The very 
abomination of desolation." 

What human being could have 
made a home in this hades of deso- 
lation? What unutterable crime had 
driven him from kindred and friends 
into a situation more helpless and 
dreadful than any scene in Dante's 
Inferno? 

With the silence of cloud shadows, 
Washington and the Sagamore glid- 
ed along the path to this strange 
habitation. They peered into this 
house of mystery. 

They saw a man whose appear- 
ance was so peculiar that it sent a 



chill to the marrow of their bones. 
This man held the abducted baby in 
his arms. 

Had Washington and the Saga- 
more trailed the Evil Spirit of the 
White mountains to his strange 
habitation in the desolate heart of 
the Flume? 

CHAPTER V. 
MURDER OR MIRACLE? 

Washington touched the Saga- 
more's arm and whispered, "Follow 
me." Pie led the way to a large 
bowlder. They sat down on a stone 
behind it. 

"We need not be very careful," 
said Washington. "This man is a 
fool. 

"He will not hurt the baby. He 
is the most innocent and harmless 
man in the world. 

"I want to tell you about him. 
You must know his story before we 
make our next move. 

"This man is Joseph C. Smith. 
He came from England. His father 
was gardener for the Duke of York. 

"Joseph married a maiden above 
him in social rank. This caused so 
much trouble that he emigrated. 

'"Mr. and Mrs. Smith came to 
Franconia. He bought a small farm- 

"This young couple loved each 
other very much. 'God is Love.' 
Love is happiness. 

"They were very happy. They 
worked together, in the held and in 
the house. They prospered. 

"The prattle and laughter of 
merry children was heard in the 
beautiful gardens around their hap- 
py home." 

"One night the buildings burned.- 
Some of the settlers saw the glare 
and hurried to the scene. 

"They found the bodies of the 
mother and five children. The fath- 
er's skull was broken badly, but he 
was not dead. 

"They carried the father to Uncle 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERV 



283 



johnathan's house and buried the six 
bodies. 

"In the morning", they followed 
the trail of the Indians, from the 
ruins toward the north for several 
miles. They were St. Francis In- 
dians. 



"Smith recovered. 



II 



had no 

memory of the past. His reason 
was gone entirely. 

"At the request of other settlers. 
Uncle Johnathan took charge of 
Smith's farm and provided for him. 

"One day Smith slipped away. 
Uncle Johnathan tracked him to the 
Flume and led him back, kindly. 

'"Smith went to the same place in 
the Flume several times. Then the 
settlers built this hut for him. He 
will not stay any where else. 

"Alan- has helped him more than 
any other person. Her faithful care 
saved his life. She carried food to 
him and made clothes for him. 

"It touched my heart, to see this 
beautiful gifted girl carry a heavy 
basket of cooked food through the 
dangerous wilderness to this unfor- 
tunate man. When 1 am here, I go 
with her and help her all 1 can." 

"I have carefully examined the old 
wound on Smith's head. A strong 
blow with a tomahawk has broken 
the skull and driven a piece of bone 
into the brain. 

"I have known other cases like 
this. To instance, John Munro, one 
of our neighbor's, in Virginia, had a 
similar wound. His reason was re- 
stored by an operation. 

"I have grave doubts in Smith's 
case whether an operation would be 
advisable at present. If his reason 
should be restored, he would remem- 
ber the fearful fate of the wife and 
children he loved so much. His sor- 
row might be greater than he could 
bear. It might wake him from quiet 
sleep and place him in the worst tor- 
tures of Hades. Was there ever 
such a dilemma ?" 

The Sagamore listened to this 
strange story with great interest. 



After a period of deep thought he 
said : 

"When father was Sagamore, a 
Paleface came to our village. He 
told father, there was a visitor at 
Smith's farm with money enough to 
make all our tribe rich. 

"Father disguised some of his 
worst warriors as St. Francis In- 
dians. They made a long trail tow- 
ards the north. 

"Father did not mean to hurt the 
white folks. He only meant to take 
the big money. But things did not 
go right and he could not control the 
bad warriors." 

"Red Brother, you are honest," 
said Washington. "I think- more 
highly of you for this frank confes- 
sion. You are not to blame for 
what your father did." 

"Did Smith steal the baby?" asked 
the Sagamore, changing the subject. 

"No", replied Washington. "This 
slow, groping imbecile is very dif- 
ferent from the strong, swift, crafty 
wolf man. He must have found the 
baby in the forest. 

"It is no use to ask him about it. 
It is very hard to ma.;e him under- 
stand anything. He can not talk 
in a connected way. 

"He has great affection for Mary. 
But it is not the love of a normal 
mind. It it more like the affection 
of an animal for a person who has 
been very kind. 

"I will try to use this affection to 
induce him to carry the baby home. 
Now we will go into the hut." 

They entered the strange habita- 
tion in the heart of the desolate 
Flume. There were two rooms, 
with comfortable furniture. The 
comfort and cleanness showed 
Mary's kind care. 

A strange looking man sat in a 
rocking chair and held a sleeping ba- 
by in his arms very tenderly. ' He 
rocked slowly, with a soothing 
sound. He did not hear the mocas- 
ined feet of his visitors. 

Washington touched the man's 



2PA THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

shoulder. Ke looked up slowly. While Smith ate. Washington 

There was no intelligence of recog- touched the Sagamore's arm and 

nition in h:^ dull, inane eyes. led the way from the house. When 

Washington touched his shoulder they were out of hearing he explain- 
again and said in a slow, distinct eel : 

voice: "The baby is Mary's brother. "I caught a look in Smith's eves 

Mary cries for her brother. Take that startled me. 1 remembered 

the baby home. Then Mary will what Mary -had told me, that he 

laugh with joy." was often absent. 1 want to watch 

Washington repeated these words him." 

twice. The imbecile was indeed They took a position behind 

very slow to comprehend. Then, bushes at the edge of the woods. 

by a great effort, he replied, with From this concealed position, they 

one word, "'Mary." could watch the farmhouse and its 

Strange and startling were the surroundings. 

tones of his voice. He was like a Present]}', the imbecile farmer 

sleeping person, who, by a power- shambled slowly from the house. 

ful effort, speaks with an unnatural He groped in a slow uncertain way, 

voice. :--.-. - like a man in a thick fog. 

The Sagamore felt a thrill of The writer has been in the same 
superstitious horror. His mind condition. 1 felt my brain move, 
was filled with thoughts of the fear- turn, writhe inside of my head, 
ful murders at the Smith farm. All things around me moved, turn- 
To his excited mind, it seemed as ed, changed into bewildering chaos. 
though a dead man had spoken. As Washington watched this 

The Sagamore remembered what most unfortunate imbecile, his kind 

Washington had told him, that heart overflowed with deep pity. 

Smith's condition was like a dead "Oh my God. what shall I dor* he 

mind in a living body. exclaimed. "Shall I free this long 

The imbecile rose to a standing imprisoned mind?" 
position, so slowly and carefully The imbecile shambled into a 
that he did not wake the sleeping dell. When he was at the bottom, 
baby. He moved slowly toward they could not see him. 
the door, dragging his feet, as if A moment or two later, a strang- 
les mind did not have the power to er came from this dell. His move- 
control his limbs. ments indicated great strength and 

"It would take him a long time activity. His face expressed stern 

to grope his way to the Chase determination. In his right hand, 

farm," said .Washington, to the lie. held a sharp knife. 

Sagamore. "So I will go ahead. He strode toward the forest, 

'He will follow me. You may fol- swiftly. 

low him and see that everything is Involuntarily the young watchers 

all right.'.' shrank into the bushes. The 

They reached the Chase farm- stranger's glowing eyes seemed to 

house, without any noteworthy" in- penetrate the thickets, to read the 

cident. The imbecile laid the secrets of the woods, 

baby in its cradle as tenderly as a When the stranger had passed, 

loving mother.' Washington said, thoughtfully: 

: The safe return of the baby gave "That was a fearful man. He made 

Mrs. Chase great joy. She thank- me think of these words in the 

ed.and praised the imbecile and Bible; 'Behold, he goeth forth in 

gave him the best food in the farm- his strength to avenge- the blood of 

house. the innocent.' " 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTER 1 



'.6d 



"We have seen the Evil Spirit, 
without any disguise/' said the 
Sagamore, with a shudder. "In the 
dell, we shall find Smith's body, 

will) the fearful death mark on his 
forehead." 

They ran to the dell. They did 
not find Smith's body. 

"The Evil Spirit has hidden the 
body," said the Sagamore. 

"We will follow the Evil Spirit," 
said Washington. 

"We can not follow him." replied 
the Sagamore. "We shall lose the 
trail, as we have lost it so many 
« times before." 

Presently, they 'did lose the trail. 

"The avenger's trail went straight 
toward the Flume." said Washing- 
ton. "We will go there." 

They hurried to the strange habi- 
tation in the heart of the desolate 
Flume. They found nothing sus- 
picious. 

When they came out, Washing- 
ton stood still and said: "I think I 
can smell a very faint odor of burn- 
ing charcoal." 

"I think I saw a faint smoke come 
over the top of the cliff," replied 
the Sagamore. 

Washington looked at the over- 
hanging and inaccessible cliff and 
suggested : "There may be hunters 
on the other side." 

"There is no other side," replied 
the Sagamore. 

These young men stood on the 
threshold of the mystery of the 
mountains. They had seen the key 
that would open the wonderful 
door. But they did not know it. 
The time to disclose had not yet 
come. 

The writer is a very old man. 
With every added year, I see more 
clearly that the hidden hand of God 
controls the destines of men. The 
greatest armies of the world, the 
grandest powers of men disinte- 
gate and, like the baseless fabric of 
a summer's dream, leave naught 
but memory.'' 



In his good time, the heart of this 
great mountain shall be opened 
and all its strange secrets shall be- 
come as clear as the noon day sun. 

CHAPTER VI. 

"WHITE BROTHER AND RED 
BROTHER AND BLACK BROTHER" 

In the bright morning of another 
day, Washington and the Sagamore 
strode swiftly through the great 
green woods. They were on their 
way to the Indian village of Pe- 
quaket, now Conway. 

As they walked, the Sagamore 
said: "White Brother, 1 will tell you 
about our Black Medicine Man. 
lie has great influence with our 
tribe. He may cause a change in 
our plans." 

Washington looked at his red 
brother in a surprised way. But 
lie did not speak his thoughts. 

Who was this Black Medicine 
Man? Why was he more powerful 
than the Sagamore? How had lie 
become the real ruler of the White 
M o u n tain 1 n d ians ? 

"In the. reign 'of my father, a 
black man came to our village," 
continued the Sagamore. "I never 
saw any other man like him. He 
was not white like a Paleface, or 
red like an Indian, but black" like 
the sky in a storm. He did not 
have hair on his head, but he had 
wool like the black sheep of the 
Palefaces/' 

"Perhaps he was painted and dis- 
guised," suggested Washington. 

"My father was wise," replied the 
Sagamore. "He looked at the trail 
of the black man. He did not walk 
with his feet turned out like a 
Paleface, or turned in like an In- 
dian, but with his feet straight. 
He was not like any other man." 

"Where I live, there are many 
people with black skins and wooly 
hair," said Washington. "They 
walk with their feet straight. We 
call them negroes." 



2S6 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



"Tli is Black Medicine Man is the 
only negro J have ever seen." said 
the Sagamore. "1 do remember 
now that I learned about negroes 
at the Paleface school. But I did 
not learn that negroes had black 
wool on their lie ads and walked 
with their feet straight." 

"I reckon they forgot to put that 
in the geography," laughed Wash- 
ington. 

"The negro told my father that 
the Great Spirit had sent him to 
teach his chosen people; the Pe- 
quakets," continued the Sagamore. 
"He said he would teach, us how 
to become wiser than the Palefaces, 
how to become more powerful than 
the Palefaces, how to drive the 
Palefaces from our laud forever. 

"Btft my father hesitated. He 
was old. He did not want a war 
with the Palefaces. 

"While my father hesitated, our 
old Medicine Man interfered. He 
had ibeen \y\xv Medicine [Man for 
many years. He was wise and 
good. He did his best to teach us 
the right way. 

"The old Medicine Man declared 
that the negro talked with a crook- 
ed tongue, that the Evil Spirit had 
sent him to lure us into a death 
trap and that we should burn this 
false guide at the stake, with sacred 
tire, to drive away the Evil Spirit. 

"The negro laughed. He said the 
Great Spirit had not only sent him 
to us, but had also given him great 
power over other men. 

"In the holy name of the Great 
Spirit, the negro commanded my 
father to summons the Grand Coun- 
cil of all the warriors of the White 
Mountain tribes. He declared that 
the old Medicine Man and himself, 
as the new Medicine Man, should 
appear before the Grand Council and 
smoke the peace pipe of obedience 
to the will of the Great Spirit. 
When they had smoked, the Great 
Spirit would announce his will to 
the Grand Council." 



"This was a bold and a most 
unique scheme," said Washington., 
with great interest. "What was the 
result?" 

"The Grand Council assembled," 
replied the Sagamore. 

"The red Medicine Man and the 
black Medicine Man appeared be- 
fore the Grand Council and smoked 
the peace pipe of obedience to the 
will of the Great Spirit. 

"As they smoked, the invisible 
hand of the Great Spirit descended 
upon the red Medicine Man and 
forced him down flat on the ground. 
Tie became insane. Tie ran round 
on all fours, like a dog, barking and 
snapping at the terrified warriors. 

"Then he ran into the woods, 
yelping like a scared dog. We have 
not seen him since." 

"This is the most extraordinary 
incident 1 ever heard of," exclaimed 
Washington. "In it I catch a 
glimpse of the hidden hand of God. 
All may yet be well." 

The Sagamore did not understand 
the last two sentences. But he con- 
tinued : "The Great Spirit had an- 
nounced his will clearly. The negro 
became the Medicine Man of the Pe- 
quakets. 

"As my father grew older, his 
mind became more and more like the 
mind of a child. I was away, in a 
Paleface school, at Ossipee. 

"1 was called back by the death of 
my father. I soon discovered that 
the black Medicine Man had acquir- 
ed great influence over the warriors 
of the White Mountain tribes. 

"He has used me well, so far. He 
has not openly opposed my plans. 
But 1 feel strongly that he, not I, 
is the real master of the White 
Mountain tribes. I had gone out 
alone into the forest to consider my 
peculiar situation, when you first 
saw'me and saved my life." 

"Red Brother, I thank you for 
this frank statement of your affairs," 
said Washington. "I now under- 
these matters clearlv and I know 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



287 



just what to do. I have a premoni- 
tion that the Hidden, Hand may lead 
■us on to something still more start- 
ling. 

In due course, they arrived at Pe- 
quaket. At this time, Pequaket was 
the most powerful Indian village in 
Xew England. 

In the usual way. the Sagamore 
called a council of his red warriors. 
In the usual way, they gravely seat- 
ed themselves in a circle around the 
sacred council lire. 

The Sagamore took his usual posi- 
tion inside of this circle of red war- 
rors. He sat on the large trunk of a 
fallen oak, with his hack toward the 
sacred fire. Washington sat on the. 
same trunk, at the left side of the 
Sagamore. 

'There was a period of impressive 
silence. This period prepared the 
minds of the members of this Indian 
council to consider more clearly the 
important affairs that might be pre- 
sented. 

At the end of this period, the 
Sagamore took a large pipe from his 
belt. He filled the large bowl with 
prepared tobacco and lighted it with 
a live coal from the sacred council 
fire. 

In a slow, impressive manner, the 
Sagamore drew three whiffs of the 
fragrant tobacco smoke 'through the 
long, straight stem. Then he passed 
the pipe to the warrior who was 
next to him in rank. 

This warrior drew three whiffs in 
the same slow, impressive manner. 
Then he passed the pipe to the next 
warrior. So the pipe passed on 
slowly until ever}- member of this 
grave council had smoked, as a 
symbol of peace and good will. 

During this impressive ceremony, 
the black Medicine Man appeared. 
He sat down on the trunk of the 
oak at the right side of the Saga- 
more. He thus placed himself as 
next in rank to the Sagamore. He 
had timed his arrival so craftily 



that he did not smoke the pipe of 
peace and good will. 

This preliminary smoke was fol- 
lowed by another impressive period 
of silence. Then the Sagamore and 
Washington arose and stood before 
the Grand Council. 

The Sagamore introduced Wash- 
ington, with a few well chosen 
words. He told the council how 
Washington had saved the life of 
their Sagamore and had become his 
friend and his brother. 

The Sagamore and Washington 
resumed their seats. After a period 
of respectful silence, the black 
Medicine Man arose and addressed 
the council. He said, in substance: 

"As Medicine Man of the Pe- 
quakets and second in tribal rank, 
1 heartily welcome my white 
brother. We will form a holy 
brotherhood. We will be white 
brother and red brother and black 
brother. To cement more closely the 
sacred bonds of this holy brother- 
hood, we will smoke together the 
peace pipe of implicit obedience to 
the holy will of the Great Spirit." 

The black Medicine Man resumed 
his seat at the right side of the 
Sagamore on the trunk of the fallen 
oak that the lightning of heaven had 
blasted. 

When the Sagamore heard the 
fateful words of the Black Medicine 
Man's last sentence, he started 
frc m his seat. But Washington 
touched his arm and whispered: 

"Let him carry out his plan. 
The hidden hand of God is at work 
to right many wrongs." 

The "Black Brother" drew three 
small pipes from his girdle. These 
pipes were exactly alike. 

In a slow, impressive manner, he 
filled the bowls of these pipes from 
the tobacco pouch at his girdle. 

Washington's eyes glowed like 
burnished steel. His face was like 
a mask. 

The black brother arose. In the 



28S 



THE G-RA 



TE MONTHLY 



same slow, impressive manner, lie 
handed one o: these pipes to the 
Sagamore, another to Washington 
and retained the third. 

The three members of this most 
unique brotherhood went, in a slow. 
impressive manner, to the sacred 
council fire and bent over it to light 
their pipes. At this moment, a 
strong voice shouted, from the thick 
bushes, a short distance away: 

"The Peqnaket warriors are dogs 
and sons of dogs. The warriors of 
Saint Francis spit on these dogs.' 1 

For generations there had been 
bitter and bloody feuds between the 
Indians of the White Mountains and 
those farther north. Almost every 
acre of the great forests of pine and 
spruce north of these mountains had 
been the scene of merciless and 
bloody encounters. This region 
was literally the dark and bloody 
ground of Xew England. 

Evidently, the warriors of St. 
Francis, one of the nearest of these 
northern tribes, had come into the 
very heart of the great Indian vil- 
lage of Pequaket. They had shout- 
ed the most insulting taunts at the 
Grand Council of the White Moun- 
tain tribes. This was the greatest 
insult in all Indian history. 

In the twinkling of an eye, the 
slow, impressive Indian council was 
transformed into wildest pa tide mo n- 
um. The excited warriors shouted 
back all the bad, mad words they 
trollable rage. They danced and 
shouted and screamed with uncon- 
trolable rage. They shook and 
waved their • fearful weapons of 
death until" all the air was rilled with 
a wild storm of whirling tomahawks 
and waving, gleaming knives. 

Yelling with all their might, "as 
though every fiend from Heaven 
that fell was pealing the banner cry 
of Hell,'* they bounded into the 
bushes upon the insulting warriors 
of St. Francis. 

The pandemonium ceased. . There 
was a silence, like the awesome 



silence of the dead. The red war- 
riors stood still in their tracks in 
speechless amazement. Their fear- 
ful weapons of deatli were as fixed 
and motionless as though their arms 
had been turned to stone. 

There were no St. Francis In- 
dians in those bushes. There were 
no indications whatever that any 
Indians had been in those bushes. 

The Sagamore was the first to 
break this awesome silence. "The 
Evil Spirit has deceived the mighty 
warriors of Pequaket," he cried. 
"we will go back to our places in 
the Grand Council. We .will open 
our hearts to the Great Spirit, so 
he can come in and drive away the 
Evil One." 

Slowly the mighty warriors of Pe- 
quaket went back to their places, 
like men in a dream. This strange 
affair was beyond their ken. Their 
nerves were not in a good condition 
for a greater sensation. 

When the strong voice shouted 
from the bushes, the Sagamore and 
the black Medicine Man dropped 
their pipes. They were among the 
first who bounded into the bushes. 

Washington had quietly resumed 
his seat en the log, pipe in hand. 

■ He was a white man and these sav- 
age Indian feuds did not excite him. 

The Sagamore and the black 
Medicine Man returned. They 
picked up their fallen pipes. 
Washington joined them. The 
three brothers lighted their pipes at 
the sacred council fire. 

They resumed their seats on the 
trunk of the fallen oak. With 
slow, impressive whiffs, they smok- 
ed before the Grand Council and 
before the Great Spirit. 

The large, dark eyes of the black 

■ -Medicine Man glowed like living 
coals of fire, as he closely watched 
the face of Washington. But 
Washington's countenance was as 
calm and unchanging as the great 
stone Profile, the God of a prehis- 
toric people, who has kept faithful 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 289 

watch and ward over these mighty cause of these woes. Growling 

mountains lor so many centuries. fearfully, foaming- at the mouth like 

An expression of indescribable a mad dog, the human do^r bounded 

terror appeared on the face of the straight for Washington's throat. 

black Medicine Man. lie tried to Washington leaped swiftly to one 

rise to ids feet. "But the Invisible side. With a movement as swift 

hand of the Great Spirit descended as the flash of the lightning, his 

upon him and forced him down right hand tore the negro wig from 

slowly." the head of the black Medicine Man. 

The strong man made the most On this exposed head, there was 

powerful and painful efforts to rise, the peculiar scar of a fearful wound. 

to resist. But the invisible hand Washington had examined this 

forced him steadily lower and lower fearful wound too carefully to make 

until he laid on the ground, writii- any mistake. 

ing and groveling like a worm in The powerful black Medicine 

the dust. Man of the Pequaket Indians, the 

Under this awesome strain, his real master of the great White 

mind gave way. Fie became insane. Mountain tribes, was the poor, piti- 

He ran round on all fours like a dog, ful imbecile, Joseph C. Smith, the 

barking and snapping at the mem- unfortunate farmer, who lived in the 

bers of the council. strange habitation in the heart of 

In this deranged mind there may the desolate Flume. Truly, fact is 

have beta a dim consciousness that stranger than fiction. 
Washington was, in some way, the 



DIRGE 

By Harold Vi)\al 

For you the long, grey road, 
Under the qtiiet sky ; 

For me, the thronging street, 
Until I die. 

For you undaunted years, 

With soul at rest; 
For me, the tumult 

Of an aching breast. 



THE LATE JAMES SCHOULER, L.L. D. 

Bv Mien M. Mason. 



Dr. J allies Schouler died at Me- 
morial Hosptal, North Cojaway, on 
Friday afternoon the sixteenth of 
April. He had come tip from Bos- 
ton on the 31st. of March and was 
present at the Easter service in 
Christ Church rectory chapel — the 
Rev. F. C. Cowper of Sanbornville, 
clergyman for the day. Dr. Schou- 
ler was 81 years old on the 20th of 
March and for a long time had been 
sensible of failing strength, some- 
times saying that his hold on life 
was "of the slightest." It is pleas- 
ant to think that his last Easter 
Sunday was passed here in the 
mountain Home he has loved so 
long, and that he said his last pray- 
ers of christian fellowship in the 
place that has been dear to him for 
nearly a half century. 

Dr. Schouler was perhaps the 
most eminent member of an emi- 
nent Massachusetts family; William 
Schouler, Adjutant General of 
Massachusetts during the Civil 
War, was his father, and the late 
Admiral John Schouler was his 
brother, the Rev. William Schouler 
of Baltimore, being also a brother. 
Mrs. N. G. Allen of Cambridge, the 
mother of Glover M. Allen, the 
naturalist, is a sister. 

It was at first intended that 
James Schouler should serve in 
public life. He was graduated from 
Harvard in 1859 and subsequently 
admitted to the bar, but his hear- 
ing was destroyed during his ser- 
vice in the Civil War — in which he 
served with the rank of colonel — 
ruining his bright prospects of a 
diplomatic career, and he turned to 
authorship; to authorship, in the 
main, though he was appointed 
lecturer in the Boston University 
Law School and in the National 
Law School, Washington, I). C. He 



was also lecturer on American Con- 
stitutional History, in John Hop- 
kins University. He was a dis- 
tinguished scholar in the law, and 
encyclopedias mention several of his 
works, as standard law books. But 
it was in the field of history that 
James Schouler reaped his greatest 
literary harvest; of Schouler's His- 
tory of The United States, in seven 
volumes, George Bancroft said it 
was the best history of the Ameri- 
can people, extant. 

But it is Dr. Schouler's life at 
Intervale for many years, that is of 
interest to his neighbors and fellow 
citizens. Nearly fifty years ago he 
built his beautiful little house at the 
side of the westward sloping held, 
bordered and grouped with hand- 
some trees, the first house of those 
comprising the summer ' colony — 
excepting the Bigelow mansion 
which was built years before others 
made summer homes in the neigh- 
borhood. 

"Kilbarchan," James Schouler 
sometimes called his pretty place, in 
loyal memory of the place in Scot- 
land, where his father was born, and 
at his lovely home Dr. Schouler 
and lovely Emily Fuller Schouler, 
his wife, lived happy united lives. 
Mr\ Schouler died more than a 
score of years ago, and her husband 
cherished her in loving recollection 
to the last day of his earthly life. 

To Dr. Schouler there were two 
darling institutions here, to wdiich 
he gave continual thought, and took 
unceasing pains for their welfare — 
Christ Church parish, and the North 
Conway Public Library. 

Senior warden of Christ Church 
for many years, he has been the 
largest contributor to its support, 
and has managed the affairs of the 
parish; Mrs, Schouler and he pre- 



THE LATE JAMES SCHOULER, L.L. D. 



291 



sented the fine pipe organ to Christ 
Church. Unfailing in attendance at 
Sunday morning services there, and 
at Grace Chape) in the afternoon, 
lie was an example for others. Tie 
was a lay- reader and often used to 
take charge of the service at Grace 
Chapel; the writer recalls a course 
of talks he gave there, not so very 
long ago, on the petitions of The 
Lord's Prayer; his interpretations 
seemed reasonable and were con- 
soling and memorable. He was a 
humble, simple hearted Christian 
who remained steadfast in religious 
thought, to the faith oi^his boyhood. 

lie presented the North Conway 
Public Library Association with the 
Library lot, and paid for the con- 
struction of the main building of 
which he said at its presentation, "I 
have given this building as a memo- 
ral of my wife, Emily Fidier 
Schouler." 

He was generous in paying for 
the support of the library through 
all the long day of small things bv - 
fore the bountiful George S. Walk- 
er bequest became available. It 
was not only money that Dr. 
Schouler gave, but for more than a 
quarter of a century — always after 
the forming of the Library Associa- 
tion in 18S7, it was his habit to work 
most summer afternoons in plan- 
ning and bettering the working ar- 
rangements of the library ; the most 
intense heat nor the most pouring 
rain could not keep him from the 
rather long walk, nor fulfilling work 
planned for the library. If we 
needed to get up a "benefit" for the 
library — in the old days when the 
"Library Concert" was the great 
event of the August "height of the 
season," Dr. Schouler used to 
work as hard as anyone, for its suc- 
cess and sell tickets with the best. 
He was chosen the first member of 
the board of, library directors in 
1887, and in 1900 became president 
of the Library Association, on the 
resignation of the first president, 



the late Mr. Nathan YY. Pease, serv- 
ing as president until 1917 when 
he was succeeded by Mrs. Helen 
B. Merriinan. 

Thinking of the days of the be- 
ginnings of the Public Library, re- 
calls a witticism of Dr. Schouler's, 
too characteristic not to be set 
down here. In those days Miss 
Hannah Seavey owned a small cir- 
culating- library whose books had a 
wide circulation; the grocery places 
were not then what they are now in 
the matter of carrying "a full as- 
sortment," and to help out— in a 
two-sided way — Miss Seavey sold 
yeast cakes at her library; but it 
might often happen that she would 
be "alb sold out" and there would 
be sour disappointment added to 
unleavened bread. Dr. Schouler 
had been of the disappointed ones. 
Well, Miss Seavey felt aggrieved 
that a public library was to be es- 
tablished, when here was hers — 
dividing the patronage and halving 
the profits ! so, as her sentiments 
were well known, it was thought 
best to offer to buy her books for 
the new public library. The Rev. 
Perry Chandler (at that time pastor 
of the North Conway Methodist 
church) and the present writer were 
chosen a committee to effect the 
sale, if possible, with Miss Seavey. 
But she met our proposition with 
an injured sorrowfulness, and 
solemnly declined to even consider 
it; when we reported that we could 
do nothing, Dr. Schouler said she 
showed . she had the spirit of the 
unconquerable though downtrod- 
den, and her slogan would be "res- 
urgam !" And it might be added 
that so it was, and Miss Seavey 
never let out fewer books because of 
the new library. 

Dr. Schouler's absolute depend- 
ableness made him precious to his 
friends. When he said he would do 
a thing, to a friend's mind that thing 
was already done. He was af- 
fectionate, eager to do a friend a 



292 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



service, punctual to a minute to en- 
gagements. He has been often sad 
these last years, "frequently saying 
that the sudden deaths of so many 
of those dear to him, made him 
sorrowful. But nevertheless he 
was of brave cheer even those last 
days at Intervale— -when he was 
staying at kind Mrs. Chesney's un- 
til there came suitable weather for 
him to go to live in his own house — 
planning for the welfare of Christ 
Church, for the coming summer. 

Lest what has been written might 
seem too laudatory it would better 
be said that our dear Dr. Schouler 
was exceedingly fond of having his 
own way ; but then we all knew 
that he thought ten times more 
about the relative desirableness or 
objectionablcness of debatable ways 
of doing things, than any of the 
rest of us, and consequently that he 
would have better judgment. And 
this nearly always proved true ; so 
if he were a tyrant, he was a good 
tyrant. After all, paternalism has 
its excellences ! 



When James Schouler first came 
to live here, he was a remarkably 
handsome man ; his head and face, 
especially of striking beauty, like 
those of a poet. 

The future becomes the present. 
and the words of a resolution passed 
at the annual Public Library meet- 
ing — on the occasion of accepting 
Dr. Scheduler's gift of the ''simple 
stone building" — in June, 1912. 
come irresistibly to remembrance : 
* * * * ''For many years, through 
his active work and unwearying in- 
terest in establishing the perma- 
nence of this institution, he has 
proved his good will toward the 
people of this region. By his latest 
beneficence he has endowed future 
dwellers in this valley, as well as 
those, who are his contemporaries." 

"As the years come and go, he 
must be remembered here with the 
honor due one whose life and work 
are a benefit and blessing to the 
place upon which he confers honor 
by living in it." 



SHADOWS 

By Amy J. Doll off 

The shadows lengthen on the sun-kissed meadow — 

The day goes by. 
Softly the brook intones a tender requiem — 

For night is nigh. 
Tall grasses gently wave their plumes in mourning — 

The darkness creeps. 
From damp wood-depths a weird thrush-note is wafted — 

A tired world sleeps. 



The shadows lengthen on life's radiant highway — 

The swift hours flee. 
To burdened ones the welcome call is given — 

"Time ends for thee." 
Loved ones encircle as the night shades deepen — 

Bright glows the West. 
Welcoming songs float from the heavenly home-land 

The weary rest. 



THE OLDEST ORGAN IN THE UNITED STATES 



Bv Charles Nevers Holmes. 



The oldest church organ in the 

United States — indeed, the oldest 
church organ in America- — is still in 
existence. Not only is it in existence 
but it is still used on some occasions. 
Of course its music is not as pro- 
nounced and grand as that of a 
modern church organ, but, never- 
theless, its voice is sweet and as*ree- 



le 



although somewhat feeble. 



ao 

How interesting and delightful it 
would be to hear this old time organ 
playing softly and simply that in- 
spiring hymn of Oliver Holden's, 
''Coronation," — 

All hail the power of Jesus' name! 

Let ang-els prostrate fall ; 
Bring forth the royal diadem, 

And crown him Lord of all. 

This oldest church organ in the 
United States has had three homes 
during its musical lifetime, in Bos- 
ton, Newburyport, and Portsmouth. 
N. H. It was imported into Boston 
from Engbnd by a certain Thomas 
Brattle, one of the founders of the 
old Brattle Street Church in that 
town, a gentleman of wealth and 
influence. Mr. Brattle was a man 
of highest character, greatly respect- 
ed, the chief objection to him among 
his brother Congregationalists 
being that he was too liberal in re- 
ligious matters. He was a sincere 
lover of music, so much so that, 
around the year 1711, he imported 
from London the famous organ, 
known as the "Brattle Organ." Mr. 
Brattle did not live very long to 
enjoy his new organ, for he died two 
years later, and he had bequeathed 
this organ to the Brattle Street 
Church. A clause in his will, re- 
ferring to it, reads as follows: "I 
give, dedicate and devote my organ 
to the praise and glory of God in 
the said Brattle Street Church, if 



they shall accept thereof, and with- 
in a year after my decease procure 
a sober person who can play skill- 
fully thereon with a loud noise; 
otherwise to the Church of Eng- 
land (King's Chapel) in this town, 
on the same terms and conditions, 
and on their non-acceptance or dis- 
continuance to use it as above, un- 
to the college (Harvard), and in 
their non-acceptance to my nephew, 
William Brattle." 

Now, organs were not popular in 
New England, particularly the idea 
of using them in divine service. 
Indeed, the famous minister, Dr. 
Cotton Mather, doubted very 
strongly, "Whether such music may 
be lawfully introduced in the wor- 
ship of God in the churches of the 
New Testament." He went even 
as far as to say, "If we admit in- 
strumental music in the worship of 
God, how can we resist the imposi- 
tion of all the instruments used 
among the ancient Jews? Yea, 
dancing as well as playing and 
several other Judaic actions." And 
Dr. Samuel Sewall, a milder Puri- 
tanical type than Dr. Mather, wrote 
respecting the use of the organ in 
churches, "The next Sabbath day 
after the- Coronation I heard a ser- 
vice at St. Mary's. I am a lover of 
music to a fault, yet I was uneasy 
there ; and the justling out of the In- 
stitution of Singing Psalms, by the 
boisterous Organ, is that which can 
never be justified before the great 
Master of Religious Ceremonies." 

Considering this general un- 
popularity of the organ in New 
England, it was hardly to be ex- 
pected that the members of the 
Brattle Street Church would accept 
Mr. Brattle's bequest. According- 
ly, they voted, with "all possible 
respect to the memory of our de- 



294 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



ceased friend and benefactor/' that 
they did not think it was proper to 
use this organ in the public wor- 
ship of God. However, with the 
passing of time, the future mem- 
bers of that church changed their 
opinion about the use of an organ 
in divine services, for in 1793 they 
ordered an organ built in London. 
Nevertheless, this change- of opinion 
was not unanimous, one of the 
leading members of the Brattle 
Street Church offering not only to 
reimburse the church for the organ's 
purchase but also to contribute a 
sum of money to the poor, pro- 
vided the ''unhallowed instrument''' 
•were thrown into Boston Harbor. 

However, King's Chapel was not 
as prejudiced against this musical 
bequest as was the Brattle Street 
Church, and the members of the 
former church wrote in their 
records that "At a meeting of the 
Gentlemen of the Church this 3rd 
day of August, 1713. Referring to 
the organs given by Thomas Brat- 
tle, Esq., De'as'd, Voted, that the 
organs be accepted by the church." 
But, although the Brattle Organ 
was thus accepted by the members 
of King's Chapel, such was the un- 
popularity of organ worship in Bos- 
ton that the instrument remained 
seven months on the Chapel's porch 
before it was taken into the church. 
And when the organ was set up 
within the Chapel, this action was 
bitterly denounced by Dr. Mather 
and other influential citizens in the 
town of Boston. 

The ftrst organist to play upon 
the Brattle Organ in King's Chapel 
was a certain Mr. Price, but the 
members of the Chapel were am- 
bitious enough to send to England 
for a more skilled musician. As a 
result, an agreement was drawn up 
with Edward Instone of London. 
A part of this agreement reads as 
follows: "That the said Edward 
shall and will by or before the 25th 



day of October next issuing, wind 
and weather permitting", be in Bos- 
ton in North America aforesaid and 
being there shall and will at all 
proper and usual times of Divine 
service officiate as organist of the 
said chappel far and during the 
space of three years certain, to be 
computed from the day that ■ the 
said Edward Instone shall arrive at 
Boston aforesaid. In considera- 
tion of which voyage so to be per- 
formed by the said Edward Instone. 
he, the said Jno. Redknap (who en- 
gaged the organist) hath this day 
paid unto ye. said Edward Instone 
the sum of £10 of lawful money of 
Great Britain." It was also agreed 
by the wardens and vestrymen of 
King's Chapel to "pay or cause to 
be paid unto the said Edward In- 
stone the sum of £7 10s. per Quar- 
ter immediately after each Quarter 
day, current money, for every 
Quarter of a year that the said Ed- 
ward Instone shall officiate as or- 
ganist in ye Chappel." 

This second organist to play up- 
on the Brattle Organ in King's 
Chapel embarked from London for 
Boston in 1714, and reached Bos- 
ton in safety, with a collection of 
not only sacred but also secular 
music. It is very evident that Mr. 
Instone was most satisfactory to 
the attendants at King's Chapel, 
for its members, at the termination 
of his three years' contract, re- 
engaged him at the same salary, £7 
10s. per quarter. However, as time 
passed, the worshipers at the 
Chapel became discontented with 
their ftrst organ, and imported an- 
other one from England, for which 
they paid £500. Accordingly, in 
1756, they sold the Brattle Organ 
to St. Paul's Church in Newbury- 
port, Massachusetts, where it re- 
mained until the year 1836. In 
that year it was removed to St. 
John's Chapel in Portsmouth, N. 
H., having been purchased by Dr. 



THE OLDEST ORGAN IN THE UNITED STATES 



295 



Burroughs for $400. And in St. 
John's Chapel the Brattle Organ is 
today, still in active musical service 
despite its venerable age. 

Its appearance is unique and at- 
tractive. It has a height of about 
eight feet., a width of five feet, and 
a depth of about three feet. Its 
sides are panelled, and in front 
there are seventeen gilded wooden 
pipes, eleven being in the center 
and three pipes upon either side. 
Its keyboard trimmings are made 
of rosewood, and the wind chest, 
slides, valves, and top boards are 
of English oak. The organ pos- 
sesses six registers: sesquialter 
bass, dulciana, fifteenth 'basjb, fif- 
teen treble, stopped diapason and 
principal. Above the organ, upon 
the wall, there are inscribed the 
familiar and appropriate words: 
"Sing praises to our God." 

Such are the appearance and his- 



tory of the oldest church organ in 
the United States — in America. It 
has already dwelt in New England 
for more than two centuries, and 
there can be little doubt, unless lire 
or other disaster overtakes it, that 
it will dwell in the United States 
for centuries to come. And what 
changes have taken place since its 
arrival here, during the reign of 
Queen Anne of England ! The 
Brattle Organ was brought to 
America about the time that Isaac 
Watts was writing some of his 
grandest hymns, and its sweet and 
agreeable music had been heard in 
America when Charles Wesley 
wrote "Jesus, lover of my soul," 
Toplady, '"'Rock of Ages," Newton, 
"Safely through another week," 
Edmeston, "Saviour, breathe an 
evening blessing," Newman, "Lead, 
Kindly Light," and Lyte, "Abide 
with me." 



THE UNSPOKEN PRAYER 

By Ruth Bassett Eddy 

Within the sacred stillness of the church, 

Oh, God, I came to Thee 
To ofler up my prayer on bended knees, 
Feeling Thy heart was near to take me in. 
But on my lips the whispered words grew still ; 
A strange, sweet peace from out the silence came, 
As if Thy hands were resting on my head 
In benediction for the blessing sought. 

There was no need to pray. 
And 1 came forth into the world again 
Bearing the light before me like a torch 
That Thou hadst set aflame within my soul 

Thro' that unspoken prayer. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE'S MOST FRIENDLY TREES 



NO. 5. 
The Willow. 

Residents of New Hampshire can 
in July think most longingly of but 
one tree as standing pre-eminent 
above all our tree friends — it is the 
graceful willow. The willow is the 
tree of romance, poetry, songs and 
love; the grace it personifies is that 
of constancy. 

It grows by the lakes, streams. 
brooks, spreading its long shoots in 
friendly shade over the .waters 
keeping them cool in the hot July 
da}-, and inviting us fur a swim, a 
restful hour, or the joys of fishing. 

The old Latin poets, and the 
Greek as well, and the later English 
writers make frequent mention of 
the willow in their lays. 

As a boy I loved to go- up to the 
brook and play in the water under 
the willows and how many a New 
Hampshire lad has had the same 
experience ; it i.-^ the most attractive 
place in the world on a hot July day, 
to get out there on the stream's 
bank, or to wade in the cool waters 
beneath. 

Beneath the friendly willow I as 
a little boy chased the turtles and 
frogs, caught the po!;v-wogs and 
fish. 

Ko tree brings before us the whole 
picture of rural beauty and joy on 
a warm summer day as does the 
willow; small wonder that writers 
of fiction make it the favorite place 
of retreat for youthful lovers. 

The move of the wind thru the 
willows always has a soft sound, 
delicate and appealing. From its 
branches we hear the plaintive cry of 
the cat-bird, the plaintive note of 
the phoebe, or the sweet chirp of 
the summer yellow bird. 

Many a man shut in the hot stuffy 
office on the hot days in July turns 



d D. $an>y?r. 

in thought to the willows by the 
bank of some favorite swimming 
hole back there in his boyhood and 
sighs for another visit. Two years 
ago when I was spending my sum- 
mer days in the Constitutional Con- 
vention at Boston, 1 each day stop- 
ped beneath the willows along the 
road over the Great Meadows as we 
came from Exeter, and hitching the 
pony I threw off my heated gar- 
ments and plunged into Great" 
Brook with a scream of delight; a 
brief swim and I climbed the bank, 
refreshed, cooled, and ready to en- 
joy the hours till bed-time. Pant- 
ing with heat and dust on a hot 
July clay one will find the shade of 
the willow by a stream of water the 
best spot this side of heaven — yes, 
I doubt if heaven can be any better 
place. 

Both the Weeping-Willow and 
the common yellow willow were 
originally brought to America from 
the sunny slopes of Europe I un- 
derstand, and I doubt if Europe ever 
gave us a greater gift. From the 
first gathering of the pussy willows 
in spring, early fishing with the 
willow pole, making of whistles 
from its stock, the willow is a great 
friend of the Xew Hampshire boy, 
but in the vacation month of July 
it is a friend to young and old. 

The willow stump is so tenacious 
of life that the tree tells of the virtue 
of constancy — it never fails us, is 
always our friend; even when men 
want to kill it the tree returns good 
for evil and persistently lifts a brave 
head and shows a forgiving spirit. 
The old Hebrew poet speaks of his 
retreat for rcbedous meditation be- 
neath the willow, and its splendid 
shade on a cool, fresti bank, invites 
one to the highest mood of thought 
and ideal. 



EDITORIAL 



improving the quality of the live- 
stock in their section and have done 
more than their share for better 
roads and other improvements. 

We believe that the summer 
home, summer hotel and summer 
tourist business in New Hampshire 
has a great future and one whose 
development will be profitable for 
the state, not only financially; but 
in other ways. While there is no 
way to prove it mathematically, we 
believe that the liberal policy of the 
legislature and state government as 
to good roads . has been a decided 
benefit to the commonwealth from 
a direct money stand-point, as well 
as in various indirect ways. We 
believe that the all-year resident 
who votes in town meeting for 
highway and other appropriations 
which the summer folks need and 
ask for, does not in the end harm 
his pocketbook in the least thereby. 

In fact we are firm in the belief 
that all that is needed to solve the 
problem of the summer folks, if any 
such problem exists, is to bring 
about a better understanding be- 
tween the all year residents and 
those who come among us for vaca- 
tion time alone. The object on our 
part should be to make them 
consider their New Hampshire 
farms and cottages as their real 
homes. The object on their 
part should be to make us welcome 
their coming and regret their de- 
parture. The common object of 
both should be to make New Hamp- 
shire a better state in which to live, 
whether for one month or twelve. 
There arc among our summer folks 
many men and women wdvo can 
accomplish a great deal to that end 
and who thus constitute a resource 
of the state but little drawn upon 
thus far. 



The summer folk's are with us 
again and we are glad to see them. 
They present an economic problem, 
it is true, but they also present the 
state of New Hampshire with sev- 
eral million dollars a year, for 
value received, and it seems that 
we ought to be able to solve the 
problem in order to continue and 
increase this convenient amount of 
circulating cash. 

The problem involved is the ex- 
tent to which these summer folks 
of ours are responsible for the de- 
population of our rural districts, 
the decrease in cultivated land and 
in livestock, and the consequent 
scarcity of farm products. The 
counts against them on this ground 
are two: Thai they buy good farms 
and make them into summer estates 
occupied for only a few months 
each year, and, if carried on at all 
as agricultural enterprises subject 
to the evils of absentee ownership; 
and, second, that the temporary 
display in the country of city won 
prosperity causes envy, jealousy 
and dissatisfaction among the year- 
round farm people and in the end 
sends them city-ward themselves. 

We never have been deeply im- 
pressed with the seriousness of 
these complaints against our sum- 
mer people. A large majority of 
their country homes, chosen for 
scenic rather than utilitarian pur- 
poses, occupy land of little value 
for agricultural purposes, and add 
tremendously to the valuation of 
towns that otherwise would have 
comparatively little taxable pro- 
perty. And in not a few cases 
where good farms have passed into 
the hands of wealthy city men, tbe 
latter not only have kept up the 
productivity of the land, but have 
increased it, have led the way in 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



The Real Diary of the Worst 
Farmer. By Henry A. Shute. 
Illustrated. ' Pp. * 277. Cloth. 
$1.75. Boston. Houghton. Mifflin 
Company. 

The genial humor of Judge Henry 
A. Shute of Exeter is at its best in 
his latest book. "The Real Diary of 
the Worst Farmer," the title capi- 
talizing the fame of the Judge's im- 
mortal "Real Diary Of a Real Boy" 
and continuing the form and spirit 
of that classic very successfully. 
There is nothing esoteric about 
Judge Shute's humor. Its ap- 
peal is universal. At the same 
time he is no disciple of Rabelais. 
Any one of his books can be read 
aloud with safety in the family 
circle, provided a reader can be 
found who is himself sufncently 
chuckle and laughter proof. The 
adventures of an amateur agri- 
culturist already' have provided the 
author with material for one book 
of good fun, "Farming It," and the 
present "diary"' continues to work 
the same vein of humor with con- 
tinued success. Those of us who 
live in the same latitude with the 
Judge and under approximately the 



same conditions think that we have 
the best appreciation of the pictures 
which he draws, but it is not neces- 
sary to have sifted ashes, made a 
garden or chased a pig to get good 
cheer from his descriptions of these 
and other homely activities in semi- 
rural New Hampshire. 

Sailor Girl. By Frederick F. 
Moore Pp. 378. Cloth, $1.75. 
New York. D. Appleton and Co. 

Mr. Moore tells, apparently with 
the greatest of ease, story after 
story of life in the China Seas, all 
different, but every one filled to the 
brim with adventure. It is a color- 
ful country to which he seems to 
have acquired the fiction rights, 
over there around the globe, and lie 
makes the most of its possibilities 
for thrills. "Sailor Girl" is the story 
of a young heiress who goes from 
San Francisco over to Manilla to 
find out for herself why the line of 
Pacific steamers which she owns is 
not paying better. Pirates and 
pearls figure largely in the answer 
which she finally gets and her ad- 
ventures end, as all good stories 
should, with a kiss. 



3*h 



PERFECTION 

By Fred Myron Colby 

1 heard the song of a singer, 

As he held a crowd entranced ; 
And the music of his measures 

Idie joy of my life enhanced. 
But in the heart of the singer 

\Yas a sweeter song unsung; 
A song no mortal can meter, 

It gladdens an angel's tongue. 

J saw a wonderful painting 

That a famous artist wrought — 
A dream, a marvelous vision, 

Which gladdened my inmost thought. 
But well I knew that the painter 

Had dreamed in his hours of ease 
Of visions of fairer beauty 

Than any his brush could seize. 

I inhaled a rose's perfume, 

ft wooed me with Circean wiles : — 
The glamour of Eden's beauty 

And odors from spicy isles. 
But the sweetest rose that ever 

Enchanted our breath and eyes 
Blooms never in earthly gardens, 

'Tis the growth of Paradise. 

I won the praise of my fellows, 

And my heart was lifted high ; 
It was sweet to know, after toiling. 

That the world had not passed me by. 
But the joys of earth are briefer 

Than the sunset's dving gleam. 
And only the sweet Hereafter 

Shall briner to us what we dream. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



r 



-■■ 



"t- 




^cdoucA 




<^<?>x 




Frederick Myron Colby, one of the most 
popular and prolific authors of both prose 
and poetry in the literary history of New 
Hampshire, died at his home in Warner, 
May 19. 



He was born in the town which was 
his life long home, December 9, 1848, the 
son of Levi O. and Mary (Durrell) Colby; 
in the eighth generation from Anthony 
Colby, who came from Norfolk County, 



NECROLOGY 



301 



England, with Rev. John Wirithrop's 
colony in 1630. 

He was educated at fhc Warner Kigh 
School and at Colby Academy, Xew Lon- 
don, and in Concord, and in young man- 
hood was a successful teacher. His 
natural inclination soon led him into the 
held of literary work, but he never lost 
his interest in education,- and for a num- 
ber of years served on the Warner board 
of education. 

He also was superintendent of the local 
high school, 1910-15, and was a trustee of 
the Pillsbury Free Library at the time of 
his death and for many years previous. 
Other offices which he .held at various 
times were those of town treasurer and 
postmaster. 

The winter of 1875-6 Mr. Colby spent 
in Washington as correspondent from the 
national capital for* a number of papers, 
and the interest in politics then engender- 
ed never left him. He had been a mem- 
ber of the Democratic state committee for 
30 years and usually was the delegate 
from his town to the state convention of 
the party. Repeatedly he was the Demo- 
cratic nominee for various offices from 
those of the town to that of Member of 
Comrress. which latter honor was given 
him in 1908. 

Mr. Colby's business, which he carried 
on successfully until within a year, was 
that of undertaker and embalmer, and for 
three years he was secretary of the Xew 
Hampshire Embalniers' Association. 

During his later years he transacted a 
large amount of probate and other legal 
business for his fellow townsmen and was 
so efficient in these matters as to do away 
with the need for an attorney in Warner. 

But the greater amount of Mr. Colby's 
time, from youth to his last sickness, was 
devoted, with both pleasure and profit, 
to literature. His first published work, a 
story "The Pioneers of. New Kentucky," 
was issued by R. M. DeWitt of Xew 
York in 1872, and for almost half a 
century, now, his pen and typewriter have 
been continuously busy with works of 
fiction, of history and of biography; with 
beautiful poetry in all the verse forms; 
•with delightfully sympathetic studies of 
nature and the out of doors. 

The list of his published works is a long 
one, while his contributions to the periodi- 
cal and newspaper press are beyond num- 
ber. Since the first year of the Granite 
Monthly's existence, 1878, he has been its 
one most frequent contributor, the table 
of contents of every volume containing 
his name several limes. 

In many instances Mr. Colby's verses 
are eloquently expressive of his deeper 
nature, as in these lines on "Success": 



Success will come to him who toils 
And thinks, and cares not for the fame 
He wins. The homage of an hour 
Ls vain; not so a worthy name. 

Then let us coinage take, anew 
Gird up our loins for battle strife; 
Do what we have to do. content 
If we but win immortal life. 

His religious belief can be seen in the 
closing paragraph of a beautiful tribute 
which he made not long ago to the memory 
of his friend, Charles Eaton of Eaton 
Grange, Sutton : "My friend, perchance 
in the flowery meads beyond the deeply 
flowing river, among the amaranths and 
asphodels that bloom perennially in that 
calm retreat, we shall meet again, clasp 
hands and renew the joys of that friend- 
ship winch now seems sundered by what 
men call Death." 

On December 25. 1882, Mr. Colby mar- 
ried H. Maria George of Warner, who 
died March 29. 1910. On June 29, 1915, 
he married Ella S. Palmer of Warner, 
who survives him as does one brother, 
George A. of Los Angeles, Cab, and one 
sister, Mrs. Mary L. Sand wick of Mon- 
tana. 

Mr Colby was a man of dignified, yet 
charming personality, a kindly, helpful 
gentleman who numbered his friends among 
all classes and was as loyal to the humblest 
rs to the highest. His collection of 4.000 
books was a working library, .not one for 
show, and by its assiduous use he had 
made himself a well educated man and 
a master of English. . 



COLOXEL S1MOX R. MARSTOX. 

Colonel Simon R. Marston, born in 
Portsmouth, February 24, 1832. died there 
May 5. He graduated from Dartmouth in 
the class of 1855 and became an engineer. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War he en- 
tered the ranks of Company G, Tenth Xew 
Hampshire Volunteers, and became its 
first lieutenant. April 3. 1863, he was 
made major, adjutant and paymaster and 
at the end of the war was breveted 
lieutenant colonel. In November, 1864, 
he safely conveyed $600,000 from St. 
Louis to Santa Fe., N. M., and it was 
there that he was discharged from the 
service and practised his profession until 
1S80, when he returned to Portsmouth. 
He was a member of the G. A. R. post in 
that city, A daughter, Miss Marion Mar- 
ston, survives him. 



ON A LINE IN EMERSON'S NOTE-BOOK 

By Fanny Runnclls Poole 

"O rare sweet Spirit of our Northern clime, 
Philosopher of our New England breeding, 

Not merely product of the elder time! 
Many for Riches to their Gods are pleading; 

Many who vex high Heav'n for meed of Fame, 
Honors of Power and Place, with striving hollow; 

But list ! — a clarion call, a prayer of flame, 
A pledge of all desirable things to follow, — 
Give us health and todav! 



This is the word, for Peace : in music's breath 
Pass it along unto your groping neighbor, 

With his, who cried, smitten by gory death, 
"Boys, the command is Forward!". . . .Where's the labor 

Doth not demand full health of body and mind? 
Now is the Golden Age for which we're sighing. 

Yearn not for time or chance. Go forth to find. 
Brother, this message ! — glory, wealth, defying, — 
Give us health and todav ! 



: 






■ 



: . "■'• s -State a : . 



■'.'" -; ; ._ -"\IN .THIS ISSUE:' , 
] • . \ . - s, George 



HJJIXJlK 0. PEAE 

C05C0UI>, N, H* 









• • i '.' i ..■ ■' • -' 



' 






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r 



L^_ __ _-*---__«■- • • - •' •* - - - " l 

Hon. Arthur P. Morrill 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Vol. LII. 



AUGUST, 1920 



No. 8" 



HON. ARTHUR P. MORRILL 



Bv G come IV. Parker 



In no office should the essential- 
ly rugged characteristics of New 
Hampshire be more impersonated 
than in the governorship — at once 
the highest in the gift of the people 
and the one which to the ouside 
world represents the dignity and 
grandeur of the State. 

The multiform activities which 
the Governor is called upon to per- 
form and the complexity of pro- 
blems presented by modern activi- 
ties for solution make it a post of 
great responsibility. As human in- 
terests become more widely diver- 
sified, the natural functions of a 
State multiply and necessitate num- 
erous instruments by means of 
which the will of the people may 
find expression. 

To preside over the destinies of 
the state, one should possess a 
thorough knowledge of state af- 
fairs, a sympathetic understanding 
of the people — their aspirations, 
problems, limitations — sanity of 
judgment and tact in dealing with 
men of diverse temperaments. 

Perhaps no candidate for the of- 
fice of Governor lias appealed to 
the electorate who combined in his 
person these prime essentials as 
does Arthur P. Morrill of Concord. 
Of scholarly tastes and training, a 
lawyer by profession, a business 
man by experience, and a public of- 
ficial who has impressed all parties 
with his fairness and executive 
ability, he possesses the requisites 
of successful leadership. He is a 
man in the prime of life, convers- 
ant with modern day problems and 



needs; in sympathy with the new 
age and sufficiently conservative to 
appreciate the best in the old order. 
His ability as a parliamentarian, 
his tact and fairness as presiding 
officer, his unfailing courtesy and 
fairness to all parties are attested by 
every member of the New Hamp- 
shire House of Representatives of 
1917-1918 and of the Senate of 
1919-20. 

While Mr. Morrill will appeal 
strongly to the younger element of 
the state, he possesses the confidence 
of the older men as well and his 
popularity is shown in the unani- 
mity of his election as Speaker of 
the House of Representatives and 
later as President of the State Sen- 
ate. 

The Governors who are most 
successful are usually those who 
have previously had experience in 
the Legislature. First hand know- 
ledge of state affairs and intimate 
acquaintance with the details of 
legislation promote efficiency and 
lessen the probability of friction be- 
tween the Governor and the Legis- 
lature. Many a strained relation 
might have been avoided if the 
chief executive had known from 
personal experience the psychology 
of the House and Senate. That 
the Concord candidate would main- 
tain the most friendly relations and 
work in harmony with the State 
Legislature is abundantly attested 
by the fact that through personal 
experience, he is familiar with the 
entire situation. 

Of the work of the New Hamp- 



306 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



shire Legislature of 1917, James W. 
Tucker in an article in the Granite 
Monthly says "In the House, the 
deliberations were ably presided 

over by Arthur P. Morrill of Con- 
cord, one of the youngest speakers 
who ever graced the rostrum and 
than whom there has never been, 
one more popular, efficient or fair. 
***Probably more work was accom- 
plished with less time wasted in 
orator} - and debate than at any pre- 
vious session. Harmony appeared 
to be the keynote and the legisla- 
tive machine ran smoothly, because 
partisanship was, for the most part, 
conspicuous by its absence." Dur- 
ing this session much needful war- 
time legislation was passed, includ- 
ing the authorization of a million 
dollar bond issue, the re-organiza- 
tion of the National Guard, bills 
providing state pay for New Hamp- 
shire soldiers in service and aid for 
dependents and acts to conserve 
New Hampshire's agricultural and 
other resources. 

At this time also were enacted 
the famous Lewis prohibition 
measure, the 54-hour labor law. the 
factory inspection law, the weights 
and measures bill, various better- 
ment measures, the "blue sky" law 
to safeguard investments and steps 
to preserve the water power and 
other resources of the State. 

Mr. Morrill's career is one of 
consistent progress and achieve- 
ment. He was born in Concord, 
March. 15, 1876. His parents were 
Obadiah Morrill and Lilla W. Put- 
nam of Worcester, Mass. His edu- 
cation was secured in the public 
schools of Concord, at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Yale Universi- 
ty and Harvard Law School. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1900. 
and became a member of the law 
firm of Sargent. Nile's and Morrill, 
the other members being the late 
Hon. Harry G. Sargent and Hon. 
Edward C. Niles. 



In 1904. on the death of Col; 
Charles C. Danforth, he became a 
member of the insurance firm of 
Morrill and Danforth, of which lie- 
is now sole owner. He is president 
of the State Dwelling-House Insur- 
ance Company, Director of the 
First National Bank of Concord, 
Trustee of the Loan and Trust 
Savings Bank of Concord, Trustee 
of the Orphans' Home at Concord. 

Politically, he has long been in- 
terested in working for the Repub- 
lican party, serving for many years 
as a member of the Executive Com- 
mittee for Ward 5 and as president 
of the Ward 5 Republican Club. 
In 1915, when the Merrimack 
County Republican Club was or- 
• ganized he was made its chairman, 
which office he still holds. He has 
been a member of the Executive 
Committee of the Republican State. 
Committee since 1915, taking active 
part in the state campaigns, both in 
speaking and in the work at the 
headquarters. He was a member 
of the Constitutional Convention in 
1912, member of the Legislature in 
1915 serving on the judiciary com- 
mittee, and during the last two 
weeks of the session, temporary 
speaker. In the memorable session 
of the Legislature of 1917 he was 
elected Speaker of the House with- 
out opposition. In this capacity he 
made so enviable a record that in 
1919 he was elected Senator by his 
district, and so well were his talents 
recognized that he was made presi- 
dent of the state senate without op- 
position. 

In the fraternal orders he is a 
Mason, being affiliated with Blaz- 
ing Star Lodge, No. 11, A. F. and 
A. M., a member of White Moun- 
tain Lodge. I. O. O." F., a member 
of Capital Grange, a member of the 
Wonolancet, Beaver Meadow Golf, 
Snowshoe, and Canoe Clubs, all 
of Concord., and the Calumet Club 
of Manchester. 



HON. ARTHUR P. MORRILL 307 

He is a member of St. Paul's Daniel C. Prescott, formerly general 

Episcopal Church of Concord and a superintendent of the Concord and 

member of the New Hampshire Montreal railroad. This union has 

Historical Society. • been blessed with three children. 

In 1901 he was united in marriage Catherine, born in 1902, deceased in 

with Florence E. Prescott of Win- 1908: Elizabeth, born in 1903, and 

Chester, Mass., daughter of the late Virginia, born in 1905. 



OLD HOME WEEK 

By James T. Weston. 

The west wind sings a bright and merry song 
The pine tree murmurs a plaintive lay 
And mem'ry brings a silent throng 
To grace our festal. day. 



Out of the light of the West, 
From the sweet Sand of Rest, 
They come, the fairest and best. 

Those, who have gone before 
Seem with us here once more 
Their joy and hope and sympathy to pour. 



O Spirit, linger here a whil 



■P 



'&> 



Where the waves sparkle and the lilies smile 

Scenes of the past again we see 

And hold communion sweet with Thee. 



A "BARRIER AGAINST THE INDIANS" 



By George B. Up ham. 



It seems a far cry from fighting 
nearly two centuries ago in the 
richly metalliferous mountains of 
Silesia to Indian warfare along the 
frontier settlements of New Hamp- 
shire, yet trie two are found to have 
been started by the same train. 

Early in 1740 by perfidy almost 
unprecedented and robbery on a 
gigantic scale Frederick the Great 
stole from Maria Theresa, the 
young Empress of Austria, her 
Province of Silesia. In doing so 
he greatly strengthened the Prus- 
sian autocracy which by constant 
military training and successive 
predatory wars grew greater and 
stronger down to its fall on Armis- 
tice Day, November 11th. 1918. 

"The selfish rapacity of the King 
of Prussia," says Macaulay, "gave 

the signal to his neighbors 

The evils produced by this wicked- 
ness were felt in lands where the 
name of Prussia was unknown ; 
and, in order that he might rob a 
neighbor whom he had promised to 
defend, black men fought on the 
coast of Coromandel, red men scalp- 
ed each other by the great lakes of 
North America," and, it might have 
been added, peaceful settlers were 
murdered while planting their corn 
and gathering their hay in the 
meadows and forest clearings of 
Western New Hampshire. 

This great world disturbance 
known in Europe as The War of 
the Austrian Succession, in Ameri- 
ca as King George's W r ar, lagged 
somewhat in crossing the Atlantic 
not troubling the English Colonies 
in America until the spring of 1744. 

In the eighteen years elapsed 
since the termination of Father 
Rale's War New England had en- 



joyed what in those troublous times 
was a long interval of peace. Dur- 
ing these years stories, oft repeat- 
ed in the flickering light of even- 
New England fireside, of the Sack 
of Dcerfield, the attacks on Haver- 
hill, Northampton, Brookfield and 
dozens of other massacres, had 
caused the terrors of Indian war- 
fare to sink deep into the memories 
of the New England people, and, 
on the outbreak of renewed hostili- 
lies, led to impetuous demands that 
all possible precautions be taken 
against the repetition of such bar- 
barities. 

The enthusiasm of the Indians 
in their attacks, always descending 
from Canada, was greatly diminish- 
ed if their approach was discovered. 
Forewarned the settlers were 
enabled to withdraw further south, 
or by concentrating to put up a 
defensive fight little relished by the 
Indians. The first demand of the 
settlers was therefore for active 
scouting on the northern frontier. 

"A New and Accurate Map of 
the Present War in North Ameri- 
ca," published in London in May, 
1757, shows a dotted line extend- 
ing straight from the Connecticut 
River at a point a little north of 
"Stephens F," that is, the fort at 
Number Four, now Charlestown, 
to a northern branch of the Con- 
toocook River, evidently intended 
for the Warner River although as 
shown its general course is much 
too southerly. The dotted line 
runs a little south of "Sunope 
Pond" and is described on the map 
as a "Barrier Against the Indians.'' 

W r hat was this barrier? It is 
manifestly impossible that it could 
have been a stockade or any sort 



A BARRIER AGAINST THE INDIANS 

7 




Salem, 



The above is a part of a map descried, within an ornamental scroll, as "A New and 
Accurate Map of the present War in North America." It was found, with an article on the 
Indians and the War, in the Universal Magazine, [London], for May, 1757. The original, 
drawn and engraved "on a laige scale and finely, coloured." includes the latitude from Boston 
to Quebec, the longitude from ' Mt. Desert Isle" to "Ft. Oswego" on Lake Ontario. 

"Stephen's F." which is the fort at Number Four, later Charlestown, N. H., is placed 
relatively much too far south. Jt should have been at the west end of the dotted line marked 
'Barrier Against the Indians." with Black River nearly opposite. 

The mythical "Cohasser Fort," perhaps the hoped for '"CytidaH" of Captain Symes, (See 
Granite Monthly for February) is shown on the west side of the Connecticut River, opposite 
the present rlaverhill. The dotted parallelogram may be intended to indicate the land ex- 
Pt'ttcd to be granted to Symes and his associates. 



310 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



of physical barrier, for. if such, its 
existence would have been record- 
eel in many ways besides on this 
old map. Any one learned in New 
Hampshire history would doubtless 
say that the dotted line and "Bar- 
rier" were intended to indicate the 
northern line or tit j r of towns grant- 
ed by the Province of Massac- 
husetts Bay twenty-two years be- 
fore ; and unless some more accept- 
able explanation can be offered that 
of the tier of towns must prevail. 

The Northernmost towns for 
which charters had been granted by 
Massachusetts in 1735-6 were, from 
west to east, using the present 
names as. follows; Charlestown, 
Acworth, Lempster, Washington. 
Bradford, and Warner. Boscawen 
had been previously chartered by 
Massachusetts as Contoocook in 
1732. (Note 1) Not one of these 
towns, excepting those on the Con- 
necticut and Merrimack Rivers, had 
been settled or occupied for any 
length of time prior to 1756, the 
date when the latest information 
for the drawing of our map was 
probably obtained. Much further 
south, with very few exceptions, all 
the western New Hampshire settle- 
ments back from these rivers, down 
to the Massachusetts line, had been 
abandoned on the outbreak of King 
George's War, afterwards generally 
called the "Old French and Indian 
War." 

It can therefore hardly be claimed 
that a tier of these towns, uninhabit- 
ed and existing only on paper in the 
files of Colonial records, could prop- 
erly be called a "Barrier Against the 
Indians." 

If it can be shown that for ten or 
twelve years prior to the preparation 
of this map scouting parties repeat- 
edly ranged the woods over this 



ground, that would furnish a more 
satisfactory explanation of the "Bar 
rier" indicated by the dotted line. 

Aside from inherent probability of 
the tact, documentary and circum- 
stantial evidence exists tending 
strongly to show that scouting par- 
ties worked along this line between 
the fort at Number Four on the 
Connecticut and that at Contoocook 
on the Merrimack as early as 1744, 
and at intervals for twelve or more 
years thereafter. 

These were the most northerly 
forts in New Hampshire which then 
extended west to Lake Champ lain. 
With the exception of Fort Dum- 
mer, now BrattLeboro, Vt., they 
were the only forts of consequence 
north of the Massachusetts line. 

The fort at Number Four was 
maintained and garrisoned by Mas- 
sachusetts for her protection and at 
her own cost. Though the Massa- 
chusetts-New Hampshire boundary 
line had been fixed in 1740 substan- 
tially as it is today, New Hampshire 
long refused to bear any part of this 
expense. Massachusetts also felt 
obliged to assist in garrisoning the 
fort at Contoocook. 

In studying the history of western 
New Hampshire prior to about 1757 
search must be made in the Massa- 
chusetts Colonial Archives for much 
of the documentary material. A 
hope that unpublished documents in 
those Archives might shed some 
light on the "Barrier Against the 
Indians" was not wholly disap- 
pointed. 

Among unpublished manuscripts 
of Military Records, faded and yel- 
low, under date of 1744, was found 
the following :- 

"In answer to the Petition of Wm. 
Syrns & others for the Protection 
of their Western Frontiers and the 

[Note 1.] These towns were not named in the Massachusetts grants, but designated 
merely by numbers. Acworth was No. 3; Lempster, No. 9; Washing-ton, No. 8; Bradford, No. -■ 
and Warner, No. 1. Contoocook, now Boscawen, on the Merrimack, was the only town in thi* 
tier then dignified by a name. This township and its fort near the Merrimack should not 
be confused with the present village and railroad station now called Contoocook for that is m 
Hopkinton. and several miles distant from the township originally named Contoocook. 



A BARRIES AGAINST TOE INDIANS 



311 



Distressed Petitioners and Inhabi- 
tants over the Line. It is proposed 
yt one Scout (Note 2) Issue from 
Xo. 4 on ye East Side of Connecti- 
cut River to Scout Eastward! v to 
the Northernmost B ranches of the 
Coontoocook River — Another to 
proceed Eastwardly from ye. Ashue- 
lots to the Southernmost branches 
of the Contoocook, these Designed 
to Protect the Towns Below ye 
Dine between Merrimack and 
Connecticut Rivers." (See Vol. 72, 
No. 703, MSS. Military Records of 
the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay.) 

'Phis Petition and Proposal bore 
fruit in certain "Votes About the 
Defense of the Frontier." In one 
of these which has been preserved, 
passed on Sunday, October 13, 1744, 

it was "Voted that in as 

much as it may be necessary that 
some marching Scout or Scouts be 
employed in the Winter for a sea- 
sonable discovery of the enemy that 
may be approaching the said West- 
ern Parts or other His Majesty's 
subjects in that neighborhood that 
are neglected in this time of danger, 
and beg protection of this Govern- 
ment, i hat Twelve men out of each 
of the five Snow Shooe Companies 
in said Western Parts (Note 3) 
amounting to Sixty in the whole, be 
detached and sent out under a 
Captain commissioned for that pur- 
pose, to scout and range the Woods 
for four months next coming; Their 
marches to be from Contoocook on 
Merrimack River, and to extend 
Westward in such a manner and by 
such parties as the Captain-General 
shall judge most for the protection 
of said Frontiers" (See Acts & Re- 
solves of the Province of Massa- 
chusetts-Bay Vol. 13, p. 395). 

On June 19, 1745 the Massa- 

Tiie word 'scout' is hes* 



chu setts Great and General Court 
voted that twenty-live men be post- 
ed at Number Four and fifteen at 
Contoocook "to be constantly cm- 
ployed in Scouting and guarding 
those Settlements that are North- 
ward of the Fine as lately run." 
(See Idem p. 473). Later, and 
down to 17b/, numerous votes of 
the Government of Massachusetts 
provided for the enlistment, sub- 
sistence and payment of men for 
guarding and scouting from these 
same places on the frontier of its 
less opulent and perhaps less will- 
ing neighbor on the north. 

that Xew Hampshire contribut- 
ed materially toward scouting west 
of the Merrimack in the early years 
of King George's Wards shown by 
an official report that between May 
ZS, 1744 ana Aug. 24, 1745 "there 
has been in his Majesty's Service 
kept out on the West Siae of Merri- 
mack river men to the amount of 
o046 Days" which would account 
for thirteen or fourteen men if 
kept out continuously between 
those dates. (N. H. State Papers, 
Vol. XVIII p. 224). 

We find numerous votes of the 
Xew Hampshire House of Repre- 
sentatives during the war provid- 
ing for men to be "kept out Schout- 
ing on the West side of Merry- 
mack River," and "from Merry- 
mack to Connecticut Rivers." In a 
letter from Col. Joseph Blauchard 
to Gov. Went worth he reports hav- 
ing sent a scouting party "to search 
ye Branches of Contoocook river 
(the most likely places to discover 
if any of the Indian Scout has 
tarrvd)." (X. H. State Papers, 
Vol. VI, p. 311). 

Xo reports or journals have been 
found describing definitely the 
routes scouted over. But is it 



s commonly 



the 



past, 
and 



used to designate a 



[Note 2] 
scouting party. 

[Note 3.] The "Western Parts" were probably the forts and block-houses on the 
Connecticut and in Western Massachusetts. Except Fort Dummer there were none in the 

territory now Vermont. Those along the coast of Maine and near New Hampshire's eastern 
border were then commonly referred to as the "Eastern Pails." 



312 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



strange that men coming in worn 
and hungry from Long marches 
chose to eat and sleep rather tb.au 
to write a record ot* where they 
had been? "Every one knew'' 
where they had been. Mow much 
has been lost to history by this 
same thought, "everyone knows" 
and how little is. retained, even for 
the second and third generation, 
that is not written down. 

That an imperative necessity 
existed for constant scouting be- 
tween the forts at Number Four 
and Contoocook is shown by the 
petition to the Council made by 
sixty-two inhabitants of Rumford 
and IVnaeook on July 13, 1747, rep- 
resenting "That such is our situa- 
tion that as ye rivers Hudson & 
Connecticut lie most exposed to 
Incursions from Crown Point, so 
ours is ye next, and the experience 
of this whole war has Taught us 
that whenever any Smart attack 
has been made upon any of ye Set- 
tlements on Connecticut River the 
Enemy have never failed of send- 
ing a considerable Number to visit 
our River." (N. IT. State Papers, 
-Vol. IX, p. 131). 

The correctness of these repre- 
sentations may be verified by ex- 
amining the number of instances in 
which attacks on Number Four 
were followed within a few days by 
attacks in the vicinity of Rumford. 
The easy and natural approach fur 
the Indians to "visit" that vicinity, 
after attacking Number Four, was 
by passing just south of Sunapee 
Eake and over the hills through 
Sutton and Warner or down the 
valley of Warner River, that is, 
over the same route which it is 
believed was frequently travers'ed 
by scouting parties sent out from 
Contoocook and Number Four. 

Aware that they might encounter 
such scouting parties the Indians 
sometimes departed from this 
route as they did with eight prison- 



ers taken at Hopkinton on April 
22, 17-46. a few days after an at- 
tack on Number E'our. when after 
going eight or ten miles up Warner 
River they diverged, going east and 
north of Sunapee Eake. (History 
of Hopkinton, p. 30). 

Among the men eidisted for 
scouting in Ring George's War, 
and with headquarters at Contoo- 
cook, was the later renowned rang- 
er, Robert Rogers. With Indian 
fights frequent at Number Four and 
things quiet, comparatively, at 
Contoocook we may well believe 
that Rogers marched over the trail 
just south of Sunapee Lake, to 
Number Four in some of his 
scouting expeditions to the west- 
ward. 

It appears that towards the 
end of King George's War the 
Province of New Hampshire had 
become greatly exasperated by the 
continuance of Indian massacres 
on its frontier, for on June 2, 1748 
the House voted £250 "for each 
Indian killed & scalp produced to 
ye Governor & Council in Evidence 
of his her being so killed". .. .and 
£255 "for each. Indian captivated 
& bro't alive to ye Governor & 
Council." Thus it appears that a 
live Indian was valued at only two 
per cent more than the scalp of a 
dead one. (See N. II. State Papers, 
Vol. V, p. 587). 

A nominal peace was patched up 
in Etirope by the Treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle in October 1748, but was 
not known and proclaimed in 
America until about six months 
later. 

With not infrequent attacks by 
the Indians the fires of war smould- 
ered for six years when the spark 
that again set the world aflame 
came this time from America, tired 
near a place called Great Meadows 
in Western Pennsylvania, and at 
the command of a handsome youth 
of twentv-two named Washington. 



A BARRIER AGAINST THE INDIANS 



313 



In the minds oi thoughtful men 
t lie re eon Id have been little ex- 
pectation of a permanent peace 
while an ambitious, Jesuitical, and 
militaristic French government in 
Canada claimed most of the conti- 
nent west of a narrow fringe along 
the Atlantic seaboard ; and in peace 
or war spurred its Indian allies to 
attack the English colonists settled 
on that fringe. This early Ameri- 
can conflict, like a much later one, 
was irrepressible. 

The state of mind of these 
colonists is fairly comparable to 
that of the people of France today. 
As the French have been repeatedly 
subject to the unprovoked attacks 
of their Teutonic neighbors on the 
east, so the English colonists in 
America had repeatedly, without 
provocation, been attacked by the 
French and their Indian allies on 
the north. With the English it was 
not a question of a banier at the 
St. Lawrence, which might corres- 
pond to one at the Rhine, but of 
doing a thorough enough job to 
sweep their enemies off the Conti- 
nent. (Note 4.) In this enterprise 
the sparsely settled Province of New 
Hampshire rendered efficient aid, 
furnishing more men in proportion 
to its inhabitants than any other 
province. (See Potter's Military 
History of N, H., p. 258). The in- 
quiry herein made must, however, 
be confined to the simple happen- 
ings between the forts at Contoo- 

[Note 4 ] Of this vast continent of which the French once possessed by far the greater 
part, it is almost pathetic to remember that they now hold only two small outlying islands, 
St. Pierre and Mique'.on. 

The comparison between the situation of the allies in France, prior to unity of command 
under Foch, and that of the English Colonists in America, in 1757, is strikngly parallelled by the 
following- quotation. It is from I'a- article in the Universal Magazine of May, 17">7, accompany- 
ing the map a part of which is reproduced herewith. 

"We have a subtle, enterprising enemy to contend with; an enemy rapacious, martial, 
and bloody; commuting murders rather than waging war. Though the French colony does not, 
perhaps, contain 3G,0>'0 men capable of bearing arms, jet these are all under the despotic 
command and sole direction of their Governor-general; and experience teaches us, that, in 
spite of our navy, they may be annually reinforced. The strength of our colonies, on the other 

hand, is divided; and the concurrence of all necessary both for supplies of men and money 

Military measures demand secrecy and dispatch; hut, while the colonies remain divided, and 
nothing can be transacted without their universal assent, it is impossible to maintain the 
one, or proceed with the other. Without a general constitution for warlike operations, we 
can neither plan nor execute. We have a common interest, and must ha\> a Common Council, 
one Head and one purse. The French service is not exposed to these embarrassments; and 
hence they project without discovery, and we scarce collect their designs, till we are 
fcttacked and defeated." 

[Note 5.] S~e next page. 



cook and Number Four. 

That a fairly good trail existed 
between these places at least as 
earl}' as the summer of 1754 may 
be gathered from the fact that Cap- 
tain Peter Powers, who in that year 
went from Rumford to the Cuwass 
(Haverhill & Newbury) Intervales 
via Baker's River, sent four of his 
men who were disabled "by reason 
of sprains in the ankles and weak- 
ness of body/' sixty miles down the 
Connecticut in a canoe to return to 
Rumford from Charlestown, Num- 
ber Four. (See Powers Coos Coun- 
try, p. 25). The distance from the 
latter place to Rumford was nearly 
as far as direct from Cowass, but 
by the direct route there was no 
well-worn trail. 

Late in July 1755 Col. Joseph 
Blanchard Of Dunstable sent his 
regiment of five hundred men from 
the fort near the Merrimack, then 
recently built at Bakerstown. now 
within the limits of Franklin, 
"directly to Charlestown," Number 
Four, (Note 5) and thence via Fort 
Dummer to Albany to join General 
William Johnson's command. With 
Blanchard's men as captain was 
Robert Rogers, as lieutenant, John 
Stark, both as yet unknown to 
fame. Two months later a part of 
these men rendered effective ser- 
vice in turning defeat into victory 
over Baron Dieskau at Lake 
George. (N. H. State Papers, Vol. 
XVIII, p. 432). 



314 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



No report or diary has yet been 
i'ound describing the route 'taken 
by this regiment between Bakers- 
town and NumSei Four, but a little 
study of a contour map (Note 6) 
leads to the confident belief that it 
was just south of Sunapee Lake. 
between it and the mountain of the 
same name, and thence over the 
hills of what are now Goshen, Unity 
and Acworth, where thirteen or 
fourteen years later the first road 
from the Connecticut to the Merri- 
mack was built across western New 
Hampshire. (Note 7) This route is 
substantially that indicated by the 
dotted line. 

Had Blanc hard's men gone by 
the valley of the Contoocook River 
they could much more easily have 
continued southwest direct to Fort 
Dtimmer, thus traversing one side 
of a nearly equilateral triangle in- 
stead of two sides as they would 
have done had they gone up the 
valley of the Contoocook, then 
northwest to Number Four, thence 
down the Connecticut to Fort Dtim- 
mer. Such a route would be far 
from marching "directly to Charles- 

[Note 5.] In a letter written by Col. Joseph Blanc-hard to Governor Wentworth, probably 
from some place in the Merrimack valley, dated July L'5. 17 55, Col. Blanc-hard says of his 
command : "On Monday morning they in two divisions, two companies at a time began the 
march. Tuesday afternotii the last tut off with orders to march directly to Ckarlestown, and 
from thence -to Foi t Dummer, where I intend to meet them the fort- part of next week." 
See N. H. State Papers, Vol. VI, p. 416. 

Potters' Military History of N. II. pp. 143, 144, without mentioning the source of informa- 
tion, says: '"Col. Blanchard's regiment was ordered by Gov. Wentworth to rendez- 
vous at the fort in Stevenstown, subsequently Salisbury and in that part 
of the town next the Merrimack, now constituting a part of Franklin. This fort 
had Leen built [probably about 1750] as a defence against the Indians, and was 
afterwards known as the 'Salisbury Fort.' It was located on the well known farm of Daniel 
Webster. [Holland's Map shows there the "Ruins of Salisbury F." 3 So little was known at 
that time of the geography of the country, that the "Coos Meadows' on the Connecticut, above 
Lancaster, were supposed to he on the direct route from the "Salisbury Fort' to Crown Point. 
Supposing that there was to be opportunity for the passage of the troops, some if , not most of 
the way by water, by means of the Merrimack, Connecticut and other waters, the regiment in 
rendezvous was kept busily at work building batteaux for the transportation of the 
troop* and stores, whilst Capt. Robert Rogers was sent forward to the 'Coos Meadows' with 
his company to build a fort there, for the occupation of the regiment, and for resort in case 
of disaster. Capt. Rogers executed his commission, and built a fort at the junction of tne 
Ammonoosuc with the Connecticut, on the south side of the former river. This was called 
Fort Wentworth. [Holland's Map shows "Fort Wentworth" in Northumberland, south of the 
mouth of the Upper Ammonoosuc] After Rogers return, and the regiment had spent some six 
weeks in building batteaux that could not be used for want of water. Wentworth discovered 
his error and ordered the regiment to proceed across the province to 'Number Four' and 
then to Crown Point by way of Albany. The fort upon the Ammonoosuc should have been 
called 'Fort Folly,' instead of Wentworth, as the fort, as well as the batteaux, never was 
of any use." 

[Note 6.] See Contour Maps with Hitchcock's Geology of New Hampshire, and "New 
Hampshire, Sunapee Quadrangle" of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

[Note 7.] An attempt will be made in a later paper to justify this statement and to trace 
this first road, from Boecawen to Chariestown, Number Four. 



town" as they were ordered to do. 
Even at the present day no east and 
west road exists nearer than eleven 
miles, as the crow (lies, south of the 
road which passes the southern 
shore of Sunapee Lake, and no fair- 
ly passable cross roads exist near- 
er than eighteen miles to the south- 
ward. The great bulk of Sunapee 
and Lempster Mountains bar the 
way. Excepting the road skirting 
Sunapee Lake, Holland's Map pre- 
pared In 1774, shows no continuous 
road from the Merrimack to the 
Connecticut between the valley of 
Baker's River and Keene. Dur- 
ing the ''Seven Years War" several 
other regiments marched across 
western New Hampshire to Number 
Four, some of them doubtless by 
this same trail. 

A recital of the provisions made 
and orders given for scouting over 
this territory during the earlier 
years of the "Seven Years War," 
which was the last of the French 
and Indian Wars, would be merely 
a repetition of such as have been 
referred to in "King George's War." 
As before, the settlers were alter- 



A BARRIER AGAINST THE INDIANS 



315 



nately protected and abandoned, 
the Indians quickly taking" advan- 
tage of the latter. state of affairs. 

Winter scouting parties in both 
wars probably used the frozen 
surface of Warner, Sugar and Con- 
necticut Rivers, for the Sugar joins 
the Connecticut only ten miles 
above* Number Four. We find in 
the records numerous appropria- 
tions for snow-shoes and "maugh- 
gazins." 

We may imagine the scouts 
climbing the nearby hill-tops morn- 
ing and evening to "view for 
smoaks," stopping to replenish 
their larder with fish at Sunapee 
Lake, and, -not withsta tiding the 
danger, occasionally yielding to the 
temptation to take a shot at a deer, 
making their camp in the thickest 
of the pine and hemlock forests 
where their own campfires would 
be least likely to be detected by the 
Indians. They may have had a 
well established line of posts with 
lookout places, shelters from the 



blizzards and caches for supplies. 
They knew their business thorough- 
ly, these New Hampshire ,scouts 
and \vo.»dsmen, otherwise they 
never would have been selected to 
match their wits against the In- 
dians, and to perform the arduous 
and dangerous undertakings re- 
quired oi them by Robert Rogers 
and John Stark in the last French 
and Indian War. Many of them 
doubtless had their first scouting 
experience along this Indian trail 
between the Merrimack and Con- 
necticut Rivers, where we now ride 
swiftly in motor cars, or read the 
latest cable dispatches in our morn- 
ing paper on the train. 

It may be the "Barrier Against 
the Indians'' on this old map was to 
mark a tier of nameless, uninhabit- 
ed towns, but we believe the real 
barrier lay in the presence of these 
intrepid men who later did so much 
to make North America an English 
speaking continent actuated by An- 
srlo Saxon ideals. 



CALM AT SEA 



By J V alter B. Wolfe 



Storms with all their thunderous clangor 

Can not move my heart 
As the quiet of the ocean 



Soothes its aching smart. 



Only this, the silent ocean 
Can awaken in my ears 

That celestial beauty ringing 
In the harmony of spheres. 



And at night so deep its silence 
So unmoved and calm its face 

That the soul perceives the echo 
Of its dreams in vibrant space. 



As my heart with awe is silent 
That which lips may never yield 

Glorious secret of our being 
In the ocean stands revealed. • 



'<*, 



THE STORY OF COLONEL THOMAS JOHNSON 



Park 



PART t. 



(The writing of this sketch, would 
have been absolutely impossible 
without the information derived, 
besides that obtained from Family 
papers from "'The History of Coos 
Count}'" by the Rev. Grant Powers 
published in 1842, and from '"The 
History of Xewburv Vermont,'*' by 
F. P. 'Weils, published in 1902. 
Wherever I have quoted either of 
these histories word for word, I 
have of course used quotation 
marks. But I also wish to ac- 
knowledge my genera! indebtedness 
to them. 

I also wish to state what I have 
tried to infer in the story — that 
Thomas Johnson and Jacob Bay- 
ley were by no means the only two 
men who were responsible for the 
settlement" of Newbury, or for the 
distinction which it attained dur- 
ing, and immediately after, the 
American Revolution. But the in- 
troduction of too man}- names into 
a comparatively short narrative 
natural!}' causes confusion through 
superfluity of detail, and I have 
therefore avoided it as far as possi- 
ble in this sketch, which is, of 
course, largely personal in charac- 
ter, and does not for one moment 
pretend, or aim, to give a complete 
chronicle of all that Newbury as a 
town, achieved in its early days. — 
Author's note.) 

In the fall of 1760 .four officers 
who had served in Goffs regiment 
during the French and Indian Wars 
returned, after the surrender of 
Montreal, to Massachusetts through 
the Connecticut Valley. ' It was at 
that time entirely unsettled, except 
by Indians. But they were so im- 
pressed by the beauty and fertility 



of the country that before they 
reached their old homes in New- 
bur}' and Haverhill, Massachusetts, 
they, had determined to apply to 
Governor Went worth of New 
Hampshire for charters to two 
towns in Coos County, one on 
either side of the Connecticut River, 
which, after the custom of the 
earl}- settlers they proposed to name 
for the villages from which they 
came. 

Two of these officers. Jacob Bay- 
Icy and John Hazen, had distin- 
guished themselves 'in many ways 
during the late war, and were con- 
sequently highly regarded by the 
Colonial Government; and there 
were also personal reasons why 
Governor Went worth was glad to 
oblige them, as both had important 
family connections, and some 
wealth. And consequently on May 
18th ( also given as March 18th) 
1763, the charters of "Newbury and 
Haverhill in Coos County"* was 
granted to them and about seventy 
associates, among them a voting 
man who, in the interval between 
their discovery of the beautiful Ox- 
bow Region— so called from the 
form of the turns that the river 
takes at that point — and the grant- 
ing of the Charters, had gone with 
them when they returned tempo- 
rarily to draft their first rough {dans 
for settlement, and whose name 
was Thomas Johnson. 

Jacob Bay ley was at this time 
thirty-eight years old, a man of 
wide experience and established 
position, and Thomas Johnson was 
barely twenty, having been born in 

♦After the division of Vermont from 
Mew Hampshire, Newbury lay in the 
former State, Haverhill in the latter; but 
this was act, of course until after the 
Revolution. The word Coos is pronounc- 
ed in two syllables. 



COL. T H MA S 1 H N S N 



:317 



Haverhill, Massachusetts, in 1742. 
But from the earliest records that 
we have of the founding- of New- 
bury, tile two see'm to have been 
fast friends. The Johnsons, for a 
long time, had been prominent in 
Massachusetts. The first member 
of the family, William, came from 
ling-land in 1634, and "was admitted 
freeman of the Massachusetts Col- 
ony" in that year. 

John, the father of Thomas, held 
several positions of importance in 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, and later 
became one of the first settlers of 
Hampstead, New Hampshire. 
There is a family tradition that 
Prudence Noyes, the wife of Jacob 
Bayley, whom he married when he 
was only seventeen, was Thomas 
Johnson's half-sister, and this, of 
course, would easily account for the 
intimacy between the two men ; 
but there is no authentic record of 
such a relationship. She was possi- 
bly his cousin, and she was certain- 
ly his neighbor, for the Noyes and 
Johnson families had both lived in 
Haverhill for generations. At all 
events, Thomas entered with the 
enthusiasm and energy that were 
to last him all his life — and some- 
times to get him into serious 
trouble— into his friend's plans; and 
with the fondness for accurate de- 
tail which was also to last, he 
records that in the summer of 1762 
they "cut ninety tons of excellent 
ha}- on the meadow of the little Ox- 
bow." Through the winter of 1762 
he lived in Haverhill, boarding", with 
Captain Hazen, "in the family of 
Uriah Morse ;" but the following 
spring he crossed the river, and es- 
tablished himself near Jacob Bay- 
ley, who, having meanwhile gone 
back to Hampstead to collect his 
family and household goods, leav- 
ing Johnson "sitting on the lid" as 
Roosevelt said of Taft, had now re- 
turned to Newbury to remain. 

Unlike most pioneers, Johnson 



was not a poor man. The parental 
blessing with which he. started on 
his career had consisted of some- 
thing more, substantial than a- few 
kind words, and his patrimony in- 
creased in his own hands. There 
is no detailed record of his life 
during his first .thirteen years in 
Newbury, only brief references., to 
his steadily growing influence and 
prosperity ; he became a merchant 
and an innkeeper as well;as a farm- 
er. He outgrew, in more senses 
than one, the first rude shelter that 
he had made for a home,, and ac- 
cordingly determined to build him- 
self a suitable residence, and, when 
it was finished, to open it with a 
housewarming that should, reflect 
the hospitable spirit of its owner. 
The house was built, and the house- 
warming held. And, when ;. the 
festivities of the evening w"ere at 
their height, there came, up. the 
quiet valley, a rider ' in desperate 
haste, bearing the news of the bat- 
tle of Lexington and Concord. . 

Through Coos County lay the 
direct route from Massachusetts to 
Canada. Rumors of impending 
trouble had, of course, before this 
reached the peaceful place, commit- 
tees of Safety and Correspondence 
had been formed, and every man re- 
quired to state his feeling on. the 
issues of the day. . But it all seem- 
ed, as trouble is so apt to do until 
it is actually at our. doors, so- com- 
fortably far away! Now it stared 
Coos County in the face/not only 
on account of its strategic position, 
but because of the number ■ of -In- 
dians thereabouts, whose disposi- 
tions towards treachery was well 
known, and whose friendliness was 
always doubtful. President \\ nee- 
lock of Dartmouth College, at Han- 
over, thirty miles south of New- 
bury, sums up . the perilous situa- 
tion in which that part of the coun- 
try found itself in a letter written 
that spring to Governor Trumbull. 



318 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



"Your honor well understands," he 
says, "what a feeble and defenseless 
state these frontier towns are in, 
how near to the Canadians and 
what an easy prey we may be to a 
northern army of savages, etc., as 
we are threatened with. We hear 
of preparations making- for an in- 
vasion, and that some of the war- 
riors among the Indians were in 
high spirits to engage on the one 
side or the other in the present 
controversy : and if they be not se- 
cured in our interest, they will 
likely join on t he other side/' 

But Coos County was blessed in 
the number of men among its Set- 
ters who had seen service in the 
French and Indian Wars. John 
Hazen had died, but Jacob Bay ley. 
though now past middle age, was 
still alive. In June he was chosen 
to attend the New York provincial 
Congress, but felt that the alarm- 
ing reports from Canada, and the 
unprotected state of the valley, 
made it unwise for him to go. lie 
accordingly wrote a letter to the 
Congress, and despatched it by 
Colonel Harvey of Barnet, explain- 
ing his non attendance, and also 
volunteering to raise a company of 
between two and three hundred 
men for the defense of the frontier; 
and, a little later, he was appointed 
brigadier-general of the militia in 
all the river-valley towns. There 
were forty or fifty other men in 
Newbury and Haverhill who had 
had experience in fighting, but most 
of these, also, were no longer 
young. And, accordingly, in May, 
-when a company of militia was 
formed in Newbury, Thomas John- 
son was chosen for its Captain, with 
Simeon Stevens as Lieutenant, and 
Joseph Chamberlain as "ensign." 

This was the beginning of a mili- 
tary career surpassed — or equal- 
led — in greatness only by that of 
Jacob Bayley of all the men who 
fought in the North Country. 



There were only fifty-one men in 

the little company, and they served 
at first for periods of from six to 
twenty days, acting as guards or 
scouts, as necessity required. They 
were supposed to receive two shil- 
lings a day for their services, but 
it was eleven years before they 
were paid at all. In the company 
were several Indians, secured for 
it by Jacob Bayley— not the least of 
the great things he did for New- 
bury, since, as has already been 
pointed out, their goodwill was ex- 
tremely important to possess at 
this time. He had always been 
kind to these first inhabitants, and 
had a good deal of influence with 
them. And, on June 23, 1775, he 
prepared the following statement, 
which was addressed to the In- 
dians of the North Country. 

"Newbury, Coos, June 23, 1775. 

The present war is between only 
the King- and a part of the Lords, 
and America. The Lords say all 
Americans shall become slaves or 
servants to them, shall plow no 
more than they say, eat nor drink 
nor war nor hunt only by their 
leave, shall not kill deer, moose, 
beaver, or any other thing but by 
their consent. Americans say they 
will, and that the King, by the 
Lords advice, has sent Redcoats to 
kill us. if we will not be subject to 
what they say. And we have thirty 
thousand men, with guns' great and 
small, to fight in our defense : we 
only want, to live as we have lived, 
heretofore. We do not want to 
fight if they will let us alone. 

You are as much threatened as 
we are, they want you to kill us, 
and then they will kill you, if you 
do not serve them. Dreadful wick- 
ed men they be ; they do not think 
there is any God that will punish 
them bye and bye. If you have a 
mind to join us, I will go with any 
number you shall bring to our 
army, and you shall each have a 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 



319 



good coat, blanket, etc., and forty 
shillings a month, let the time be 
longer or shorter. . 1 f you will go 
to Canada and gather what intelli- 
gence you can. and bring it to me, 
at an*,- place you shall set, I will 
meet you myself, and pay you well. 
Further, if you are in any wry of 
aid to the regulars, you and all 
those tribes shall have protection 
lie re, as we will fight for you in 
your own country if wanted ; but 
if you, or the French, or any other 
Indians fight against us, we know 
your country and will be trouble- 
some to you. You know how we 
could fight, last war. But 1 know 
you will be friendly, and you may 
depend upon us. We will pawn 
al! we have for the most strict ob- 
servance of any agreement with 
you. We are all now heathen, and 
we will be so with you, and we 
must ail meet before God in a little 
time. 

Jacob Rayley." 

This address, though it is not 
known where it was delivered, or 
how it reached all the persons to 
whom it was intended to appeal, 
had the desired effect. The In- 
dians, perhaps the most greatly- 
feared factor in the war in Coos 
County, gave, after all, very little 
trouble, and "Old John," a notori- 
ously cruel Indian who was much 
dreaded, became one of the Colony's 
staunchest friends, lie received a 
Captain's commission, organized a 
company of Indians himself, and 
marched with the Yankees against 
Burgoyne. One of his sons. Pi- 
Al-Soosup, however, fought, not in 
his father's company, but in 
Thomas Johnson's, and, in spite of 
his ferocious upbringing, was badly 
terrified during his first battle, at 
Fort Independence. He had never 
heard a cannon before, and the 
roar from the fort, and on the lake, 
frightened him so that he clung to 



Johnson's side, almost stupefied. 
At last, as there were no casualties 
near him. he became somewhat re- 
assured. "Is this the way you al- 
ways fight? 5 ' he asked timidly. 
"Yes, yes," said Johnson impatient- 



ly, "fir. 



tir 



I" 



The Indian fired, 



and was at once not only reassur- 
ed, but pleased. "I say," he ex- 
claimed, "this is great fun!" and 
fired again. 

In 1776 General Washington's 
increasing desire to find a shorter 
route to Canada than, up to that 
time, he had discovered, led him 
to confer with Jacob Bayiey, then 
with the army before Boston, and 
Bayiey promptly recommended 
Thomas Johnson as the man, in his 
opinion, best fitted to undertake 
such a task, and Johnson was 
selected. "He was" — to quote the 
"History of Newbury" — "to take 
two or three men and an Indian 
guide, and mark a road by blazed 
trees to St. John, and when the first 
troops reached that place he was to 
return, and make report of the 
time, and points of compass. He 
took with him Frye Bayiey, Abial 
and Silas Chamberlain, and John 
McLean. They left Newbury on 
March 26th, 1776, the advance 
guard following several hours be- 
hind. Johnson's Journal says that 
they 'lodged that night with the 
last inhabitant' probably in Peach- 
am. They marched' on snowshoes, 
the snow melting and the rivers 
breaking up, and they had to wade 
through the streams which they 
reached. On Sunday the party 
readied Mr. Metcalfs on the Missis- 
quoi, whence. Frye Bayiey returned 
to report progress. On . Fri- 
day they reached St. John's, about 
one hundred miles from Newbury. 
The expenses of the party amount- 
ed to about twenty pounds, which 
was paid in 1786 as appears in a 
certificate in Montpelier. It was 
found' that troops could be sent by 



320 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

Coos about ten days quicker than as aide to General Lincoln. After 
by way of Lake Charnplain, and the surrender, he was commission- 
along the path which, had thus been ed lieutenant colonel, and placed in 
marked out, several regiments charge of one hundred prisoners, 
passed to Canada on snowshoes." lie marched them back into the 
Thus was the short road to Can- country, where they would not be 
ada found — and used. Unpaid, tin- exposed to a recapture, and where 
sheltered, fording half frozen also. — as he remarked with his 
streams, tramping a hundred miles usual shrewdness — they "would not 
through unexplored forests on diminish the rations of our men at 



"*cr 



;< - * lUff* '' - '- ^*Tpx, 



Thomas Johnson's House at Newbury, Vt. 

Built by him in 1775. 

snowshoes — this was the kind of the fort." When his duties in re- 
service that love of country, as gard to them had been thoroughly 
Thomas Johnson and his compani- discharged, he returned to his home 
ions understood it, demanded — and apparently expecting at least a 
received. temporary respite from his activi- 
In 1777 Captain Thomas John- ties. But he was promptly sent as 
son marched, with an independent a delegate to the Cornish Conven- 
company of men to Ticonderoga, tion, in 1778, and, after that, by far 
and acted, in the ensuing campaign, the worst of his troubles were still 



COL, THOMAS TOHNSON 



32 i 



ahead of him. A price had been 
set. both upon his head, and upon 
Bayley's by the British, and his cx- 
tremc prosperity, which had in- 
creased all through the war, had 
brought about, tor the first time, 
strained relations between himself 
and General Jacob, who, on the con- 
trary, had suffered reverses ot for- 
tune. The hardships of pioneering, 
the dangers of warfare, had served 
only to bring them more closely 
together than their boyhood friend- 
ship had done ; now the elegance in 
which the younger man lived, raised 
a barrier between them. A trifling 
dispute between him and one of the 
General's sons was magnified into 
an actual quarrel. The breach 
widened, and influenced Others. 
[ohnson, almost over-night, found 
"himself surrounded by enemies in- 
stead of friends. 

Enemies are often made through 
jealous}-, and there seems to be no 
question that most of the men of 
the surrounding country were jeal- 
ous of Thomas Johnson. He had 
been promoted, very rapidly, above 
nearly all of them in military rank; 
his house was the finest in the 
town— the first tall clock that was 
brought to Newbury- — a beautiful 
timepiece with a shining brass 
face — the first harpsichord, a libra- 
ry of three hundred books — all 
these treasures, which his neigh- 
bors lacked, adorned it. He was 
acquiring vast tracts of land. 
Worse than all this, he had mar- 
ried, in 1775, Abigail Garleton, the 
rich, lovely, and aristocratic daugh- 
ter of Dudley Garleton of West 
Newbury. Abigail traced her 
descent direct from Sir Godfrey de 
Carleton, who went to England 
with William the Conqueror, and 
settled in Cumberland, where the 
old manor house stands — and stands 
in possession of the Carleton family 
to this day; and among her ances- 
tors, besides various ladies of title, 



was a Queen of England ! All this, 
however, was distant, and might 
possibly have been Overlooked, if 
she had riot also been related, not 
nearly so distantly, to Sir Guy 
Carleton, the Governor-General of 
Canada! No more severe charge 
could, in those days, be brought 
against a man than the charge of 
Toryism. None, in the face of 
Johnson's service .and character, 
could seem, in his case more ridicu- 
lous — more wicked — to us now. 
But it began to be rumored about 
that lie was in secret communica- 
tion with Canada, and though, to do 
him justice, General Bayley utterly 
refused either to listen to, or to 
countenance, these rumors, they 
spread like wild-fire. And when, in 
1781, Johnson went to Peacham, 
where he had contracted to build 
a gristmill, to take the mill-stones, 
lodging meantime with Deacon 
Jonathan Elkins, and, while there, 
was captured and carried off to 
Canada, it was reported that the en- 
tire manoeuvre had been prearrang- 
ed, and that he was only too glad 
to go! Something very like a riot 
took place in Newbury, for it im- 
mediately occurred to a number of 
alarmists that Johnson's captors 
were the advance guard of an in- 
vading army, and the tidings were 
spread in ever}" possible direction, 
as far south as Hanover. The first 
officer to bring them to Newbury 
was a Captain Webb, one of John- 
son's worst-wishers. Abigail John- 
son had taken advantage of her hus- 
band's absence to visit her sister, 
Mrs. Wallace; and, with his men, 
Webb took possession of the John- 
son mansion, battering down the 
doors when Ebenezer Whitaker, 
the faithful "hired man" refused to 
give up the keys to the invaders. 
The cellar was, of course, well- 
stocked with various kinds of 
liquor, as was the cellar of every 
well-to-do man of that period; and 



322 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



this excellent stock was in imminent 
danger of being suddenly and un- 
ceremoniously, exhausted when 
Captain Jeremiah Hutchins arriv- 
ed from Haverhill, with a company 
of men, and peremptorily restored 
order. 

7 nomas Johnson, meanwhile, was 
on his way to Canada ; and his own 
journal, which is fortunately pre- 
served, tells clearly and well exact- 
ly what was happening to him. 
"That is the kind of thing" an ex- 
ceptionally well-educated man said 
to me not long ago when I showed 
him the faded volume, "that I've al- 
ways wanted to know and never 
been able -to find out— what they — 
the Colonists — thought about 

things themselves! What time 
they got up in the morning, and 
what they had for dinner, and how 
far they could travel in a da}', and 
all that sort of thing! Of course 
I've studied history, but this isn't 
history — this is life!" His point of 
view was novel to me, but extreme- 
ly interesting ; and so, thinking 
that others may agree with him, I 
am going to let Thomas Johnson 
tell his own story of his capture: 

"March 5, 1781. This morning 
early, went over to Haverhill with 
my teams for my mill-stones. Re- 
turned before dinner, shod my 
oxen, and set out for Peacham at 
2 p. m. This night put up at Orr's 
in Ryegate. 

Tuesday, 6th. This day, being 
thawy and bad going. I was oblig- 
ed to leave one of mill-stones with- 
in one mile of the place where we 
lodged. This night arrived at 
Peacham with the other mill-stone. 
Lodged at Mr. Elkins. 

Wednesday, 7th. This morning, 
finding my oxen lame, I sent Mr. 
Josiah Page with the oxen home. 
Hired Jonathan Elkins, with his 
oxen, and went back, and took the 
other mill-stone, and returned to 
Peacham. Should have returned 



home myself this evening, but was 
a little unwell. 

Thursday, 8th. This morning, 
about twelve or one o'clock, I 
awakened out of my sleep, and 
found the house beset with enemies. 
Thought I would slip on my stock- 
ings, jump out of the window, and 
run. But before that, came in two 
men with their guns pointed at me, 
and challenged me for their prison- 
er, but did not find myself the least 
terrified. Soon found two of the 
men old acquaintances of mine. 1 
saw some motions for tying me, but 
I told them I submitted myself a 
prisoner, and would offer no abuse. 
Soon packed up and marched, but 
never saw people so surprised as 
the family was. When we came to 
Mr. Davis', I found the party to 
consist of eleven men, Capt. Prich- 
ard commanding. Then marched 
seven or eight miles, when day- 
light began to appear. I found 
Moses Elkins looked very pale. I 
told the Captain he had better let 
him go back, for he was drowned 
(?) when he was small, and that he 
would not live through these woods. 
He said he would try him further. 
But on my pleading the pity it 
would be to lose such a youngster, 
he sent him back. We soon halted 
for refreshment. To my great sur- 
prise, I found John Gibson and Bar- 
low of the party. Then marched 
about four miles, and obtained leave 
to write a letter and leave on a 
tree, th.cn marched. I was most 
terribly tired and faint. Camped 
down on the river Lamoille this 
night. 

Friday, 9th. This day marched 
down the river Lamoille, about 
twelve miles below the forks. One 
of the finest countries of land that 
ever I saw. Camped about eleven 
o'clock at night. 

Saturday, 10th. This day march- 
ed to the lake. Underwent a great 
deal by being faint and tired. The 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 



32. 



captain and men were very kind to 
us. A stormy and uncomfortable 
night. 

Sunday, 11th. This' morning went 
On to the lake ten miles, north of 
the mouth of the river Lamoille; 
marched fifteen miles on the lake. 
then crossed the Grand Isle; march- 
ed ten mik-s to Point an Fer. Din- 
ner being on the table. I dined with 
the Commandant of that fort, and 
supped with him. • Was well treat- 
ed. 

Monday, 12th. This day march- 
ed to the Isle au Xoix, went into the 
fort, into a bari*ack, got a cooking 
( ?) ; but the commandant ordered 
the prisoners out of the fort to a 
block-house ; but soon had sent to 
me a good dinner, and a bottle of 
wine. Then Capt. Sherwood called 
on me to examine me. In the 
evening, Capt. Sherwood and Capt. 
Prichard waited on me to Mr. 
Jones, where we drank a bottle of 
wine. Captain Prichard and I 
slept there. 

Tuesday, 13th. This day march- 
ed to St. John's. Col. St. Leger 
took me to his house, and gave me 
a shirt, gave me some refreshments, 
which I much needed. Told me I 
was to dine with him. Major Rog- 
ers and Esq. Marsh and others din- 
ed there. Then gave me my 
parole, which I am told is the first 
instance of a prisoner having his 
parole in this fort without some 
confinement. Lodged with Esq. 
Marsh. 

Wednesday, 14th. This morning 
Enquire .Marsh and I were invited 
to Captain Sherwood's to dinner. 
Then Captain Sherwood took 
charge of me, and I lived with him. 
To my great satisfaction, this even- 
ing came Mr. Spardain to see me, 
who was prisoner to me at Ti 
(Ticonderoga). lie said, on hear- 
ing that I was a prisoner, he went 
to the commandant to inform him 
of the good treatment he and others 



had from me while they were 
prisoners to me. The Command- 
ant sent him to my quarters to in- 
form me that my good treatment 
of them was much to my advan- 
tage." 

in this same journal is another 
entry, which, though it has ab- 
solutely no bearing on the rest of 
his story, is so interesting, and at 
the same time so distinctly Puri- 
tanical, that I cannot help quoting 
it. 

''This day," he writes on June 
14th of the same year, "there was a 
Roman Catholic Procession. Their 
walks, their shows (are) very ex- 
traordinary. Their carrying Al- 
mighty God about the streets is 
something new to me. I think it 
is a curse to the land, and a curse 
to the king, to have such a miser- 
able set of inhabitants as these 
Canadians. They are the most ig- 
norant, idle, superstitious and care- 
less set of people that can be 
thought of, spending half their time 
in holidays and in going to mass. 
The women wear riding hoods the 
hottest weather." 

On the whole, possibly thanks, in 
part, to the treatment of "Mr. Spar- 
dain'' at "Ti" — Johnson was very 
well treated while he was in Can- 
ada. At St. John's he was "allow- 
ed his parole" — "not a parole to go 
where he pleased, but a parole 
known in the military profession, 
which distinguishes between friends 
and enemies; it is a privilege grant- 
ed to certain individuals every day, 
and proclamation is made of it 
every day by a certain officer." 
Prom St. John he was taken to 
Chamby and to Three Rivers, and 
"at each place he would be interro- 
gated by certain officers relative to 
the views and feelings of the inhabi- 
tants of the grants, and w r hat he 
thought of the prospects of the 
Colonies. To all these and similar 
inquiries he replied with as much 



324 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



■apparent mdmerence to the cause 
of America as he could show, never 
relating: to them an untruth, and 
still reserving to himself whatever 
lie thought might be advantageous 
to them, and detrimental to Ameri- 
ca. And he had cause to congratu- 
late himself tor having adhered to 
this uniform course; for he found 
out, after a while, that ad his con- 
versation with these different of- 
ficers, at different places, was pen- 
ned $own and sent to the supreme 
commandant, to be inspected by him 



.-to see if his statements 



agreed. 



He caught the reading of a note also, 
which was sent from one in high 
command to the young officer who 
had the charge of him. The pur- 
port of it -was tli is — 'I take you to 
be a person of too much sense and 
intelligence to be imposed upon by 



tin 



prisoner. 



The vounsr man's 



sense and intelligence were not 
enough to restrain him from oc- 
casional hard drinking, and at one 
of these seasons, he left this note 
exposed to Johnson's inspection. 
These tilings taught Johnson that 
after ail their show of confidence 
in him. the}" were still suspicious of 
him ; and he thought, if they were 
disposed to play Yankee with him, 
he would take a game with them at 
that. He accordingly affected more 
and more indifference to the cause 
of the Colonies, until they began to 



feel that if lie was in other circum- 
stances, he would render them es- 
sential service. Accordingly, after 
retaining him between seven and 
eight months, they told Johnson 
that if he would give them informa- 
tion of the movements of the Ameri- 
cans, supply their scouts with pro- 
vision if called upon, and return to 
them when they were demanded, 
he might return home upon his 
parole. Johnson agreed to these 
stipulations, and signed the follow- 
ing agreement :* 

T Lieut. Col. Johnson, now 
at Johns, do hereby pledge 
my faith and word of honor 
to his Excellency, Gen. Holdimand, 
whose permission I have obtained 
to go home, that I shall not do or 
say anything contrary to his Majes- 
ty's interest or government; and 
that whenever required to do so, I 
shall repair to whatever place his 
excellency or any other his Majes- 
ty's commander-in-chief in America 
shall judge expedient to order me, 
until I be legally exchanged, and 
such other person as shall be agreed 
upon sent in my place. 

Given under my hand at St. 
John's, this fifth day of October, 
one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-one. 

Col. Thomas Johnson.' ' : 

* (History of Coos County) 

(To be continued) 



MEMORY 



By Helen Adams Parker. 

Though lone I dwell the long day through 
And silently my tasks pursue, 
Thougli empty is my cottage now 
Of human love ; 1 have learned how 
To fill my hours with what is past. 
Both sad and glad, and hold it fast. 
All! were it not for memory, 
How many would lack company ! 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



Bv John Kimball Chase 



(Concluded) 

CHAPTER VII. 
THE HIDDEN HAND 

The diplomatic Sagamore was 
again the first to break the awe- 
some silence that .ensued. 

"The Great Spirit has announced 
His will," he cried. "My white 
brother is the Medicine Man. The 
Grand Council may retire." 

A few minutes later, the Saga- 
more and Washington stood in the 
breezy shade of a large oak. They 
were alone. 

"The Great Spirit is good," said 
the Sagamore, gravely. "The 
black Medicine Man will trouble 
me no more." 

"I will explain this affair, " laugh- 
ed Washington. "It may be well 
to conceal the facts from the rest 
of the tribe. 

"On the road to these mountains, 
I stopped for two days with Dr. 
Charles W. Marshall, in Concord. 
He had been our family physician 
until he moved to New Hampshire. 
He is the best authority in this 
country on diseases of the brain. 
He has made the human mind the 
study of his life. 

"One day, when I entered his of- 
fice, he was preparing a medicine 
from some dried roots. He told me 
these were called the insane root. 

"In small doses, this rout is the 
best brain tonic. In large doses, it 
may cause insanity, for a short 
time If the smoke of the burning 
root is inhaled, the effect is more 
swift and powerful. The patient 
thinks he is a dog and acts like a 
dog. 

"When you told me about the 
queer smoke with your old Medi- 
cine man, I suspected the negro had 
put this drug in his rival's pipe. 



When he proposed the same smoke 
with me, I watched him closely. 
This was easy, because he did not 
suspect me. 

"Inside of his tobacco pouch, 
there is a small pocket, filled with 
this dried rout, cut like tobacco. 
He filled his pipe and yours with 
tobacco. He put the dried root in 
my pipe and covered it with 
tobacco. 

"When we were ready to light 
our pipes, I made my voice shout 
'from the thicket. He dropped his 
pipe and bounded into the bushes. 
I changed the pipes. When Tfe 
came back, he smoked the pipe he 
had prepared for me." 

"I understand about the insane 
root," said the Sagamore. "It was 
a Saint Francis Indian who shouted 
from the bushes." 

"The voice said it was a Saint 
Francis Indian." laughed Washing- 
ton. "Your imagination did the 
rest. 

"We call it ventriloquism. It is 
not an Indian gift. This explains 
why it fooled the council so com- 
pletely." 

At this moment, a dog growled 
fiercely and snapped viciously at 
the Sagamore's heels. He thought 
the black Medicine Man had come 
back. Forgetting all the stoical 
training of a life time, he jumped 
and screamed, like a nervous 
woman. 

Then his eyes bulged, his mouth 
opened and his expression made 
Washington laugh. No dog was 
visible. 

The acute mind of the Sagamore 
comprehended the situation quick- 
ly. In his usual stoical voice, he 
said : 

"My white brother is a heap big 
Medicine. He will find the Evil 



326 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Spirit. The fearful cross will be 
seen no more on the foreheads of 
the dead." 

After a period of thought fill si- 
lence, Washington said: "1 can hesi- 
tate no longer. The bone must be 
removed from Smith's brain. I 
will get Dr. .Marshall. 

"When I tore the wig from his 
head, he ran toward the woods, 
yelping liked a scared dog. When 
he recovers from the drug", I think 
he will go to the hut in the Flume. 
Kindly look after him until I re- 
turn." 

"The Great Spirit has touched 
his mind," said the Sagamore. "He 
is sacred. . I will treat him as I 
would like to be treated." 

A few days later, Washington 
returned with Dr. Marshall. They 
found Smith at the hut. The sur- 
geon examined his wound. 

''Fine, fine," he exclaimed, with 
professional enthusiasm. "This is 
the greatest case of my life. He 
must have a good nurse. I would 
not lose this case now for the whole 
world." 

"We will take him to the Chase 
farm," replied Washington. "Mary 
will be the best nurse for him." 

Never had the condition of this 
unfortunate farmer seemed so piti- 
ful and hopeless. Not a glimmer of 
reason appeared in this darkened, 
mind. 

Washington put his hand on 
Smith's shoulder and said in a dis- 
tinct voice: "Mary." After he had 
repeated this word several times, 
the poor 'imbecile, with a most pain- 
ful effort, uttered his one word 
"Mary." 

The surgeon gave a start when 
he heard this unnatural voice. 

"Fine, fine," he exclaimed. "For 
many years, I have searched for 
this opportunity to study the 
human mind." 

Smith followed them to the Chase 
farm. When every thing was 
ready for the important operation, 



the skilled surgeon moved his hands 
in a peculiar manner quite close to 
Smith's eyes. The patient passed 
into a quiet sleep. 

The surgeon performed the criti- 
cal operation with the greatest 
care, assisted by Washington and 
Mary. When it was completed he 
exclaimed : 

"Fine, fine. I have removed 
every bit of bone from his brain. 
He will recover his reason perfect- 
ly. I will let him sleep 48 hours. 
This will give the wounds time to 
granulate well." 

Washington was absent during 
the week for several days. He took 
his dinner in a tin pail and appear- 
ed to be at work. In the evenings, 
he talked with Mary. 

One bright morning;, Washington 
met the good doctor, as he came 
from Smith's room. There was a 
broad grin on the doctor's cleanly 
shaven face. 

"How is Smith, this pleasant 
morning?" asked Washington. 

"Fine, finer than fine," laughed 
the tall doctor. "I entered Smith's 
room without knocking. He was 
kissing Alary for all he was worth. 
Fie told me very coolly that this 
treatment was better than all my 
medicine. I take this way to in- 
form you of their engagement." 

"This is an astonishing change 
from the pitiful imbecile in the 
lonely hut in the desolate FTume," 
laughed Washington. "But who 
will comfort the disconsolate Mas- 
ter of Paradise F'arm?" 

"You had better put that question 
to Mary," laughed the big doctor. 
"By the way, you have not told me 
how Alary escaped from Paradise." 

"Will you take a little walk and 
have a little talk, doctor? I may 
not be so interesting as Mary, but 
1 think I will interest you before we 
get back." 

"I am at your service," answered 
the doctor. 

When they were in the woods, 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



327 



Washington said : ''A bear carried 
Mary into Paradise and a bear car- 
ried Mary out of Paradise. She 
had the time of her life with bears. 

"As the Sagamore and I returned 
from the hut in the Flume, after our 
unsuccessful search for the mysteri- 
ous Avenger, we met James Jones, 
tlh. gardener at Paradise farm. lie 
informed us that Mary Chase was at 
this farm. 

"He said the Master of this farm 
was a good man, but not quite 
right in his mind. He thought we 
had better get Alary and take her 
home. 

"lie explained how Paradise farm 
is situated. He asked us not to go 
up the brook, as that might get him 
into trouble. 

"So the Sagamore, and I took 
sharp axes and cut a path through 
the undergrowth of the forest. The 
Sagamore worked like a lion. 1 
think he is in love with Mary. 

"When we got through the woods 
on the afternoon of the next day, 
I put on a bear's skin. I thought 
I could play bear as well as the 
other fellow. 

"I found Mary in the garden, 
asleep among the flowers. When 
I waked her up, she fainted, like a 
girl. 

"I carried her to the woods. 
Then the Sagamore and I took 
turns and carried her as fast as we 
could toward the Chase farm. 
\\ Ten Mary recovered, she did not 
appear to appreciate our strenuous 
efforts. 

"This is how a girl acts. A fellow 
breaks himself all up to rescue her 
from deadly danger. She calls 
him a darned fool, slaps his face and 
tries to go back, after more danger. 
Oh Lord, how can a fellow please 
a girl?" 

"This question is the greatest 
riddle of the age, for all genera- 
tions," laughed the big doctor. 
"Was it Solomon, the wisest of 



men. who wrote: 'There are three 
things, yea there are four, which 
are past finding - out; the way of a 
ship in the sea, the way of a serpent 
on a rock'; the way of a man with 
a maid, and the way of a girl with 
a fellow." '' 

There was a long silence. Sev- 
eral times the doctor glanced curi- 
ously at Washington. Finally, in a 
quiet voice, lie announced: 

'"My patient is now clothed and 
in his right mind. He asserts that 
he is William Plantagenet Windsor 
and that he is the Duke of York." 

Washington did not appear to be 
great!}' startled by this abrupt an- 
nouncement. In a voice as calm as 
the doctor's, he answered : 

"If you have transformed the piti- 
ful imbecile of the Flume into the 
proud Duke of York, what have you 
done with the unfortunate farmer, 
Joseph C. Smith? You are work- 
ing up to the worst mix-up on 
record." 

"The Duke of York has explained 
this matter quite clearly," replied 
the doctor. "He came to this 
country with a large amount of 
money to invest. He put these 
funds in a safe place. Then he 
visited the playmate of his child- 
hood, Joseph C. Smith, the son of 
the old gardener on his father's es- 
tate. 

"During the night, Indians at- 
tacked Smith's farm house. One 
of the first shots killed Smith. His 
body burned with his farm build- 
ings. 

"Mr. Windsor, Mrs. Smith and 
the children ran from the burning 
house toward the forest. A red 
warrior, with his tomahawk, struck 
Wirrcfcor down." 

"I have inquired about this af- 
fair, through Mary," said Washing- 
ton, with a twinkle in his keen 
eyes. "Windsor and Smith were 
about the same age, size and com- 
plexion. Smith, was so contented 



328 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



and happy with his family that he 
seldom left his Isolated farm, lie 
had no intimate acquaintances 
among the widely separated set- 
tlers. 

"The excited settlers hurried to 
the burning' farm building's in the 
night- They found a man. wound- 
ed and unconscious, in the dooi- 
yard. They thought he was the 
owner of the farm. 

"They carried this unconscious 
man to the Chase farm in the dark. 
Uncle Johnathan was not acquaint- 
ed with Smith. 

"As soon as the man recovered. 
he went to the lonely Flume to live. 
He had np visitors, except the 
Chase family and myself. 

"I have known other cases of 
mistaken identity that were more 
remar able than this one. I think, 
the hidden hand of God has prepar- 
ed the way. If we had not discov- 
ered the true identity of the im- 
becile, we never could have under- 
stood the extraordinary matters 
that I will soon show you." 

By this time they had reached 
the Flume. "What a wilderness of 
desolation," exclaimed the doctor. 
"I do not understand why any per- 
son should chose this hades for a 
home." 

"I brought you here to explain 
this point," laughed Washington. 
"You will soon learn the strange- 
secret of the Flume." 

They arrived at the strange habi- 
tation in the heart of the desolate 
Flume. This was a ri lde log cabin. 
The back of this building was close 
to the great cliff. 

Washington led the way to the 
back room, the bed room. He 
took down the clothing that had 
hung behind it. 

He lifted a small hasp in a dim 
corner. A log swung easily into 
the room, on two hinges. In the 
same way, he pulled in several other 
logs. 



*T never saw a door like this be- 
fore/' said the doctor. 

"It is unique," replied Washing- 
ton. "I will close it. You see the 
joints are so perfect you did not 
see them, a few feet away." 

"A tine job," said the doctor. 
"But why did he make this door so 
carefully? It opens on the bare 
rock of the great cliff." 

Washington reopened the log 
door. He pressed . two slight pro- 
jections of the rough rock. A stone 
door, in the cliff, swung open easily. 

The doctor rubbed his eyes and 
slapped his legs. "Am T awake or 
dreaming*?" he exclaimed. "This 
beats the Arabian Nights, right 
here, in old, commonplace New 
Hampshire." 

"Oh. this is easy to explain," 
laughed Washington. "The Duke 
of York is one of the best educated 
men of this age. He learned ali 
the best universities could teach 
him. Then he traveled three years. 

"Under the old temples and 
pyramids of Egypt, he saw stone 
doors like this one. ■ Fie learned 
how to make them. 

"You see, the stone is balanced 
so perfectly that it swings almost 
as easily as a wood door on hinges. 
When it is open, there are two en- 
trances, one on each side. 

"I have studied it carefully. I 
am sure I could make one myself 
and raise it into position, if I had 
the right tools and levers. This 
stone is only three inches above the 
rock floor on the other side. 

"The very slight projections are 
copper rods, with a stone top. 
These control the ingenious 
mechanism that fastens /the door 
firmly, when closed. To unlock it, 
press the lower one and then the 
upper, reverse this to lock it. 

"This stone door has been fitted 
to the aperture so perfectly that you 
did not see the joints, when 1 open- 
ed the log door." 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



329 



"1 think it is the only stone door 
of its kind in this country," said the 
doctor. "Mow did yon find it?' 1 

"I believe that the -hidden hand 
of God guided me to this carefully 
concealed door oi stone." answered 
Washington, reverently. "The 
sharp Sagamore and I searched this 
cabin carefully:. We found nothing. 

"I felt that 1 should find some- 
thing, if I searched alone. J came 
to this room, i soon found one of 
the hasps to the log door, ddie rest 
was easy. 

"When I discovered the stone 
door, I remembered what Uncle 
Kaiitiax had told me. lie has been 
in Egypt. He said that in the 
pyramids and under them, there are 
treasure rooms and secret chambers, 
these have hidden doors of stone, 
controlled by two projections, at 
the left side. To open these curious 
doors the guide pressed the lower 
projection and then the upper one. 

"I found these projections and I 
opened the stone door." 

"I never heard of anything like 
this before," said the doctor, who 
had become greatly interested. 
"What is beyond these wonderful 
doors?" 

"The mystery of the mountain," 
laughed Washington. "The work 
shop and store house of the Evil 
Spirit." 

CHAPTER VTII. 
THE MYSTERY OE THE MOUNTAIN 

Washington and Dr. Marshall 
went through the stone doorway 
into a spacious cave, lighted by ir- 
regular rifts in the rock top. These 
rifts were behind the overhanging 
and unclimbable cliff. 

"Here is a forge," .explained 
Washington. "Here are machines 
for working wood and iron. Over 
there are unfinished machines. 

"I found one finished machine. 
Its possibilities for killing people 
were so fearful that I broke it up." 



Washington lighted a torch and 
led the way into another cave. 

" This is a store room for all sorts 
oi contrivances." he said. "I have 
carried some of them out into the 
main cave, where there is a better 
light. We will now go back and 
examine them. 

"Mere is the prepared skin of a 
large bear. You see, it is skillfully 
padded, to protect the vital parts 
of the wearer. 

*'At the middle of the body, the 
skin is divided. The two parts are 
united with buttons. 

"'The wearer could unbuttom this 
skin in a moment. The two parts 
would make the best thing to break 
a trail 1 ever saw. He could con- 
ceal his tracks on any place for any 
distance. 

"Here are long coats and hunting 
shirts or frocks. They are made 
double. In a moment any of them 
can be turned into an entirely dif- 
ferent garment, in color and general 
appearance. 

'* These garments are made in 
pairs, one a size larger, so it can be 
worn over the other. The wearer 
can take them oil and break his 
trail for any distance. 

"It makes me feel like a fool. 
With all my training and experi- 
ence as a scout, 1 never thought of 
these simple ways of breaking a 
trail." 

"Such simple tilings are often 
the most effective and the hardest 
to think of," suggested the doctor. 
"1 will soon tell you a more im- 
portant reason for these, inven- 
tions." 

"Here is a chain armor," con- 
tinued Washington. "The small 
links are tempered steel. It is 
light and very flexible. Here is a 
steel helmet. 

"With this armor and the padded 
bear or wolf skin the Evil Spirit 
was well protected from any 
weapon of the Indians. 



330 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

"Here is a strong knife, with a "This operation might be repeat- 
long, keen blade." eel until the pieces of hone were 
"What are those marks on the worked out through the opening in 

handle?" asked the doctor. the seal]) that had been prepared by 

"They may be notches/' replied the repeated discharges of pus. 

Washington. These natural operations might re- 

1 lie good doctor shuddered. quire years to do what 1 did in a 

"The less we know about them, few minutes. 

the better," lie said. "With no connected information 

After a thoughtful silence, the about the life of Windsor since he 
good doctor . continued : "We will was struck down by the red war- 
sit down on these soft skins in this rior, I must base my diagnosis 
cool place. It is now my turn to largely upon what I have learned 
talk. from a careful examination of his 

"We have examined only a small wound, upon my experience in 

part of the wonderful inventions in similar cases and upon what I have 

these two caves. We have seen learned in these caves and from 

enough however to understand the other sources. I may not be quite 

matter in a general way. Minor right on some of my points. No 

matters may be considered later. two cases or minds are exactly 

"It is now clear that the learned alike. I will give you the best in- 
Duke of York, the successful Mas- formation I have about the most 
ter of Paradise farm, the crafty remarkable case I have ever known. 
black Medicine Man of the White "During the best stage of his 
Mountain Indians, the infamous wounded brain, when his mind was 
Evil Spirit and Avenger of these almost normal, Windsor was Mas- 
mountains, the lone worker and in- ter of Paradise, a successful farm- 
ventor in these hidden caves and er, a wonderful inventor, a kind, 
the pitiful imbecile in the log cabin good man. Still there was an in- 
in the desolate Flume are all the describ.able something about his 
same man under different condi- ' conduct that made his companions, 
tions of his mind. Mr. and Mrs. Jones, think he was 

"I removed five pieces of bone not quite right in his mind. I 

from Windsor's brain. These think this abnormal mind prevented 

pieces of bone had been broken from his return to England. I believe 

his skull separated from it. and hope that these periods in 

"This wound might heal in a Paradise were longer than any of 

natural way. These pieces of bone the other periods, 

might cause irritation in his brain. "When the pieces of bone irritat- 

This might develop into inrlamma- ed his brain and his brain became 

t.ion and swelling. Then an abscess more deranged, Windsor was the 

might gather. When this abscess black Medicine Man of the Pe- 

discharged, the pus might work the quakets. His gifted and educated 

pieces of bone a very little nearer mind made him the master of the 

to the surface. Indians." 

"This natural operation might re- "When inflammation and swelling 

lieve the wounded brain for a short increased the pressure on his brain, 

time. The swelling, inflammation Windsor became the Evil Spirit and 

and irritation might cease. There the Avenger. I think the avenger 

might be a period of rest for the was the Evil Spirit, with turnable 

troubled brain, to gain strength for garments, instead of a bear's skin, 

another effort. "During the worst part of this 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



period oi inflammation and swelling, 
he changed into the lone worker 
and wonderful inventor in the hid- 
den cave. 

''When the abscess almost paraly- 
zed his brain, Windsor became tne 
imbecile in the log cabin, lie was 
almost without reason. lie had 
very limited powers of motion and 
speech. 

"When the abscess discharged, 
Windsor became ' the cave worker 
again. As his brain improved, he 
climbed slowly up through the 
other three stages back to Paradise. 

"Yon may now understand why 
Windsor's diseased mind gave the 
peculiar name of Paradise to his 
fair, fruitful farm, on which he 
passed the most pleasant periods of 
his strange, abnormal life." 

"I want to ask a few questions," 
said Washington. "First, can the 
Duke of York finish his inven- 
tions?" 

"No and yes," replied the learn- 
ed doctor. "When the mind is 
normal, the objective mind and the 
subjective mind balance each other. 
The normal mind may well be call- 
ed the balanced mind. 

"The injury to the Duke of York's 
brain weakened his objective mind. 
This gave his subjective mind the 
controlling power." 

"The subjective mind is the 
source of all inventions. It may 
well be called the inventive mind. 

"During the period of the cave 
worker, when his objective mind 
was almost paralyzed by the great 
pressure on his brain, Windsor's 
subjective mind, thus freed, would 
have an almost unprecedented 
capacity for inventions. Pie might 
invent more in a few months than 
a normal mind could invent in many 
years. His machines for killing 
people may be a century in advance 
of our time." 

"This encourages me to tell you 
what I have kept to myself," inter- 



rupted Washington. "I think, the 
finished machine was designed to 
move through the air and to drop 
explosives upon Indian forces and 
villages." 

"\ou did right, when you des- 
troyed it," said the doctor. "The 
less the world knows obout such 
machines the better. 

"I can now answer your question 
more clearly. In my opinion, the 
normal mind of the Duke of York 
cannot finish these machines in this 
cave. If you should guide him in- 
to this cave, he would not know 
that he had ever been here. His 
normal mind would neither recog- 
nize nor understand the machines 
that his abnormal mind has invent- 
ed and constructed. 

"On the other hand, the Master 
of Paradise farm made his inven- 
tions when his mind was almost 
normal. These inventions are very 
different. They are improvements 
in farm tools and machines, im- 
provements in grinding and sifting 
grains and improvements in house 
furnishings." 

"The Duke of York can finish 
those inventions. But they may 
not interest him now." 

"Can the Duke of York remem- 
ber what has happened since his 
injury?" asked Washington. 

"His mental condition was anal- 
ogous to sleep," answered the doc- 
tor. "When you sleep, your ob- 
jective mind sleeps too. Then 
your subjective mind, which never 
sleeps, has full control. The sub- 
jective mind is the source of all 
dreams. It may be clearer to say 
that dreams are one of the many 
inventions of the subjective mind. 

"During sleep, dreams are con- 
tinuous. We are only conscious of 
those dreams that occur during the 
intermediate period between sleep- 
ing and waking. We only remem- 
ber clearly those dreams that occur 
at the moment of wakine. 



332 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



"During the periods of the im- 
becile and the cave worker. Wind- 
sor's objective mind was almost 
paralyzed or asleep. He can have 
no memory of what happened dur- 
ing- that time. 

"He can have no connected mem- 
ory of wdiat happened during" the 
periods of the Evil Spirit and of the 
Medicine Man. 

"By the way, during these peri- 
ods. Windsor's subjective mind in- 
vented the strangest, strongest plot 
I have ever known. As the Medi- 
cine Man, he taught the Indians to 
fear the Evil Spirit, increased their 
superstitious terror and prevented 
any united . effort to destroy this 
scourge of the tribes. As the Evil 
Spirit, he killed the red warriors 
and cut his fearful cross on their 
foreheads. As the Cave Worker, he 
invented fearful machines to kill a 
great many Indians at one time." 

"lit. a short time, this abnormal 
man might have exterminated the 
Indians who had wronged him. I 
believe, as you do, that the hidden 
hand of God is guiding this strange 
affair to a most satisfactory con- 
clusion. 

"In ray opinion, Windsor will re- 
member his pleasant life on his 
mountain farm. To his normal 
mind, those memories will not be 
quite so real as his other memories 
of his home in England. He will 
go home. 

"Did the Imbecile change to the 
Avenger in the glen?'' was Wash- 
ington's final question. 

"As an analogous case, a clot of 
blood in his brain may change a 
strong, vigorous man to a helpless, 
speechless paralytic in an instant," 
replied the doctor. "If this clot 
could be removed, he might be re- 
stored in an instant. So, if the ef- 
fects of the bones in the imbecile's 
brain were alleviated, he might be 
transformed in an instant. His 
swiftest change would naturally 



follow the discharge of the abscess. 

"In the natural course, his other 
changes would be slower, in accord 
with the conditions of his mind. 
But any powerful emotion, especial- 
ly love, might excite his unbalanced 
mind to unusual conditions. You 
know, a powerful emotion may ex- 
cite a normal mind to insanity. 

"I think, the man who came from 
the glen was the cave worker. He 
naturally resumed his work, as 
though he had awakened from 
sleep. 

"1 will now consider my most 
important point. The subjective 
mind lias other powers that we are 
beginning to develop and to par- 
tially understand. 

"The subjective mind has domin- 
ion over all other creatures. By its 
power, some persons handle deadly 
snakes. A girl, with her objective 
mind locked by artificial sleep, was 
recently sent into a collection of 
ferocious, wild beasts. She went 
among them without fear and they 
obeyed her. 

"The subjective mind may cure 
disease. You saw me put Windsor 
to sleep, so lie felt no pain when I 
cut his head open. He obeyed me. 
The subjective mind may transfer 
thoughts to another mind at any 
distance. It may discover what 
happens at any distance. It may 
produce a visible form, resembling 
any person, send it to any place 
and endow it, in a limited way, with 
motion and speech. This has been 
done by several persons. It is done 
by concentrating the mind on this 
desire for a sufficient time. 

"At the moment of death, when 
the objective mind is weakest and 
the subjective strongest, a power- 
ful desire to accomplish a certain 
purpose may cause the subjective 
mind to produce an apparition that 
will try, for a limited time, to ac- 
complish the desired purpose. The 
best authorities maintain that the 



THE WHITE MOUNTAIN MYSTERY 



333 



subjective mincl may call back an- 
other subject ve mind to the body, 
which it has just left, and thus re- 
store life to the dead. So far as I 
know, this has not yet been done, 
except by the perfect subjective 
mind of Christ. 'What I have done 
vou can do,' is Christ's message to 
the world. 

"I will go no further into this 
interesting subject. 1 have told 
you this so you may understand my 
final point more clearly. 

"The Evil Spirit, with his objec- 
tive mind dormant and his subjec- 
tive in control, may have possessed 
some of the supernatural powers 
that the superstitious Indians at- 
tributed to him. When Windsor 
in the disguise of a negro, told the 
old Sagamore that he had been 
given power over other men, he 
may have, told the truth. How 
true are these words from the Bible, 
'We are fearfully and wonderfully 
ma^e.' " 

"I now understand the situation 
and know what to do/' said Wash- 
ington. "To prevent the horrors 
of an Indian war, we will destroy 
the bear skin, wolf skin, turnable 
garments, knife and all other things 
that connect the Evil Spirit with a 
white man. We will now carry 
them into the cabin." 

When this had been done, the 
doctor inquired : "What shall we do 
about the cave and its other con- 
tents?" 

"We .will leave it to Higher 
Power," answered Washington. 
We will close the stone door. The 
log cabin will burn with great heat. 
This may close the door permanent- 
ly or open it." 

They waited until the log cabin 
had burned. "The door is closed," 
said the doctor. 

"Who will reopen it?" laughed 
Washington. 

Then they turned and strode 
swiftly "out of this story. 



William Plantagenet Windsor 
and Mary Sarah Chase were mar- 
ried by Rev. Theodore Hooker from 
Concord. The record of this mar- 
iage may be found in the capital 
city. 

The Duke and Duchess of York 
arrived in England a short time 
after the death of his father. 

The Duchess of York was well 
received, on account of her long 
lineage. When William, the Con- 
querer, prepared to invade England, 
he was joined by Edmund La 
Chass.ee, a younger son of the Duke 
of Brittany. William welcomed 
this powerful ally and soon learned 
to esteem him for his good qualities. 
After the Conquest, William gave 
La Chassee a title and estate. He 
changed his family name to its 
English translation, Chase. The 
. Chase coat of arms is one of the 
oldest. 

When spring came. Mary yearn- 
ed for the pleasant home among 
New Hampshire's matchless moun- 
tains. It was easy to persuade 
her husband to go back to Paradise. 
They passed many pleasant sum- 
mers at the fair farm on the moun- 
tain top. "And it came to pass 
that after many days" the merry 
voices of happy children were heard 
in the beautiful gardens of Para- 
dise. 

The writer was born among these 
White Mountains. When my sight 
was failing, I returned to the 
scenes of my childhood. How 
many times, I have sat under the 
old oak by the refreshing spring and 
thought about the strange history 
of this forsaken, family farm on the 
mountain top. In this narrative "I 
have extenuated naught and set 
down naught in malice." I have 
only changed a few family names. 

The End. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE'S MOST FRIENDLY TREES 



/>'v. Rev. Roland D. Sawyer 



No. 6. 

The Chestnuts 

The Chestnut . Tree speaks of 
leisure and quiet, arid is hence the 
typical tree for the languid month 
of August. Where can one find so 
delightful a spot as beneath the 
thick shade of a chestnut on a hot 
and dry August day? I know of 
no tree more beautiful than a chest- 
nut tree, if it grow out by itself 
and develop into the fine cone-like 
mountain of ' thick foliage. The 
horse chestnut grows in the same 
way; a beautiful cone like a well 
made stack of hay, with, the most 
thick foliage. The horse-chestnut 
has the more beautiful flower, but 
its foliage is more heavy and less 
graceful than the regular chestnut. 

The leaf of the chestnut is large 
and richly green, which crown its 
fine shape and splendidly arching 
branches with a beauty unequalled. 

The flowers of the chestnut be- 
come full of a delicate odor the 
earh' day? of July and last till the 
middle of the month, and they 
possess an odor that mosquitoes do 
not like, and the ground beneath 
a chestnut is a fine place to camp, 
as the mosquitoes keep away. 

I think the coloring of the chest- 
nut is the purest green of any of 
the trees, they cluster in stars and 
have long tapering and graceful 
shapes. The chestnut is the one 
tree, where growing - out alone on a 



plain, the diameter will equal its 
height. Grown in closely filled 
clumps the chestnut grows like the 
oak, tall, straight and powerful, 
and makes a grove of rare dignity 
in an old growth. 

The Greek and Roman poets 
speak with deep feeling of the 
chestnut, and when we spend an 
hour beneath its branches we may 
know we are enjoying what the 
great classical souls enjoyed 2,000 
years ago. And as one sits beneath 
these noble branches he looks aloft 
and sees forming the most delicious 
morsel that nature shapes up for 
the tooth of man— there hung high 
aloft is the chestnut. And nature 
carefully guards that morsel; wrap- 
ped in a silken wrapper, enclosed in 
a leathery jacket and packed in a 
prickly pulp case, it is safely pro- 
tected from insects and vermin till 
ripened. Carefully has nature lock- 
ed that morsel in its mass of por- 
cupine spines. 

And while lying here take one of 
the chestnut leaves and compare it 
with a beech leaf or any other. 
Where can you find such a shape, 
and such grace of the parallel veins, 
sweeping with g'racefulness in exact 
parallels. Nature put lots of work 
into making a chestnut tree, and 
slow indeed must be the soul of a 
man to respond to the work of 
Nature, if he does not enjoy to the 
full this fine tree, 



33S. 



THE BROWN TRAIL'S CREED 

By Mary Elisabeth Smith. 

Beyond the valley the trail began, through meadows 

made itb way. 
But stopped at times by a gurgling brook and hid as if 

in play. 
Tho loth to leave, yet it started on— then twisted, 

turned a will, 
Only to face about at last and zigzag up the hill. 

Upon the hillside, huge, sombre pines let pungent 

branches down, 
To kiss the face of the liny trail, and veil with needles' 

brown. 
They rocked and swayed to a rhythmic tune, their arms 

reached far and wide, 
But the trail slipped from them and hied away, up the 

mountain's ragged side. 

The east wind roared, danced about in glee and flitted 

on before, 
While fire-flies flashed their brightest light above a 

small tent door. 
The brown trail paused by the smould'ring fire a stricken 

soul to greet ; 
He had crept away like a wounded stag into this wild 

retreat. 

The trail caressed as a mother will, and healed the 

bruised heart, 
Then sent him back to the world of men, to work, and 

do his part. 
The trail of life — no eye can sec — nor the goal ; where 

does it lead ? 
And since we can not retrace our steps, let us follow 

brown trail's creed. 



EDITORIAL 



At this writing, the chief impres- 
sion which the present presidential 
campaign makes upon the average 
citizen is one of mdefiniteiiess. In 
tins section of the country,; at least, 
Senator Harding' and Governor 
Cox mean nothing to the popular 
mind hut names of two men from 
Ohio. Neither is identified with 
any great question, any strong 
position, any notable achievement. 
Each is the editor of a country 
daily; and each, contrary to the 
usual rule in .regard to newspaper 
men in politics, has been financial- 
ly and politically successful. 
Neither would have been consider- 
ed a presidential possibility had he 
resided elsewhere than in Ohio. 
Each is the head of a kangaroo tick- 
et. 

If the presidential candidates of 
the two parties make only a nega- 
tive impression on the mind of the 
average voter, their platforms make 
no impressions at all. The Repub- 
licans at Chicago tried to assemble 
a document which should mean 
everything and nothing. To an al- 
most unprecedented degree, they 
succeeded. With this remarkable 
production as a model, the Demo- 
crats at San Francisco tried to out- 
dodge this triumph of dodging; — 
and it is not for us to say that they 
failed. 

Is theie then in this dense fog 
above the political swamp nothing 
upon which one can stand with 
comfortable security while marking 
a cross at the head of his ticket? If 
there is, we fail to find it. The 
way out is not through a third 
party. The time is not ripe for it 
and if it were, there is no leader 
in sight. 

And yet there are among the 
leaders of both parties plenty of 
men whose ability, courage and 
honesty w r e all recognize and in 
whom we have confidence. Why 



not realize upon these assets? Why 
not use their names to create in 
some of us more enthusiasm For 
part}- success than we now feel? 
And, taking a higher plane, why 
not put them to work for the nation 
at a time when they are sorely 
needed? 

To be explicit, if Senator Hard- 
ing should announce that, in the 
event of his election as president, 
he would invite Elihu Root to be 
his secretary of state; Herbert 
Hoover to be his secretary of com- 
merce or labor, and John W. W eeks 
to be his secretary of the treasury 
or the navy ; and so on with men of 
equal standing for the various cabi- 
net posts, it would give some of us 
a greater feeling of security than we 
now feel as to the welfare of the 
nation following his election. 

We write from the standpoint of 
a Republican by inheritance, belief 
and practice ; but it seems to us 
that we should say the same things 
•as to Governor Cox if our party 
label were Democratic. 

In the early years of our history 
as a nation really great men were 
in the majority among cabinet 
members. No one will claim that 
such has been the case during the 
present century. But if that cus- 
tom were restored ; if our best men 
were secured for cabinet portfolios ; 
if they were given opportunity as 
well as responsibility; if they were 
treated as associates and advisers 
of the Chief Executive, rather than 
as his errand boys and clerks ; if 
they were interposed as a buffer be- 
tween executive and legislative 
jealousies ; we have faith to believe 
that our government affairs could 
be carried on with greater economy, 
efficiency and dignity, and that 
some of us would have more rea- 
son to be proud of and satisfied 
with our party affiliation. 



?3> 



BOOKS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



Americans by Adoption. By 
Joseph Husband. Illustrated. 
"Pp. 153. (loth, $1.50. Boston: 
The Atlantic Monthly Press. 

"Americans by Adoption" is a 
good book. We wish it might be 
used as a textbook in every public 
school in the land. It is well writ- 
ten and interesting-, It shows that 
the United States is and always has 
been the land of opportunity. It 
gives in brief the lives of nine great 
men and shows their relation to 
their times. It shows that environ- 
ment ma}- handicap or help success, 
but cannot prevent it. And. final- 
ly, it shows that success is not 
merely the making - of money; not 
at all the making of money, unless 
that money be used for the benefit 
of mankind; 

The nine men to whom a chapter 
each is given are Stephen Girard, 
son of a merchant of Bordeaux, who 
saved the credit of the nation and 
gave one of the great fortunes of his 
time to charity; John Ericsson, son 
of a Swedish iron miner, whose 
Monitor saved the day for the 
North against the South; Louis 
Agassiz, son of a Swiss clergyman, 
who gave Americans their first and 
best lessons in the book of nature ; 
Carl Schurz, son of a German 
schoolmaster, who raised the plane 
of our politics and journalism ; 
Theodore Thomas, son of the Stad- 
tpfeifer or town musician of Essen, 
Germany, who did more than any 
other man to make good music 
popular in this country; Andrew 
Carnegie, son of a Scotch w r eaver, 
who perfected the American steel 
industry and gave $350,000,000 of 
its profits to education and other 
worthy causes; James J. Hill, born 
in a log cabin on a Canadian farm, 



who built the empire of the North- 
west ; Augustus Saint-Gaudens, 
born of a French father and an Irish 
mother in a Dublin cobbler's shop, 
who made the noblest and truest of 
American sculptures ; and Jacob A. 
Kiis, one of the 14 children of a 
Danish schoolmaster, who let the 
first light of day into darkest New 
York. 

President William Allan Neilson 
of Smith College, himself a native 
of Scotland, contributes a worthy 
word of introduction to the volume, 
which, he says, should have been 
called "Americans by Choice/' be- 
cause "we who have of our own ac- 
cord left the old world and taken 
up citizenship in the new know that 
we have chosen her, not she. us." 

"Americans by Adoption" or 
"Americans by Choice" is a book of 
New Hampshire interest because 
Theodore Thomas and Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens spent much of their 
last years among us, at Bethlehem 
and at Cornish, where their memo- 
ries are still revered, and their 
homes and haunts are preserved by 
their widows. 

"In 1885 Saint-Gaudens moved 
from the city (New York)", says 
his biographer, "and established his 
family in an old" Colonial house at 

Cornish, New Hampshire 

Here was open country, a land of 
green hills and blue sky, a place 
where the man to whom beauty was 
a living thing might find widening 
inspiration." There he did much 
of his best work, there "in the quiet 
peace of the New Hampshire hills 
his spirit passed," on the third of 
August, 1907, and there his studio 
remains, a museum of his art, 
which should become a shrine for 
artists from the four corners of the 
earth. 



338 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

"Americans by Adoption'' is of volume is printed for its publishers, 

further New Hampshire interest . like their other attractive books, by 
because the handsome, well-made the Rum ford Press of Concord. 



THE DAY 

By Frances Mary Pray. 

Morning in the garden, the flowers all unfolding. 
Sunlight gleams reflected from the gleaming drops of 

dew, 
Clearest bird songs filling ail the leaf-hid boughs and 

tree tops. 
Jo.y of work awaiting, and the day yet fresh and new. 

Noontime on the high road, the dusty flowers drooping. 
Twisting, writhing heat waves rising in the blind- 
ing glare, 
Shrill cicada clamor breaking in upon the silence, 
Dragging feet plod onward, head bent low, heart full 
of care. 



Evening from the hilltop, the West all wondrous sunset, 
Purple mist veils floating thru the valley far below, 
Clear and sweet the calling of the. thrush from woodland 

dimness. 
Rest and peace and quiet in the golden after glow. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



BENJAMIN F. HANSON. 

Former Mayor Benjamin Frank Flan- 
son of Somersworth died suddenly at his 
home in that city. June 24. He -was born 
in Somersworth, December i2, 1848, the 
son of Benjamin F. and' Mary E. (Lib- 
bey) Hanson; and was educated at the 
San ford. Me., public schools and tin- 
Lebanon, Me., Academy. During most of 
his life he was engaged in the livery 
business in Somersworth and was one of 
the most expert horsemen in the state. 
A Democrat in politics, he was promi- 
nent in public affairs, serving in the Legis- 
lature, as commissioner of Strafford 
county, as city treasurer, as mayor of 
Somersworth five terms, as judge of the 



i 



l?- - : r-i-s 



The late Benjamin F. Hanson. 

Somersworth district court, and as chair- 
man of the board of cemetery trustees. 
He was a director of the Somersworth 
National Bank and president of the Han- 
son Family Association. Mr. Hanson was 
a Mason of lodge, chapter, and com- 
mandcry, and a Patron of Husbandry, 
having been master of his local and Po- 
mona granges and a district and Pomona 
deputy of the State Grange. He attend- 
ed the Baptist church. Mr. Hanson mar- 
ried October 25, 1866, Fannie T. Thomp- 
son of Shapleigh, Me. Their one son, 
Bert, a graduate of -Phillips Exeter, Yale 
?nd the Cornell Law School, is a lawyer 



in New York City, where he. has served 
as assistant district attorney and is now 
connected with the United States Customs 
service. 



DR. I. A. LOVELAND. 



Israel Albert Loveland, M.D., was borrt 
in Gilsurn, November 3, 1850, tiie soli of 
Israel Ik and Sarah (Thompson) Love- 
land, and died at his home in Keene, July 
5. Lie was educated at Marlow Academy 
and at the Dartmouth Medical College 
from which he graduated in 1874. After 
practicing medicine for 35 years in West- 
moreland and Gilsurn he removed to 
Keene in 1909 and engaged in the real 
estate and insurance business. He was 
a member of county, state and national 
medical societies and a contributor to 
medical journals, his specialty being nerv- 
ous diseases and drug habits. While at 



■^~^M 



The late Dr. I. A. Loveland. 

Westmoreland he was physician to the 
county institutions and superintendent of 
schools ; and at Gilsurn he was post- 
master and executive officer of the board 
of health. He was a Republican in poli- 
tics; a member of the Masonic order and 
Patrons of Husbandry, and of the official 
board of Grace Methodist church, Keene. 
He also held several offices of trust in 
connection with his business relations. 



340 



THE GRANITE .MONTHLY 



Dr. Loyeland married, first. October 21, 
1875, Lucv Mahaia, daughter of General 
Daniel W." pill, and. alter her death, Miss 
Mary Elizabeth Gurm, who survives him. 
with two daughters by his first marriage. 
Fannie, wife of D. YV. Felch of Brattle- 
boro, Vt., and Ada. wife of Prof. W. 
Bridge Jones of Ashland. Wisconsin 



HENRY L. BARNARD. 

Henry L. Barnard of Troy, well known 
resident of Cheshire county,- passed away 
\ ery suddenly July 5. Born in Marlboro, 
January 23, 1861, the third son oi Calvin 
and Mary Perkins Barnard, he came to 
Troy while young and there was prepared 
in the public schools for New Hampshire 
College at Hanover, when he graduated in 
the class of JSBi. After finishing his col- 
lege course he located in Troy, working 
as clerk in a general store, which he later 
bought and conducted until his death. 
He- was a valued member of the Congre- 
gational church and had served as trustee, 
deacon and Sunday School superintendent 



for many years. He was prominent in 
Masonic and Odd Fellow circles, having 
served as District Deputy Grand Lecturer 
in the Masonic order and was a Past 
District Deputy o\ the Odd Fellows. Jh 
was also a member of Hugh de Payens 
Commandery, Knights Templar of Keene 
In politics he was a staunch Republican. 
He had served as member of the School 
Board of the town and was moderator at 
the time of his decease. For many years 
he was one of the trustees of the Public 
Library, clerk of the Board of Water Com- 
missioners, and one of the executive com- 
mittee of the County Y. M. C. A. A man 
who filled every position of trust with 
marked ability, thus winning for himself 
a high place among the citizens of his town. 
always ready to take an active pari in all 
matters pertaining to the public welfare, 
never shirking a duty and never turning a 
deaf ear or a closed palm to any worthy 
object, he will be greatly missed in his 
home, in the church, and in all the various 
activities of Troy. June 24th, 1903, Mr. 
Barnard married Miss Luetta M. King of 
Keene, who survives him, together with 
two brothers and three sisters. 



BUTTERFLY 



By Albert Annett. 

Loiterer in the Sun's highway ! 
Vagrant of a summer day! 
Staggering from feast to feast, 
Never doubting in the least 
All the world was made for you — 
Your own law and gospel too — 
Sun-drop! blossom of the air! 
Do you remember, floating there, 
The worm and darksome chrysalis 
From which you rose to joy like this? 






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His Life and Rforks. 



HAJBLAX C TEABS05, Pal 
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The late Benjamin A. Kimball. 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Vol. LII. 



SEPTEMBER, 1920 



No. 9 



BENJAMIN A. KIMBALL 



Bx II. C. Peon 



When Benjamin ' Ames Kimball 
passed away, at his summer home- 
in Gilford, in the morning of Mon- 
day, July 23, 1920, the city of Con- 
cord and the. state of New ilamp- 
shire lost their first citizen. In a 
few weeks he would have complet- 
ed eighty-seven years of a life as 
distinguished for its usefulness and 
honor as for" the long period of its 
active accomplishment, extending 
to the very end. 

The tributes to Mr. KirnbaT's 
memory, which followed his death, 
came from all classes of people; 
from those to whom he was, first, 
the loyal and helpful friend ; from 
the representatives of religious, 
educational and philanthropic in- 
stitutions, in whose direction and 
support he had been a tower of 
strength ; from his associates in the 
various lines of business in which 
he had been so successful ; and from 
those who appreciated fully the 
great value of his public service, 
both as a railroad executive and as 
an agent of the commonwealth. 

Said General Frank S. Streeter in 
a newspaper interview : "It is no 
exaggeration to say that Concord 
owes more to 'Ben' Kimball than 
to any other single citizen in its 

entire history His great 

public service entitles him to an 
enduring monument in the affec- 
tion and memory of his fellow citi- 
zens." 

Similar apprecation was voiced in 
the editorial columns of the state's 
leading newspapers and was evi- 
denced by the distinction of those 



who came from all parts of the 
state and from Boston and New 
York to attend the simple funeral 
service at the home in Concord on 
the Friday following his death. 
And, a little later, when Mr. Kim- 
ball's last will and testament was 
filed for probate and its philan- 
thropic content became known, 
there was further expression, pub- 
lic and private, in praise of the 
qualities of mind and heart which 
had combined in planning such 
benefits for future generations. 

Benjamin Ames Kimball was 
born in Boscawen, August 22, 1833, 
the son of Benjamin and Ruth 
(Ames) Kimball, and the descend- 
ant in the eighth generation of 
Richard Kimball, who arrived in 
Ipswich, Mass., colony in the ship, 
Elizabeth, in 1634. The branch of 
the family to which Benjamin A. 
Kimball belonged removed to 
New Hampshire, at Exeter, about 
1720. and in 1788 his great-grand- 
father, Joseph Kimball, became a' 
resident of Canterbury. There the 
family remained, one of the most 
active and prominent in the town, 
until 1824, when Benjamin Kimball 
crossed the Merrimack river to Bos- 
cawen ; dammed the Contoocook 
river near the town line between 
Boscawen and Concord ; and erect- 
ed there in 1831 a brick building, 
which still stands, for use as a grist 
and saw mill. He was a leading 
citizen of the community, and was 
elected to the Legislature in the 
March before his death, on July 
21, 1834. 






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BENJAMIN A. KIMBALL 



345 



He had married February 1, 1820, 
Ruth, daughter of David and Phebe 
(Hoit) Ames, and after his death 
the widow went to Concord with 
her two sons, little Benjamin and 
his- older brother, John, after- 
words ma} or of Concord and styled 
in trie city history. ■ "the most 
trusted man in Concord." 

Benjamin A. Kimball attended 
the schools of Concord and the Hil- 
dreth School at Deny in prepara- 
tion for Dartmouth College, which 
he entered, as a member of the 
Chandler Scientific Department, 
with the class of 1854. He earn- 
ed the degree of Bachelor of 
Science, with high honors, upon 
graduation, .and in 1908 his alma 
mater conferred upon him the hon- 
orary degree of Master of Arts. 
Mr. Kimball was the permanent 
secretary of his class and in that 
capacity had recorded the passing 
of all its members, with one excep- 
tion. 

The class at graduation number- 
ed 61, of whom the best known, in 
New Hampshire, were General 
John Eaton and Colonel Daniel 
Hall, but whose general average of 
success in life and distinguished 
service was unusually high. 

Mr. Kimball served as a member 
of the Board of Visitors to the 
Chandler Scientific Department 
from 1890 to 1895. and when, in the 
latter year, he began his long and 
valuable service as a trustee of the 
college, one of his first concerns 
was the complete merger of the C. 
S. D. with the college proper. 
During his quarter of a century as 
trustee, Mr. Kimball served on the 
finance committee of the board, 
much of the time as its chairman, 
and in this capacity his great busi- 
ness ability and experience were of 
inestimable benefit to the college 
in the days of its wonderful growth 
and expansion. 

The wisely generous provisions 



in his ■ will for his college showed 
him in death as in life a loyal 
Dartmouth man, ever desirous of 
promoting the best interests of the 
institution. 

Returning to Concord after his 
graduation at Hanover, Mr. Kim- 
ball entered the employ of the Con- 
cord railroad shop, of which his 
brother, John, was master me- 
chanic. After two years as a 
draftsman he become superinten- 
dent of the locomotive department 
and made the plans from which the 
Tahanto and other famous loco- 
motives of the early days of New 
Hampshire railroading were built. 
He had himself become master 
mechanic, when in 1865 he resigned 
from the service of the railroad to 
become one of the founders of the 
firm of Ford and Kimball, manu- 
facturers of car wheels and other 
iron and brass products. Through- 
out the remainder of his life he 
continued his connection with this 
substantial and successful Concord 
industry, widely famous for the 
high quality, maintained through 
so many years, of its output. 

But his interests soon began to 
broaden. In 1873 he was chosen a 
director of the Manchester and 
North Weare Railroad. In 1879 he 
succeeded the late Governor On- 
slow Stearns as a director of the 
Concord Railroad. In 1895 he be- 
came president of the Concord and 
Montreal Railroad, formed by the 
consolidation of the Concord and 
Boston, Concord and Montreal 
Railroads, and so continued until, 
within the past year, the Concord 
and Montreal was merged into the 
Boston and Maine system. 

At that time Mr. Kimball be- 
came a director of the Boston and 
Maine and held that position at 
the time of his death. lie was also 
president and director of the Pemi- 
gewasset Valley Railroad, Mount 
Washington Railroad, New Boston 



%</L 



m 



BENJAMIN A. KIMBALL 



347 



Railroad and the Nashua and Ac- 
ton Railroad. 

It would be hard to. over estimate 
the importance of Mr. Kimball's 
work and the degree of Ins influ- 
ence in railroad matters in New 
Hampshire. The present homo- 
geneity of our state system .is large- 
ly due to him, to his far-seeing in- 
telligence and to his persistent ef- 
forts in the direction of consolida- 
tion, co-operation' and improved 
service. 

In an editorial tribute to his 
memory, Hon. James O. Lyford 
points out that "From almost the 
beginning of his railroad activity, 
Mr. Kmball was «a strong advocate 
of a New Hampshire system of rail- 
roads, owned and operated within 
the state. If his advice and that of 
Col. John H. George had been fol- 
lowed, the old Concord Railroad 
would have leased the Lowell Rail- 
road when it could have been leas- 
ed at five per cent or less, and thus 
have secured terminal facilities in 
Boston. The consolidations that 
later took place would have thus 
been with the Concord Railroad as 
the parent road. The Boston and 
Maine railroad subsequently leased 
the Lowell Railroad at a much 
higher rate. With the Concord 
Railroad having terminal facilities 
in Boston the history of the North- 
ern New England railroads might 
have been different than it is." 

He was one of the first to com- 
prehend the magnitude of the possi- 
ble development of New Hamp- 
shire as a state of summer resorts 
and summer homes, and for that 
purpose, as well as for the benefit 
of the farms and factories of the 
state, he brought about the con- 
struction of various branch lines 
and extensions without which the 
Granite State could hardly have 
won and merited its title of the 
Switzerland of America. 

The position of Mr. Kimball in 



the railroad world was of especial 
benefit to his home city of Concord, 
as shown, first, by the construction 
in 1887 of the. spacious and hand- 
some passenger station, one of the 
architectural ornaments of the capi- 
tal; and, second, by the retention 
here and the very great enlarge- 
ment of the railroad shops, which, 
with a thousand men employed, 
are now Concord's chief industry. 

For more than thirty years 
President Kimball's private office in 
the southwest corner of the second 
floor of the passenger station build- 
ing was the center of New Hamp- 
shire activity, accomplishment and 
influence to a greater extent than 
any other one room in the state. 

Mr. Kimball's business connec- 
tions were not only those of the 
railroad executive and the success- 
ful manufacturer. He was a trus- 
tee and president of the Concord 
Savings Bank during its existence 
and at the time of his death was a 
trustee of the Merrimack County 
Savings Bank and a director and 
president since 1884 of the Me- 
chanicks National Bank, succeeding 
in that capacity the late Josiah 
Minot. 

In 1885, when foreign insurance 
companies withdrew from New 
Hampshire in protest against our 
4 valued policy" law, and it became 
the duty of public-spirited citizens 
to form mutual companies to meet 
the needs of the situation, Mr. 
Kimball was an incorporator and a 
director of the Manufacturers and 
Merchants Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company. 

He was also one of the found- 
ers, a director and president of the 
Cushman Electric Company of 
Concord ; and president and direc- 
tor of the Beechers' Falls Company 
at Beechers Falls, Vt., and of the 
Concord Light and Power Com- 
pany. 

In spite of the demands of his 



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BENJAMIN A. KIMBALL 



349 



various business activites, Mr. 
Kimball found much time to devote 
to the public service, not as a poli- 
tician seeking office, but as an in- 
fluential citizen promoting the wel- 
fare of his city and state. 

A Republican in politics, Mr. 
Kimball was a member of the State. 
House of Representatives in 1872, 
and was a delegate to three con- 
ventions, those of 1876, 1889 and 
1902, to propose amendments to the 
constitution of the state. II e was 
an alternate delegate to the national 



system in Concord, for instance, he 
was a prominent factor. He had 
much to do with the fruition of the 
Fowler' Public Library plans. He 
was one of the commission which 
produced the excellent city history. 
His was a large share in the satis- 
factory location of the Concord 
federal building and in the enlarge- 
ment of the state house. Governor 
Moody Currier delegated to him 
the choice and preparation of the 
site for the statue of Daniel Web- 
ster in the state house yard. He 



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New Hampshire State Library 



convention of his party in 1884 
and a delegate- at-large to the con- 
vention of 1902. In 1884 he was 
elected to the executive council. 
Higher political honors he stead- 
fastly declined, though they could 
have been easily gained by one of 
his power, influence and following. 
Rut in far less than the usual de- 
gree does the list of the offices he 
held comprehend the extent of his 
public service. In bringing about 
the construction of a citv water 



was commissioner from New 
Hampshire to the convention at 
Philadelphia, December 2, 1886, 
which arranged the program in 
commemoration of the one hun- 
dredth anniversary of the adoption 
of the federal constitution on 
September 15, 16 and 17, 1887. 

To some of us the three most im- 
portant buildings in Concord's 
beautiful civic center, the state 
house, the state library building 
and the home of the New Hamp- 



350 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



shire Historical Society, seem, in a 
way, monuments to Mr. Kimball. 

In 1863. while be was a young 
man, he had a part in the hard fight 
which Concord had _ to wage in 
order to retain her position as the 
state capital Fifty years later, in 
1913, Manchester renewed the at- 
tack and of Concord's successful 
defense at this time Mr. Kimball 
was the chief i'n command. Against 
his determination and resourceful- 
ness, the invaders never had a 



construction of the spacious and 
handsome edifice thus authorized. 
No stronger argument for retaining 
the state capitol in Concord could 
be imagined than this sister struc- 
ture which owed its existence to 
Mr. Kimball's initiative and insis- 
tence, and which had proved itself 
so necessary and useful a part of 
the state government plant. 

Across North State street from 
the state library, lies the beautiful 
building of the New Hampshire 




Union Passenger Station, Concord, N. H. 



chance, powerful and predacious 
though they were. 

One of Mr. Kimball's best wea- 
pons in this battle he had himself 
provided twenty years before when 
his influence secured from the 
legislature without a vote in op- 
position an appropriation for a 
building to house the state library 
and the supreme court, and when a 
commission, of which he was the 
active member, had completed the 



Historical Society an achievement 
in the art of architecture unecmalled 
in the state and unexcelled in the 
nation, one of many munificent gifts 
by Mr. Edward Tuck of Paris to 
his native state. Mr. Tuck has had 
no closer friend in America than 
Mr. Kimball nor one in whose good 
judgment he had greater confidence. 
Mr. Kimball had long been a mem- 
ber of the Historical Society, inter- 
ested in its work and aware of its 



BENJAMIN A. KIMBALL 



351 



needs. He was its president, 1895- 
7, and chairman of its building 

committee in 1907. Through, him 
and the late William C. Todd of 
Atkinson, Mr. Tuck was first in- 
terested in the need of the Society 
for an adequate home. 

Judge Charles R. Corning", now 
president of the society, tells of 
these facts in a recent publication 
and after recording Mr. Tuck's 
favorable decision in the matter, 
continues : 

"Mr. Kimball now became an 
important person in planning and 
directing the great scheme, as Mr. 
Tuck called it. Fortunate, indeed, 
it was to the donor and to the so- 
ciety that Mr. Kimball assumed 
control of the work from the begin- 
ning and continued in charge until 
its completion. Into this agreeable 
undertaking he entered with a full 
heart. Endowed with accurate ar- 
chitectural tastes, strengthened and 
enriched by long and varied ex- 
perience, much reading and ob- 
servation, Mr. Kimball was the 
ideal man for the work in hand. In 
intelligent and thorough method of 
preparation, attention to details, 
calm judgment and sound sense, 
few men in New Hampshire have 
been his equal. Here in Concord 
the railroad station, the state 
library, his Main street residence, 
attest the measure of his taste to 
the principles of attractiveness and 
usefulness in construction." 

The Concord residence to which 
Judge Corning refers, the most 
spacious and elaborate dwelling in 
the city, stands amid extensive and 
beautiful grounds on South Main 
street, and its furnishings include 
many valuable paintings and ob- 
jects of art chosen by Mr. Kimball 
during his frequent trips abroad. 
Between this residence and their 
summer home, "The Castle," in the 
town of Gilford, looking across the 
Broads of Take Winnipesauk.ee, 



Mr. Kimball and his family divided 
quite equally their time. The 
Castle is one of the most striking 
and best known summer places in 
the lake country and the magnifi- 
cence of the view from its eminence 
above* the waters of Winnipesaukce 
is unsurpassed. 

Mr. Kimball married, January 19, 
■1S61, Myra Tilton, daughter of Ira 
and Rhoda (Ames) Elliott of San- 
borhtoii. Their only child, Henry 
Ames Kimball, was born in Con- 
cord, October 19, 1864; was associa- 
ted with his father in business ; mar- 
ried, November 17, 190-1, Josephine 
B. (Atkinson) Goodale, of Nashua; 
and died May 4, 1919. Mrs. Ben- 
jamin A. Kimball and Mrs. Henry 
A. Kimball are the surviving mem- 
bers of the household, to whom the 
sympathy of a great number of 
friends went out in full measure on 
the occasion of their bereavement. 

Mr. Kimball was a member of 
the South Congregational church 
in Concord and a generous support- 
er of its work, as well as of many 
other good causes, including the 
New Hampshire Orphans' Home at 
Franklin of which he was a trustee. 
Kind of heart and quick in sympa- 
thy, his personal charities were as 
quietly carried into effect as they 
were many in number. 

While in college Mr. Kimball 
was a member of the Vitruvian 
society which later became the 
Alpha Omega chapter of the Beta 
Theta Pi fraternity. He was one 
of the oldest members of White 
Mountain lodge, I. O. O. F., his 
membership having begun in 1856, 
and since 1899 he had belonged to 
the American Social Science As- 
sociation. 

Railroad offices and banks, in 
Concord, and the building of the 
New Hampshire Historical Society 
were closed on the afternoon of 
Mr. Kimball's funeral, and cars 
upon the street railway ceased op- 



m 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



eration for a minute at the hour of 
the opening of the service. Rev. 
Dr. Harry P. Dewey of Minne- 
apolis, Minn., Mr. Kimball's former 
pastor at the South Congregational 
church in Concord, conducted the 
service, which was held at the home 
on Sotlth Main street, with burial 
in the family lot at Blossom Hill 
cemetery. Veteran employees of 
the Ford and Kimball plant acted 
as carriers and the honorary bear- 
ers were President William J. Hus- 
tis, Vice-president William J. 
Hobbs and Directors Walter M. 
Parker and Alvah W. Sulloway of 
the Boston and Maine Railroad; 
President Ernest M. Hopkins, 
Frank S. Streeter and Albert O. 
Brown, trustees with Mr. Kimball 
of Dartmouth College; United 
States Senator George H. Moses 
and Henry W. Stevens. William K. 
McFarland, Arthur H. Britton, Dr. 
George M. Kimball, Dr. Charles P. 
Bancroft, Edward K. Woodworth. 
Harry Fl. Dudley, Benjamin W. 
Couch, John B, Abbott and Luther 
W. Durgin, all of Concord. 

A few days later, Mr. Kimball's 
will v. as probated and it was seen 
that it disposed of his estate in a 
manner indicative of his life and 
character. 

It provides for Mrs. Kimball 
such income as she may desire 
during her lifetime, together with 
the use of the real estate and ar- 
ticles of personal property. 

It carries many legacies in the 
form of annuities to relatives, 
friends and employees. 

The administration of the es- 
tate is left to three executors, Hon. 
Harry H. Dudley, Flon. Benjamin 
W. Couch, and Benjamin K. Avers, 
all of Concord, who are instructed 
to pay Federal and State inheri- 
tance taxes out of income "in order 
that the principal of my estate, 
which is ultimately devoted to 
charitable purposes, may not be de- 



pleted by reason of such tax as- 
sessments." 

The net estate after administra- 
tion is devised to the Mechanicks 
National Bank as trustee of two 
trust funds, one. of which, the 
"Henry A. Kimball Trust," 
consisting of the property which 
Mr. Kimball recently received un- 
der the will of his son, is establish- 
ed as a memorial to Henry A. Kim- 
ball, the income from which is de- 
voted to annuities to relatives and 
friends and to the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sion, South Congregational Society, 
New Hampshire Orphans' Home, 
Margaret Pillsbury General Hos- 
pital, New Hampshire Memorial 
Hospital Association, Concord 
Public Library, New Hampshire 
Historical Society and Young 
Men's Christian Association. 

The other trust established is 
the "Benjamin A. Kimball Trust" 
which carries the main part of Mr. 
Kimball's estate. 

Under this trust are annuities 
for life to relatives, to friends and 
to employees, and many permanent 
annual and quarterly legacy pay- 
ments to be made to various insti- 
tutions. 

For Dartmouth College is provi- 
ded an annual income of $6000 "to 
be used to establish and maintain 
a professorship in Dartmouth Col- 
lege, for the study and teaching of 
the science of administration, to 
be known as The Benjamin A. 
Kimball Professorship of the 
Science of xAdministration, the ob- 
ject and function of which profes- 
sorship shall be constantly to keep 
in contact with, and to interpret in 
the class room and through publi- 
cations, the best procedure in ad- 
ministrative theory and practice, 
whether exemplified in the man- 
agement and control of corporate 
industry or private enterprise, or 
appearing in governmental func- 



BFA'IAMIX A, KIMBALL 



353 



tions and practices of nations and 
their municipal sub-divisions. 

While I wish and. intend that a 
part, at least, of thus work shall 
be incorporated into the College 
curriculum, in - order that it may 
be of the ^widest possible influence 
in directing the minds of college 
men to the importance of the 
study of administration as a 
science, I "also wish that the work 
shall be identified with and supple- 
ment the specialized work of the 
Amos luck School of Administra- 
tion and -Finance, in accordance 
with the- ideals expressed in the 
letters of M ' : 'donatipn of its founder, 
Mr. Edward Tuck, who early saw 
the benefits to be derived from the 
application of trained minds to 
such problems." 

The College is also to receive 
S4CC0 annually "to be used by 
them in improving and increasing 
the efficiency of the methods of 
teaching offered by Dartmouth 
College in all its departments, to 
the end that its students shall re- 
ceive such mental training and dis- 
cipline as will best develop their 
powers for useful and distinguished 
service in society ; and believing 
that the college, with a student 
body not exceeding fifteen hundred, 
including all its departments, will 
best accomplish its ideals, I direct 
that no part of said payments shall 
be used for increasing the physical 
plant of the college other than for 
books and apparatus especially, 
adapted to, and required for the 
accomplishment of the special ob- 
ject herein provided for." 

The college also will receive one 
quarter of any surplus income 
which may accumulate in this 
trust. 

The New Hampshire Memorial 
Hospital takes $250 yearly to 
maintain a free bed to be known 
as "The Myra Tilton Elliot Kim- 
ball Free Bed" and one quarter 
of the surplus income of the trust. 



The .Concord Public Library will 
receive $1000 a year for general 
maintenance and one quarter of 
the surplus income of the trust. 

The New Hampshire Historical 
Society will receive. $1000 annually 
for general maintenance, $250 a 
year to aid in the maintenance of 
the museum of the Society to be 
located in the old Society Build- 
ing on North Main Street, one 
quarter of the surplus income of 
the trust, and various art treas- 
ures which Mr. Kimball had from 
time to time collected during his 
life time. 

The Margaret Pillsbury Gen- 
eral Hospital takes an annual pay- 
ment of $1000, to be used for its 
general maintenances and $200 
each year for the support of a free 
bed to be used for indigent per- 
sons. 

The Concord Female Charitable 
Society will have an income from 
the trust of $100' a year in memory 
of Mr. Kimball's mother, Ruth 
Ames Kimball, and a like amount 
will be received by the New 
Hampshire Centennial Home for 
the Aged. 

To the South Congregational 
Church and the Young Men's 
Christian Association is given $200 
a year for their general purposes, 
and to the New Hampshire Or- 
phans' Home at Franklin the sum 
of $300 a year. 

The Boscawen Church Society 
will receive $200 a year. 

Mr. Kimball's substantial and 
well appointed house, with its sta- 
ble and garage, and its spacious 
grounds are given to the state of 
New Hampshire for use as a Con- 
cord home for the Governor of the 
State, this devise being as follows : 

"I give, bequeath and devise my 
homestead, real estate, land and 
buildings, in said Concord, togeth- 
er with the furnishings and other 
articles of personal property in 
and about the premises, not herein 



354 THE GRANITE MONTHLY 

otherwise disposed of, unto my any time in the future the state 

wife, Myra Til ton Elliot Kimball, should abandon the use of said 

for her use during the term of her property as a Governor's Mansion,* 

natural fife, and, upon her decease, or should fail to keep the same in 

I give, bequeath and devise said suitable repair and condition to 

real estate, together with such ar- the satisfaction of my trustee, 

tides of furniture and other then said property shall revert to 

household articles as shall be se- my estate to become a part of the 

lected for this purpose, by my Ex- Benjamin A. Kimball Trust herein 

editors unto the State of New created," 

Hampshire, for use as a Cover- In such wise and beneficial ways 
nor's Mansion, to provide a suita- Mr. Kimball .provided that the 
ble residence in the Capital of the fortune which his ability had amas- 
State for future Governors. This sed should bear annual fruit of use- 
devise is made upon condition that fulness and helpfulness in the years 
it be formally accepted by the to come and should keep his 
state by written stipulation with memory deservedly green in the 
ni}' executors providing for the city and state lie loved and served 
future care and upkeep of the so well. 
buildings and the grounds. If at 



HOME 

By Jean Rush-more Patterson. 

Below the hill, the village lights appear, 

Smoke spirals from an engine going South, 

A mass of cloud rests on the mountan's rim, 

And over me another mass 

With pale green sky between it and the first. 

I am alone upon the hill, and feel 

As though I never wished to go indoors 

Or leave this spot or see the day again, 

But only breathe the autumn air 

And look on clouds, and sky and mountain tops ! 

Then someone calls, and I go slowly back, 

The house gleams with a cheer of earthly things, 

The dour is open, and a flood of light 

Reveals my son who beckons me, 

And what are hills, and sky and air to this? 



THE STORY OF COLONEL THOMAS JOHNSON 



Bv Frances Parkinson Keves 



PART II. 

Having- signed this paper, 
Thomas Johnson returned to New- 
bury, just at the time of the surren- 
der of Cornwallis. But, curiously 
enough, the cause of the Colonists 
had never seemed more hopeless in 
Coos County than it did then, and 
for two years afterwards. John- 
son, after his Canadian experience 
was well aware that schemes of 
various sorts were on foot to detach 
Vermont from the American cause, 
and to sell it to Canada; and as 
Jacob Bayley was the chief obstacle 
to these schemes, in the eyes of the 
British, they were extremely 
anxious to ret him out of the way. 
Johnson had confided his fears, both 
for Coos County and for his friend, 
to Bayley as soon as possible after 
his return; and the tires of their 
early affection for each other, 
which, on Johnson's part, had never 
cooled, were rekindled; and when 
a final test came between his love 
for Jacob Bayley, and his own safe- 
ty, almost — a rigid moralist might 
say, his own honor — the first prov- 
ed the most p>owerful. The story 
telling of this test, is, to me, the 
most interesting that I have read in 
the entire history of the American 
Revolution ; and I quote it in full 
from the Rev. Grant Power's "His- 
tory of Coos County :" 

"I have already stated how desir- 
able an object it was with the 
British to get possession of Gen. 
Jacob Bayley. A bold and deter- 
mined effort to effect this was made 
on the 17th of June, 1782, while 
Col. Johnson was at home on pa- 
role. Gen. Bayley lived at the 
Johnson village (i.e. the settlement 
on the Oxbow, where the Johnson 
houses stand, about a mile north of 



the village of Newbury) in a house 
where now stands the brick house 
of Josiah Little. Captain Prichard 
and his scouts, to the number of 
eighteen men, lay upon the heights 
west of the Oxbow, and the}' made 
a signal for Col. Johnson to visit 
them. Johnson went, as he was 
bound to do, by the terms of his 
parole, and he learned that they 
had come to capture Gen. Bayley 
that evening. Johnson was now in 
a great strait. Bayley was his 
friend, his neighbor, and a host 
against the enemy, and Johnson 
could not have him go into captivi- 
ty ; and yet he must seem to con- 
form to the wishes of Prichard, or 
he would be recalled to Canada 
himself, and in all probability have 
his buildings laid in ashes. John- 
son returned to his house, and re- 
solved to inform Bayley of his dan- 
ger, at all hazard to himself. But 
how was this to be done? Bayley, 
with two of his sons, was plough- 
ing on the Oxbow. Prichard's ele- 
vated situation on the hill enabled 
him to look down on the Oxbow 
as upon a map. The secret was in- 
trusted to Dudley Carleton Esq., 
the brother of Col. Johnson's wife. 
Johnson wrote on a slip of paper this 
laconic sentence, 'The Philistines 
be upon thee, Samson !' He gave 
it to Carleton, and instructed him 
to go on to the meadow, pass 
directly by Bayley without stop- 
ping or speaking, but drop the pa- 
per in his view, and return home 
by a circuitous route. Carleton 
performed the duty assigned to him 
well. Gen. Bayley, when he came 
to the paper, carelessly took it and 
read it, and, as soon as he could, 
without exciting suspicion in the 
minds of lookers on, proposed to 
turn out the team, said to his sons, 



356 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



"Boys, look out for yourselves." 
and went himself, down the bank 
to the river, and the. sons went up 
to the house to carry the tidings 
to the guard that was stationed 
there. "And when, some hours 
later, the 'Philistines' went to seize 
their prey. 'Samson' was safe. 
miles down the river, and there was 
nothing for them to do but. 'pro- 
ceed their march to Canada, to re- 
port the failure of their expedi- 
tion." "But," says Col. Elkins of 
Peacham in his letter of Dec. 7th, 
1832, "the failure of the British, in 
the main object of their expedition, 
brought fresh trouble upon Col. 
Thomas Johnson. The Tories in 
the vicinity who had laid the plans 
for taking Gen. Bayley, learning 
that he was not at home that night, 
and knowing that it was not his 
habit to be absent from his family 
over night, unless on business out 
of town, said at once, Johnson was 
a traitor to their cause, for he must 
have given Bayley information of 
his danger. This rumor went with 
the party back to Canada, and pro- 
duced strong sensation of jealousy 
and resentment there. Johnson 
was now the. man to be obtained, 
and his buildings were to be des- 
troyed by fire the next spring, if 
not before. But the disposition to 
peace in the mother country, and 
the actual treaty before the year 
came about, saved Johnson from 
the calamities threatened upon 
him." 

Thomas Johnson's position, in re- 
gard to Jacob Bayley, was not the 
only difficult one in which he found 
himself after his release from Cana- 
da. His shrewdness and quick wit, 
as well as his integrity, had brought 
not only himself, and his home, but 
his dearly-loved friend safely 
through their bitterest troubles ; be- 
fore his death, this was clearly seen 
by all his townspeople ; but, in 1782, 
this was by no means the case. The 



fact that he had been treated with 
such, consideration while in Canada, 
compared to many other American 
officers, was held out against him 
by those who still persisted that he 
had Tory sympathies, and who 
could not— or would not — see that 
his wealth, provided that they 
could have got hold of it in some 
way through their apparent friend- 
liness, would have been a great as- 
set to the Canadians. Moreover, 
he was still on parole, technically a 
prisoner, likely to become actually 
one at almost any moment. He 
was, indeed, between the upper and 
the nether millstones. And he 
did what many other sorely per- 
plexed souls at that time did — he 
laid his case before George Wash- 
ington, and asked, cjuite simply, 
for his help. 

"May it please your Excellency," 
he wrote from Newbury on May 
30th, 1782, "to indulge me when I 
say that in the month of March, 
1781, 1 was taken prisoner, as set 
forth in my narrative, continued in 
Canada until September, when I 
obtained liberty to return home on 
parole, which I could effect only by 
engaging to carry on a correspon- 
dence with them. This was my 
view, to get what intelligence I was 
able respecting their plans and 
movements, and in hopes to be ex- 
changed, that I might be able, in a 
regular way, to have given some 
important intelligence. I have tak- 
en such measures as appeared most 
likely to effect the same ; but as 
these have hitherto failed, I find the 
season so far advanced as not to 
admit of any further delay without 
acquainting your Excellency. 

"The proposed plans of the ene- 
my for the last campaign were 
frustrated for want of provisions ; 
but they were determined to pur- 
sue them this spring as early as 
possible. To this end, they have 
used their unwearied efforts with 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 



357 



Vermont to prepare the way, which 
they have, in a great and incredible 
degree, brought to pass, and is daily 
i n c r e a s i n g ; a n d u n 1 ess s o m e s p e c d y 
stop is put to it. I dread the conse- 
quences. I entreat your Excel- 
lency, that if it be possible, by a 
regular exchange, I may be enabled 
to give all the intelligence in my 
power without hazarding my char- 
acter, which, otherwise, I am deter- 
mined to do, at the risk of my 
honor, my all — and perhaps to the 



is a piece of the same. Were the 
people in general on the Grants, on 
this side of the mountains, to de- 
clare for New Hampshire or New 
York, it would be contrary to the 
agreement of their leading men ; 
and, unless protected by your Ex- 
cellency, the innocent with the 
guilty would share a miserable fate. 
This part of the country being sold 
by a few designing men, of whom a 
large number are very jealous, a 
small number have bv me their in- 






\ . .<■' *■■■ ■ ' -•■• ; •,-;.: -« ! --^i 






Chapter House at Newbury, Vt., of Oxbow Chapter, D. A. R., 
on Site of First State House in Vermont. 



injury of hundreds of poor prison- 
ers, now in their hands. Having 
had experience, I am grieved to 
think of their situation. This in- 
fernal plan of treachery with Ver- 
mont (as I have heard often in 
Canada) was contrived before 
Eathan Allen left the British, and 
he was engaged on their side. It 
ran through the country like a tor- 
rent, from New York to Canada, 
and the present temper of Vermont 



former, or otherwise, got the cer- 
tainty of it, and puts them in a 
most disagreeable situation. They 
are desirous of declaring for' New 
Hampshire ; but many of their 
leaders earnestly dissuading them 
from it, it keeps us in a tumult, and 
I fear the enemy will get so great 
an advantage as to raise their stan- 
dard to the destruction of this part 
of the county. They keep their 
spies constantly in this quarter 



358 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



without molestation, and know- 
ever)'- movement, and transmit the 
same directly to Canada; and when 
matters take a turn contrary to their 
minds, we arc miserably exposed to 
their severest resentment. I am 
entirely devoted to your Excel- 
lency's pleasure. Should m,y past 
conduct meet your Excellency's ap- 
probation, my highest ambition will 
be satisfied; if not, deal with me as 
your wisdom shall dictate. 1 most 
earnestly entreat your Excellency 
to meditate a moment on my criti- 
cal and perplexing situation as well 
as that of this part of the country, 
and that I may receive by Captain 
Bay ley, the bearer, who will be able 
to give, you further information, 
your Excellency's pleasure in the 
affair. I beg leave to subscribe 
myself your Excellency's most de- 
voted servant, 

Thomas Johnson." 

Thomas Johnson's opinion at this 
time of Ethan Allen was shared by 
Jacob Bayley, and many other 
prominent Vermonters; indeed, it 
is said, probably with truth, that it 
was his stand on this matter alone 
that prevented Bayley from having 
the national and lasting reputation 
.which should, by every right, have 
been his. Ethan Allen, like John- 
son himself, had played a clever 
game with only poor cards in his 
hand to help him, and was out to 
win ; and it is interesting, as well 
as sadly characteristic of human 
nature, that Thomas Johnson, so 
overwhelmingly unhappy because 
he himself was unjustly thought to 
be treacherous, was so ready to be- 
lieve another ardent patriot guilty 
of the same crime ! 

Plaving written and despatched 
his letter to General Washington, 
Thomas Johnson apparently decid- 
ed that he could not be satisfied 
merely to write to him — he must 
also see him. Tie accordingly set 



out for Newburg, where Washing- 
ton was at the time, going by way 
of Exeter "to take counsel with the 
leading men there." And it was at 
Exeter that the General's reply 
reached him, and from that he next . 
addressed himself to the Command- 
er-in-Chief. 

Headquarters, June 14th, 1782, 
"To Col. Thomas Johnson, 

Exeter, N. IT. 

Sir: 

I have received your favor per 
Captain Bayley, and thank you for 
the information contained, and 
would beg you to continue your 
communication whenever you shall 
collect any intelligence you shall 
think of importance. It would give 
me real pleasure to have it in my 
power to effect your exchange ; but 
some unhappy circumstances have 
lately taken place, which, for the 
present, cut off all exchange. If 
you can fall upon any mode to ac- 
complish your wishes, in which I 
can with propriety give you my as- 
sistance, I shall be verv glad to af- 
ford it. 

I am, Sir, etc. 

Geo. Washington. 
"Thos. Johnson to Gen. Washing- 
ton. 

Exeter, July 20th, 1782. 
I am obliged to your Excellency's 
favor of the 14th of June, to 
acknowledge your Excellency's 
goodness in offering your assistance 
in my exchange. I think it proper 
to give a more particular account 
of my situation, and have enclosed 
a copy of my parole for your per- 
usal. I think, agreeable to my 
parole, they cannot refuse a man 
in my room (?) although there is 
no exchange agreed on. Your Ex- 
cellency will determine on my rank. 
I was held at Canada a lieutenant- 
colonel in the militia, agreeable to 
the order of the Assembly of New 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 



359 



York; but being at a great distance, 
before my commission could reach 
me, Vermont claimed jurisdiction, 
and I never had the commission, 
and told them the same. But I was 
obliged to acknowledge myself as 
such in my parole, or I could not 
have accomplished my design. My 
situation grows more distressing. 
I have been exposed by the infirmity 
or imprudence of a gentleman, one 
that we could not have expected it 
from. I have received nothing of 
much importance since my last, i 
have since received a confirmation 
of their intentions to execute rigor- 
our measures .against the imposers 
of Vermont. I have fears of an in- 
vasion of that part of New Hamp- 
shire by the imprudence above 
mentioned. 1 have fears of the cor- 
respondence being stopped. Have 
wrote to Canada: since which, by 
agreement, Gap.t. Prichard was to 
meet on Onion River, the 10th of 
this inst. Private concerns brought 
me here at this time. If suspicion 
don't prevent, T expect something 
of importance waiting for me ; 
should it prevent, shall stand in the 
greatest need of a man to send in 
exchange for me. 

I am, sir, your most humble serv- 
ant, 

Thomas Johnson." 

Colonel Johnson wrote again to 
General Washington from Atkin- 
son, N. H., on Sept. 30th, the con- 
tents of the letter being very like 
that of those which had preceded it. 
And, not long after, armed by two 
more letters — one from the Govern- 
or of New Hampshire, Meshech 
Weare, the other from Nathaniel 
Peabody of Atkinson (a member 
of the Council in New Hampshire, 
and later a member of Congress) — 
he resumed his journey, reaching 
Newburg on December 4th. The 
letters are both so interesting that 
I quote them in full : 



"Meshech Weare to Gen. Wash- 
ington. 

Hampton Falls, Nov. 25th, 1782. 
Sir : 

The bearer, Col. Thomas John- 
son, of whose conduct with respect 
to procuring information from the 
enemy your Excellency has been 
informed, now waits upon you to 
communicate to you some things 
which appear to be important. 
From every information I have been 
able to obtain, I have no reason to 
suspect his honesty and fidelity. 
His situation at this time is very 
difficult, as he will fully inform you 
and requests your assistance in 
such way as you may think proper. 
I cannot help expressing my fears 
of what may be the consequence of 
the negotiations carrying on be- 
tween Vermont and Canada, of 
which there seems to be now scarce 
a doubt. 

I have the honor to be, with the 
greatest respect, yours, etc. 

Meshech Weare." 

"Nath. Peabody to Gen. Washing- 
ton. 
Atkinson, State of New Hampshire, 
Nov. 27th, 1782. 
Sir: 

I take the liberty to address your 
Excellency respecting the unhappy 
situation of Lieut. Col. Thomas 
Johnson, of Newbury, Coos, who 
will take charge of this letter, and 
do himself the honor to w r ait upon 
your Excellency in person. Col. 
Johnson is desirous to give your 
Excellency every information with- 
in his power, relative to the situa- 
tion, strength, and designs of the 
enemy at the northward, the em- 
barrassed state of affairs in the 
country where he lives, and more 
particularly the ineligible circum- 
stances in which his own person, 
family, and domestic concerns are 
unhappily involved. 



360 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



I have no doubt he has been un- 
generously deceived,' injured* and 
betrayed by some persons with 
whom he found it necessary to en- 
trust certain secrets, to him of 
great importance, and from whom 
he had a claim to better treatment. 

The latter end of last month 1 re- 
ceived a letter from Col. Johnson, 
the contents of which he will make 
known to you-:- and I should have 
done myself the honor of transmit- 
ting the same, with other informa- 
tion, to your Excellency ; but on a 
conference I had with the president 
of this state, it was concluded that 
entrusting affairs of that nature by 
common post-riders would be un- 
safe, for the public, and dangerous 
for Col. Johnson, and that it was 
inexpedient to despatch an express 
on purpose as it was adjudged pro- 
bable youi Excellency had such a 
variety of other channels for in- 
formation, that there was little pros- 
pect of giving " new and valuable 
intelligence. From the best in- 
formation I have been able to ob- 
tain, my own observation, and the 
personal knowledge I have had for 
some years past, of Col. Johnson, 
I am led without hesitating to con- 
clude that he is a faithful and sin- 
cere friend of the independence of 
these United States ; that he would 
contribute everything in his power 
to promote the political salvation of 
this, his native country; and that 
he is a gentleman on whose declara- 
tion your Excellency may place full 
dependence. 

I have the honor to be, etc., 
yours, 

Nath. Peabody." 

In quoting these old letters, as in 
quoting Thomas Johnson's Cana- 
dian diary, I have not only left 
punctuation and spelling unchang- 
ed; I have not altered a single 
phrase in the slighest degree. They 
were all written by men whom we 
should now call "uneducated" but 



language in all 



they are almost entirely free form 
grammatical errors, and in many 
places it seems to me that they 
show real mastery and power in 
using the English 
its clearness and beauty. 

Immediately upon his arrival at 
Newburg, Colonel Johnson was 
granted an interview by General 
Washington, who "assured him of 
his sympathy, and acknowledged 
his value of his services." Thus 
consoled, Johnson started for home 
again on December the 12th, his 
heart immeasurably lighter. He 
knew that his worst troubles were 
over. So — though this he did not 
know— was the war. 

. War, as Ave have had ample op- 
portunity to find out for ourselves 
during the past two years, is not 
immediately followed by peace. It 
is followed by reconstruction. And, 
instead of settling back for a rest 
after the frontier was at last quiet 
again, and his own private difficul- 
ties straightened out, Thomas John- 
son turned his attentions to the 
new problems which confronted not 
only Newbury, but Vermont — the 
first state to enter the Union after 
the American Revolution. 

Until 1803, when Montpelier was 
at last fixed upon as the Capital, the 
General Assembly — or Legislature, 
as we call it now — met in different 
towns of importance through the 
state; and the first session was held 
in Newbury in October, 1787. 
Thomas Chittenden was Governor, 
Joseph Marsh Lieutenant-Governor, 
Jacob Bay ley a member of the Gov- 
ernor's Council, and Thomas John- 
son a Town Representative — a posi- 
tion which he afterwards held in 
nine other sessions. Most of the 
men of prominence throughout the 
State attended, coming on horse- 
back, hiring pasturage, and turning 
their steeds out to grass until their 
official business was transacted ! 
But nothing of any very great im- 
portance was done, and the "Old 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 



361 



Court House," where the meetings 
were held,- was found to be entirely 
unsuited for that purpose, so, before 
the legislature met in Newbury 
again — in 1801 — it was torn down, 
and a new building erected on a 
different site. As much of the old 
materal as possible was used, but 
there was not enough for the new 
structure, and the remainder was 
provided by popular subscription, 
Thomas Johnson giving four hun- 
dred dollars towards its erection, 
and also, it is noted, fifty dollars 
"towards liquor for the workmen/' 
Perhaps it is no wonder that build- 
ing operations progressed with 
more energy and enthusiasm in 
those days! We are constantly re- 
minded that it was not considered 
inconsistent for a zealous church 
member and a devoted patriot like 
the Colonel to provide himself and 
his friends with "the cup that 
cheers." But there is one record in 
which we read that Airs. Lovewell, 
the keeper of the tavern, expressed 
her dissatisfaction with Thomas 
Johnson because he sent her a bar- 
rel of rum which was half water, 
and that he was deeply offended, 
and sued her for slander \ To pos- 
sess, to sell, or to give away un- 
diluted rum was entirely in keeping 
with his character, in his estima- 
tion ; but to weaken it, was a dis- 
honorable act ! At the trial which 
resulted, it came out that the bar- 
rel, in charge of three hired men, 
had been an entire night in going 
from Thomas Johnson's house to 
Mrs. Lovewell's tavern, a distance 
of one mile. And as the hired men 
had no very satisfactory explana- 
tion to make of this, they were 
suitably reproved, and Thomas 
Johnson exonerated. 

But to return to the State 
House — Wells' History of New- 
bury says that it "contained one 
large room, fitted up with desks for 
the House of Representatives, 



which had a small gallery at one 
end, over the entrance, while at the 
other end of the building was a 
Council Chamber for the Governor 
and Council. There were also sev- 
eral smaller rooms. Jeremiah Har- 
ris of Rumney was master builder, 
and, if tradition is correct, it was 
the first building in the 'North 
Country' to be erected by 'square 
rule.' " "Election day was the 
great event of the session in 
those days. On that day the Gov- 
ernor was officially notified of his 
election, and took his oath of office, 
which w r as afterwards administered 
to the Council. Then His Excel- 
lency, escorted by all the militia in 
the vicinity, rode in state to the 
meeting house, where the election 
sermon was delivered. One curi- 
ous feature of the day must not be 
forgotten. Some months before the 
time, notice w r as given in the pub- 
lic prints that an original ode would 
be sung on that occasion, and the 
poets of the day were urged to pre- 
pare their strains in competition 
for the honor of producing the song 
to which music would be composed 
by Mr. Ingalls. Col. Thomas John- 
son, W'illiam B. Bannister, and 
James Whitelaw were the commit- 
tee to pass upon the merits of such 
productions as should be offered. 
When the time came for the decis- 
ion, the committee found them- 
selves unable to decide which of the 
effusions submitted by two gentle- 
men from Peacham, Ezra Carter 
and Barnes Buckminister, was the 
superior, and it was finally decided 
that Mr. Ingalls should compose 
music for both ; that one, sung be- 
fore the sermon should be called 
the Election Ode, and the other, to 
follow the discourse, should bear 
the title of the election hymn. Both 
were * * * accordingly sung, and 
both are preserved, in Mr. Ingall's 
singing book 'Christian Plarmony.' ' : 
"Thomas Tolman of Greensboro, 



362 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



one of the prominent men of 

the state in his time, was clerk of 
the House, and the following letter 
from him preserves for us some of 
the usages of the period. 

Greensboro, July 16, 1801. 
'Col. Thos. Johnson, Dear Sir: 

I desire you to procure from Bos- 
ton a Ream of the best paper, line, 
thin, and soft for the pen, and also 
one dozen skins of vellum, or good 
parchment, for the handsome and 
fine writing of the legislature. 
Your account shall be paid, and also 
your trouble. If I may depend I 
will not make any other applica- 
tion. Add % hundred of the best 
Holland quills. One thing more. 
I depend on you, if you please, to 
make a provision for a convenient 
place for my office and quarters. 
It must be near the legislature, con- 
tain a fireplace or stove, and. if con- 
venient, a bed, as for a considerable 
part of the time I shall sleep in the 
same room. Excuse this trouble. 
My regards to ?\Irs. Johnson and 
your sons. I am, with considera- 
tion, 

Your friend and humble servant, 
Thos. Tolmax.' " 

The office of Town Representa- 
tive was not the last public one that 
Thomas Johnson held ; he was also 
Newbury's first postmaster, hold- 
ing the position — a very important 
one in those days — from 1785 to 
1800, when his son David succeed- 
ed him. And, as a private citizen, 
he became deeply interested in the 
two public institutions dearest to 
the heart of almost every early New 
Englanded — the Church and the 
School. For some time Newbury 
had been dissatisfied with its first 
"meeting-house," and at. a special 
town meeting held in August, 1787, 
two articles of "warning" were 
read: "First, to sec if the town will 
fix on a place to build a meeting- 



house; second, to see if the town 
will build a meeting house, and if 
so, how large, and where ; to choose 
a committee to prosecute said busi- 
ness, and also what measures will 
be most expedient to prosecute and 
facilitate the same." Thomas John- 
son, Dudley Carleton, and eight 
others were chosen a committee 
and in due course, a church was 
built, which for many years, was 
considered the finest for miles 
around, and to "have a meeting- 
house equal to the one in Newbury" 
became the ambition of every town 
in the vicinity. The steeple was 
the first erected in Vermont. The 
large stone door, which required 
four yoke oi oxen to draw from 
Catamount in Haverhill, was placed 
in front of the main entrance by 
Jacob Bayiey." Inside, continues 
the "History of Newbury," — 
"The pulpit was high, that the mini- 
ster might see his hearers in the 
galleries; it was reached by wind- 
ing stairs, and above it hung a 
sounding board, suspended from the 
ceiling by an iron rod. In front of 
the pulpit was an elevated seat for 
the deacons, and before them was a 
wide board that hung on hinges, 
and formed a Communion table. 
The pews were about seven feet 
square, each having a door ; there 
were seats on three sides of each 
pew. These seats were hung on 
hinges, and were raised against the 
sides of the pews when the con- 
gregation stood up during the long 
prayer, and were let down again at 
its close with a clatter which sound- 
ed like the discharge of a small 
artillery. * * Above the partitions 
of the pews ran a rail, supported by 
many small turned posts which 
were the delight of children to 
twirl in sermon-time." 

So much for the church. Mean- 
while, the early struggles to es- 
tablish a suitable school, though 
they must have been serious enough 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 



363 



then, make amusing reading now. 
The teacher of the present day, who 
rightly feels his salary to be too 
small, may well ponder with. an un- 
derstanding sympathy the follow- 
ing entry in Col. Thomas Johnson's 
papers: 

"Newbury, Nov. 8th, 1781. 

We the Subscribers being met 
for the Purpose of Hiring a school- 
master, have agreed to give a suit- 
able person Ten Bushels of Wheat 
per Month if one cannot be hired 
for less or found, have chose Thos. 
Johnson, Capt. John G. Bayley, 
William Wallace, a Comity to regu- 
late sd school." 

This is signed by nine men, 
Thomas Johnson among them, but 
evidently he did not write it him- 
self, as it does not bear much re- 
semblance to most of his literary ef- 
forts ! However that may be, the 
"Comity" does not seem, even at 
that remote time, to have been able 
to find a schoolmaster who consid- 
ered ten bushels of wheat a suf- 
ficient recompense for his services, 
for the following entries come after- 
wards : 

Newbury, Nov. 15th, 1781. 

"W T e the subscribers do hereby 
promise to pay Samuel Hopkins 
seven pounds, four shillings by the 
twelfth day of February next, to 
be paid in hard money, and hard 
money only, provided he teach a 
school three months according to 
the Directions we have given him 
of equal date herewith, if not then 
paid, then Inteiest till paid. Wit- 
ness our hands." 

Newbury, Feb. 5th, 1782. 

"W T e the subscribers do hereby 
acknowledge that the within nam- 
ed Samuel Hopkins has performed 
this part of his Oblegation, and we 
are in duty bound to pay the same." 



• Newbury, Sept. 18th, 1786. 

"We, the subscribers, do each 
agree to pay our equal proportion 
in Produce for the board and sup- 
port of a good school master, Quali- 
ried to teach English, writing and 
Arithmetic in the midle district 
school and to find our proportion of 
wood at sd school, Provided there 
is a sufficient number of subscrib- 
ers, not less than twenty, the 
School master to be immediately 
agreed for two or three months."' 

These were the small beginnings 
of the big school which, during the 
latter part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, became well known as the 
Newbury Seminar}'. Boarders 
came to it from all over New Eng- 
land, and from Canada as well, and 
its removal to Montpelier — where, 
by the way, it never seemed to ac- 
quire the same standing — was a 
great blow to the town in more 
ways than one. 

The church and the school were, 
as I have already said, of para- 
mount importance in the heart and 
soul of ever}- good New Englander 
in those days. But, to the dwellers 
in the Connecticut Valley, there was 
another structure upon which much 
of their comfort and activity de- 
pended, and that was the bridge. 
Ferries were, of course, used dur- 
ing the first days of the settlement, 
but as time went on, these proved 
to be entirely inadequate, as well 
as very dangerous, for the current 
of the Connecticut River is a swift 
one. The old hooded wooden 
bridges are disappearing fast, and 
the one between Newbury and 
Haverhill, built in 1834, has been 
one of the last to go. But even 
before that, there had been two 
others. One, known as the "Haver- 
hill Bridge" was built in 17% by 
popular subscription, the charter 
being granted to Thomas Johnson — 
who gave three hundred dollars 



364 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



towards its erection — and six others. 
But this bridge met with an un- 
happy fate, as the ever-accurate 
Colonel records : 

Newbury, April 18, 1797. 
Colonel Johnson to General Chase. 
"Sir : 

You have no doubt heard of our 
misfortune as to loosing our Bridge, 
it was owing- to two things: 1st the 
ambition of some of the proprietors 
wanting to have the longest arch 
yet built — -2d some of the workmen 
were not equal to so great a piece 
of business. One abutment stands 
good, also the little Bridges with 
very little repairing are good, our 
Plank with a considerable part of 
the timber on hand. The main 
thing we want is a workman that 
understands building a Peer in the 
middle of the river, we have no man 
in this part of the country that ever 
helped build one, or knows any- 
thing about it. As you went 
through the business for us last 
year, I ask as a particular favor in 
behalf of the proprietors that you 
would recommend to us a suitable 
man to build a Peer. Our stone is 
all within ten rods of the river 
bank, our timber within }j T mile. 
Our Peer will want to be twenty- 
five feet high. I wish you would 
make a brief guess what the cost 
would be to build such a Peer. 

Yours, etc., 

Thomas Johnson." 

It is perhaps needless to say that 
a man competent to construct a 
"Peer" was found, and a new 
bridge built without delay ! 

The last .years of Thomas John- 
son's life were busy, but they were 
peaceful and happy. lie lived to 
see the "work of his hands" finish- 
ed — a joy that is not given to all 
men. He did an immense amount 
of writing, fur which there is no 
doubt that he had a real fnft ; in 



another generation his literary dis- 
tinction might have surpassed his 
military distinction, but authors 
were not greatly esteemed, as a 
rule, in those days. . ITe built 
houses for his sons near his own — 
houses no less handsome than his 
own. One of them contains a ball- 
room with an arched ceiling, with 
fireplaces at either end, and with a 
raised seat all the way around it for 
the dancers to rest on — a huge, 
beautiful apartment running 

straight across the second story, 
where we can easily imagine the 
Colonel and his friends having all 
sorts of "good times." He built 
also a brick store, where everything 
from meal to calico was sold, — who 
says that department stores are a 
modern invention ?— and where the 
old counter, with a step up to it. 
the old bins, and the old safe, still 
stand. His sons, like their father 
all became prosperous, respected, 
and well known. His eldest daugh- 
ter, Betsey, married Isaac, Jacob 
Bayley's youngest son — a match 
which must have delighted the 
hearts of the two old friends — and 
went to live in a beautiful house, 
too — for the General, though he 
had lost more than $60,000 in the 
war — an immense sum for those 
days — had retrieved his fallen for- 
tunes somewhat, and had also built 
himself a spacious dwelling, where 
Isaac and Betsey took up their 
abode with him, and the bride had 
a "drawing room" which any mod- 
ern young matron might well de- 
light in — twenty feet square, white- 
panelled, white-shuttered, white- 
mantelled, with many-paned win- 
dows facing south and East, and 
with two arched recesses on the 
eastern side — one called to this day 
"the courting corner," and the 
other "the marriage arch" — for 
which pleasant purposes they have 
now been used for six generations. 
In 1819, Thomas Johnson died, 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 



365 



and was buried in the old Newbury 
cemetery, where forty-four other 
soldiers — fourteen of . them of- 
ficers-— who fought in the American 
Revolution also rest. He was sur- 
vived by his wife, and by seven of 
his fourteen children. His funeral 
sermon was preached- by the Rev. 
David Sutherland, the famous 
"priest of Bath." The monument 
which marks his grave, made of 
white marble, represents a sturdy 
oak tree with four strong branches, 
upon one of which is seated a 
dove — the tree, is, of course, the 
emblem of Thomas Johnson him- 
self., while the four branches are his 
four surviving sons— John, Moses, 
David, and Hanes. The branch on 
which the dove sits is supposed to 
typify the eldest. 

And here, in one way, ends the 
story of Colonel Thomas Johnson. 
In another way, it has not ended 
yet — it never will end. 

There is no place that I intimate- 
ly know — and I know a good 
many — where the present anek the 
past are as closely linked as they 
are in Newbury. In 1897, when 
the Oxbow Chapter of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution 
was founded by one of Thomas 
Johnson's great-granddaughters, 
-Mrs. John Henry Wheeler (Louise 
Fuller Johnson) it contained twen- 
ty charter members. And every- 
one of those twenty charter mem- 
bers was eligible to the Society 
through Thomas Johnson, or Jacob 
Bayley, or both — for, of course, 
the second generation of Johnsons 
and Bayleys were cousins through 
the marriage of Isaac and Betsey. 
The houses that the General and 
the Colonel built have not only 
never gone out of the family, but 
have descended from father to son 
for six generations — and Jacob Bay- 
ley's was never closed, until, in 
1918, his great great-grandson went 
to France. Their descendants are 



now almost as the sands of the sea 
in number, and the qualities of 
mind and body and spirit which 
these early founders of the town be- 
queathed to them, have proved the 
best legacies which they could have 
left to posterity. Ideals do not die. 
The ideals of Thomas Johnson are 
as vital now as they were one hun- 
dred and fifty years ago, and as 
long as they live, his story will 
never be really finished. 

The Oxbow Chapter flourished 
and grew, and before many years 
had passed it was plainly seen that 
a Chapter House, was needed. A 
little deserted district school, locat- 
ed on the site of the first State 
House in Vermont, was bought, 
and restored and beautified with a 
huge fireplace, and hardwood floors, 
and electric lights, but most of all 
with the precious heirlooms that 
were brought there. Here is the 
mirror that Prudence Bayley hid in 
a hole dug in her back garden, when 
the "Philistines 1 ' were in pursuit of 
"Samson." Here is the desk at 
which General Jacob wrote his 
famous message to the Indians ; and 
here are the table about which the 
first legislature in Vermont met, 
and the wooden ballot box in wdiich 
the first votes were cast. Here, in 
cabinets, are bits of beautiful lace, 
and linen and embroidery, fans 
and silver and beaded work, and 
china. And here, over the mantel, 
is a bronze tablet bearing this in- 
scription: 

"In memory of Elizabeth Ladd 
Childs. 

Born 1830— Died 1894. 
Daughter of Judge Peabody Ladd 

Great grand-daughter of 

COLONEL THOMAS JOHNSON 

Given by 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Childs 

In loving tribute to their mother. 

1913. 



366 



THE GRANITE MONTHLY 



At the time of the 150th Anni- 
versary Celebration of the founding 
of the town, a line' monument to 
the memory of General Jacob Bay- 
ley was given, and granite mark- 
ers, bearing bronze plates were 
erected by the Oxbow Chapter 
where the first meeting-house, the 
first court house, and other build- 
ings important in the early settle- 
ment of the town., had stood. One 
was erected, also, to the memory 
of Colonel Thomas Johnson, and 
unveiled by two of his great great 
great grandsons, Henry Wilder 
Keyes, Jr. and John Parkinson 
Keyes.* It bears the following in- 
scription : 

Colonel Thomas Johnson 
1742-1819 
One of the first settlers of New- 
bury, 1762. 
Influential in organizing the town 
and state. 

Revolutionary Officer. 
Aid to General Lincoln at Ticon- 
deroga, 1777. 

A Prisoner in Canada 1781. 

Elected Representative ten times. 

This marks the location of the first 

settlement of the town. 

Erected by his descendants 

Under the auspices of 
Oxbow Chapter, D. A. R. 
This, in brief, is, I suppose, a 
fair and illuminating record of his 
services — though I wish Nathaniel 
Peabody's definition of him as "a 
gentleman upon whose declaration 
your excellency may place full de~ 
pendance — " might also have been 
used. Of his energy, his faithful- 
ness, his diplomacy, his generosity, 
a tablet of this sort can, perforce, 
say nothing. Neither does it men- 
tion his talent for writing — a talent, 
as I have said before, less regard- 
ed in his generation than in ours. 
and — perhaps on that account — 
largely overlooked by his descend- 



ants. Nor does it say anything of 
what is, to me, the greatest of all 
the great qualities that he possess- 
cd — liis. genius for friendship. 
There have been many great writ- 
ers in the world, many great pio- 
neers, many great soldiers; but. the 
number of great friends of whom 
we have certain knowledge is com- 
paratively small. For six genera- 
tions — let me repeat it — the homes 
of Jacob Bayley and ' Thomas 
Johnson have never gone out. of the 
hands of their descendants — please 
God they never will ! For six gen- 
erations the fertile meadows of the 
Oxbow have been — and still are — 
ploughed and harvested by the 
descendants of the man who proud- 
ly recorded that "he got in ninety 
tons of excellent hay." The Lord 
has, indeed, caused his face to 
shine upon us, and given us peace. 
Does the blessing of that ancient 
friendship enfold us still, I won- 
der? I feel, sometimes, wonderful- 
ly sure that it does. And, because 
of this, I cannot help quoting a 
story much older than the one of 
Thomas Johnson as I close this 
chronicle of what is not, after all, 
so much a fragment of the history 
of a great war as it is the history of 
the unbroken circle of one man's 
deep and abiding love for another. 
"And it came to pass that the 
soul of Jonathan was knit unto the 
soul of David, and Jonathan loved 
him as his own soul. And Jona- 
than spake good of David unto 
Saul, his father, and said 'Let not 
the king sin against his servant, 
against David, for he did put his 
life in his hand, and slew the Philis- 
tines, and the Lord wrought a great 
salvation through all Israel. So 
Jonathan made a covenant with the 
house of David, saying 'Let the 
Lord require it at the hand of 
David's enemies ! And Jonathan 
*The two elder sons of the writer of this 
article. 



COL. THOMAS JOHNSON 2>67 

caused David to swear again, be- sworn both of us in the name of the 

cause he loved him. For he loved Lord, saying, "The Lord be bc- 

him as he loved his own soul. And tween thee, and me, and be- 

jonathan said to David, 'Go in tween thy seed and my seed for- 

peace, for as much as we have ever.' " 



ON DRESDEN HILL AT TWILIGHT 

By Perky R. Bugbcc. 

When the sun purples the distant hills, 
Ana tints with gold the passing cloud, 
It is as the Maker wills. 
Nature sings her praises loud. 

The evening breezes softly blow 
O'er the grasses a summer's dew, 
The woods dark and darker grow, 
•While stars dot the heavens blue. 

Vesper songs end in silence, 
A stillness pervades the air. 
Hushed and quiet are the highlands. 
Night reigneth everywhere. 



%M 



EDITORIAL 



The . announced results of, the 
1920 census show a very small gain 
in population for the state of New 
Hampshire as a whole ; a consider- 
able gain in the cities of Manches- 
ter; anck Berlin .;■' a 'small" gain in most 
of the other cities and in some 
towns :in : which -manufacturing vil- 
lages are located : slight losses in 
some cities and -most towns; a : 'nd 
■decided decreases.; in a number /of 
rural communities.'/ Ail -this : is 
about as expected, -: though > .some 
pessimists had predicted greater 
losses and some opthn.it is had .hop- 
ed for larger totals... in -several cities. 
■=■ i But the if act that the -.conditions, 
as revealed,- were: mot.; surprising, 
does not alter their significance; 
rather it; should '« impress- us,. more 
deeply, with., the necessity .-for at- 
tempting , .to-.v; solve the. »; problems 
which thev .-present.: • ,Wi,thnr^:the 
past quarter of a century good 
roads, rural mail delivery, tele- 
phones, electric lights, automobiles, 
better schools, farmers' organiza- 
tions, etc., have improved rural 
conditions and obviated many of 
the objections to life on the farm. 
Yet the drift to the cities continues 
with the resultant increase in cost 
of those necessities of life which 
the farm produces and with a lower 
health average for our people as a 
whole. 

It is easier to state these facts 
than to suggest a remedy. We 
can only hope for attention to it 
from our best minds. Improvement 
of highways and schools will con- 
tinue ; better co-operation among 
the farmers themselves seems close 
at hand and with that achieved it 
will be easier to put city and 
country, consumer and producer, 
in relations with each other that 
will be more profitable and less ir- 
ritating for both. 



The problem is not at all local to 
New Hampshire. 3t is country- 
wide. In this state the summer 
visitor and summer resident popula- 
tion is a larger factor than else- 
where, but the essentials are the 
same. Conditions must change so 
that the boys and girls now on the 
farms will be content to stay there 
as men and women ; new families 
must be wooed back from the cities 
to own and live upon now untilled 
farms; farming must be put upon 
as good 'business principles as 
keeping a store or managing a mill. 
Not only must the land be cultivat- 
ed, but the market, as well, the 
cash market nearest home. In 
seeking a more distant market co- 
operation is almost essential. 
Every New Hampshire farmer who 
buys a California orange or lemon 
and reads its wrapper can take from 
it a lesson for his own apple crop, 
a lesson as to condition, grade, 
transportation and profit. 

In many ways existing conditions 
seem well calculated for placing 
New Hampshire agriculture ' upon 
a more profitable basis in the near 
future. The farmers through the 
Grange and the Farm Bureaus, 
never were so well organized. The 
Chambers of Commerce and like or- 
ganizations and the bankers and 
capitalists are more appreciative of 
the importance of agriculture to 
them and of the benefits from co- 
operation between country and city. 
The day is not far distant when the 
development of New Hampshire 
waterpower will render secure the 
future of our industries and in- 
crease their number and impor- 
tance. That will expand in turn 
the home market for our farmers. 

We look to see a greater increase 
in population in New Hampshire 
during the decade ending in 1930 



EDITORIAL 369 

than in that ending' in 1920. But manufacturing villages. The farms 

for the best interests of the state must share in it, and we hope and 

that increase in population must believe that they will, 
not be centered in the cities and 



THE PILGRIMS 

Bv Lucy H. Heath. 



A fearless band of pioneers, 
Bravely they sailed across the sea, 
And laid foundations for a faith, 
Which reaches down to you and me. 

Religious freedom here they sought, 
Their purpose was to do God's will, 
It was their faith that buoyed them up, 
Through the beginnings good and ill. 

Their hardships truly were severe, 
Many were laid beneath the sod. 
But through it all with inward zeal, 
They trusted in a living God. 



BOOK Or NEW HAMPSHIRE INTEREST 



You Can. But Will You? By 
Orison Swett Harden. Pp. 338. 
Cloth. New York: Thomas Y. 
Crowe 11 Co. 

This is the latest volume in that 
famous series of "inspirational 
books" from the pen of Dr. Orison 
Swett Marden, of which more than 
one million and three quarters have 
been sold. It is impossible to dis- 
miss with a phrase "or a paragraph 
works which till satisfactorily so 
great a demand on the part of the 
reading public. They must carry 
a real message and be convincing as 
to their sincerity, as well as pleas- 
ing with their point and ''pep." 

Doctor Marden was born in 
Thornton, New Hampshire, up in 
the Pemigewasset valley, seventy 
years ago. He has taken four de- 
grees from Boston University and 
one from Harvard and has written 
something more than 50 books, in 
addition to a great number of 
magazine articles. 

Of every one of them the slogan 
is "success" and the purpose is to 



boost. The style, is lucid and con- 
vincing and the author is not 
afraid of iteration. To every man 
and woman, to every boy and girl, 
who comes within the reach of his 
preachments, he says "Make the 
most of yourself!" and he says it 
over and over again. 

Withal, his books are eminently 
readable and of none is this more 
true than of the present volume 
with its challenging title. This 
paragraph might be chosen from 
many similar ones as the text of 
the discourse: "Most of us are 
dwarfs of the men and women we 
might be because we do not know 
our power. We have vast possi- 
bilities, and yet are doing the 
work of pigmies, because we never 
draw upon that inner force which 
would make us giants. '* 

There, are seventeen chapters 
from Number One, "The Magic 
Mirror," to Number Seventeen, 
"Do you carry victory in your 
face?" all embodying this "new 
philosophy of life." 



NEW HAMPSHIRE NECROLOGY 



3 s 



DANIEL WEBSTER LAKEMAN 

Daniel Webster Lakeman, long a lead- 
ing citize'n of Nashua and the contractor 
who erected many of its principal build- 
ings, died August >. He was born in 
Goshen, November 17, 1839, the son of 
Sherborn and Mariette (Webster) Lake- 
man, and came to Nashua with his parents 
when but three years .of age. In addi- 
tion to his contracting business he was a 
large real estate owner and was the active 
director of the Pennichuck Water Works 
for a long time, his service on the board 
covering 38 vears. He had been a mem- 
ber of Granite Lodge, I. O. O. F., for 
more than 50 years and a trustee of the 
Main Street Methodist Episcopal church 
for more than 30 years. As a trustee of 
Edgewood cemetery, much of the credit 
for the beautifying of its grounds was due 
to him. Lie was a Republican in politics 
and had served in the city council. He 
is survived by one son, Llarry D. Lake- 
men of Portland Me. An older son, 
Lrank W. Lakeman, long a school prin- 
cipal in Nashua, died a few years ago. 



DANIEL W. HAYDEN 

Hon. Daniel W. Hayden, 80, died in his 
native town of Hollis, July 17. He was 
born on the family homestead which his 
ancestors settled in 1760, and obtained his 
education in the local schools with sup- 
plemental courses in civil engineering and 
surveying. In 1861 he enlisted in Com- 
pany II, Seventh New Hampshire Volun- 
teers, serving until April 28, 1864, when 
he was discharged for disability because 
of wounds received at Fort Wagner and 
Olustee, Florida. With his brother, 
David, he built the dam and mill known 
as Hayden's mill which they conducted 
for half a century. For 29 years Mr. 
Hayden was chief of police; selectman 
four years; member of the house of rep- 
resentatives in' 1901 and of the state senate 
in 1911, and a delegate to the constitution- 
al conventions of In addition 
to his other activities, Mr. Hayden, be- 
cause of his training as an engineer, had 
niueh to do with the construction of 



roads and bridges in his section of the 
state. He is survived by a widow ; a 
daughter, Bertha; a brother, David; and 
p sister. Mrs. John L. Woods, all of 
Hollis. 



HON. J. FRANK SEAVEY 

James Frank Seavey, one of Dover's 
most distinguished citizens, died {here 
August 15. ' He was born in Rochester, 
August 14, 1838, the son of Samuel F. and 
Eliza K. (Ham) Seavey, and was educat- 
ed at public and private schools in that 
citv and at the Franklin Academy, Dover. 
When 19 years of age he began business 
life in Dover as a clerk, and eight years 
later engaged in the clothing trade for 
himself in company with his brother. 
Later in life he engaged successfully in 
many other business enterprises ; organiz- 
ing the J. Frank Seavey Lumber Com- 
pany of which he was president; acting 
as president of the Dover Co-opera- 
tive bank ; and being for many years in- 
terested in the Dover Navigation Com- 
pany, one of whose vessels bore his name. 
Mr. Seavey entered public life in 1867 as 
a member of the city council and also 
served as selectman and ward clerk. 
From 1869 to 1872 he was treasurer of 
Strafford county. In 1878-80 he served 
in the state House of Representatives, and 
in 1881 and 18S3 in the State Senate. In 
1903 and 1904 he was a member of Gov- 
ernor Nahum J. Bachelder's executive 
council. He was a member of Strafford 
lodge, No. 29, A. F. and A. M., Belknap 
chapter, No. 8. R. A. M., Orphan Council, 
No. 1, R. and' S. M., and St. Paul Com-, 
mandery, Knights Templar. He was a 
charter member of Olive Branch lodge, 
No. 6, Knights of Pythias, and served 
that order as grand chancellor in 1876 and 
supreme representative in 1878 and 1879. 
He also was an Odd Fellow, of lodge 
and encampment membership. Mr. Sea- 
vey married, April 20, 1863, Sarah F., 
daughter of Daniel K. and Hannah 
(Ham) Webster of Dover. Their two 
children were Grace W., widow of Mont- 
gomery Rollins, and Walter H. Seavey of 
E. H. Rollins and Sons, Boston, Mass, 
Mrs. Seavev died in 190Q. 



J2 r-s< 



DREAM SONGS 

By Leighton Rollins 

I can not sleep, 

For a thousand witching melodies 

Are wildly beating against their prison gates, 

And alas, I can not set them free, 

Dream songs of the summer moon. 

My violin will not play them,- 

And my voice will not sing them. 

Oh, Children of my heart, 

I can not save you, 

Death comes before your birth. 



/Ve>» 10 



■ 



3> 



5 C. PEABSOJT, Po! Uaker 

COSCOEB, ». a. 






eeond-class ". mail i 



-?* 7 



?- 3 7*/. 




Town Hall and Public Library, Wolfeboro. 



TF 



HE GRANITE MONTHLY 



Vol. LIT 



OCTOBER, 1920 



No. 10 



AN HISTORIC EVENT 

Wolleboro Celebrates Its One-Hund-ied and Fiitletli Ai 



mive 



rsarvj 



In the year 1770 the town of 
Wolfeboro was incorporated. In 
the same year John Wentworth, 
the last Royal Governor of the 
Province of New Hampshire, built 
a summer residence on the shore 
of Lake Wentworth. thus making 
the town the oldest summer resort 
in America. The house built by 
Governor Wentworth was a very 
pretentious affair, though it was 
never fully completed. The Rev- 
olutionary War coming on, Gov-, 
ernor Wentworth went to England, 
and there is no record of his ever 
having again visited Wolfeboro. 
The Wentworth mansion was burn- 
ed to the ground in 1S20, just one 
hundred years ago. The same year 
witnessed the erection of the fa- 
mous Wolfeboro and Tuftonboro 
Academy, one of the earliest insti- 
tutions of learning in New Hamp- 
shire. 

The year 1920, being the sesqui- 
centenial and centenial of these im- 
portant events, it was voted at the 
annual Town Meeting, held in 
March last, that a suitable observ- 
ance of these anniversaries be held. 
An appropriation was made and it 
w